Area: 357,000 sq. km. (137,821 sq. mi.); about the size of Montana.
Cities: Capital--Berlin (population about 3.4 million).
Other cities--Hamburg (1.7 million), Munich (1.2 million),
Cologne (964,000), Frankfurt (644,000), Essen (603,000), Dortmund
(592,000), Stuttgart (582,000), Dusseldorf (568,000), Bremen
(543,000), Hanover (516,000).
Terrain: Low plain in the north; high plains, hills, and basins in
the center and east; mountainous alpine region in the south.
Climate: Temperate; cooler and rainier than much of the United
Nationality: Noun and adjective--German(s).
Population (2001 est.): 83 million.
Ethnic groups: Primarily German; Danish minority in the north,
Sorbian (Slavic) minority in the east; 7.3 million foreign
Religions: Protestants (27.9 million) slightly outnumber Roman
Catholics (27.3 million); approximately 3.2 million Muslims.
Education: Years compulsory--10; attendance--100%;
Health: Infant mortality rate (1998 est.)--5.0/1,000; life
expectancy (1999 est.)--women 80 years, men 74 years.
Persons employed (2001 avg.): 38.8 million; unemployed (2001 avg.):
3.9 million--9.1% of labor force.
Type: Federal republic.
Founded: 1949 (Basic Law, i.e., Constitution, promulgated on May 23,
1949). On October 3, 1990, the Federal Republic of Germany and the
German Democratic Republic unified in accordance with Article 23 of
the F.R.G. Basic Law.
Branches: Executive--president (titular chief of state),
chancellor (executive head of government); legislative--bicameral
parliament; judicial--independent, Federal Constitutional
Administrative divisions: 16 Laender (states).
Major political parties: Social Democratic Party (SPD); Christian
Democratic Union (CDU); Christian Social Union (CSU); Alliance
90/Greens; Free Democratic Party (FDP); Party of Democratic
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
GDP (2001): $1.8 trillion.
Annual growth rate (2001): 0.6%; (2003 est.): 0.5%.
Per capita income: $22,900.
Inflation rate (consumer prices, 2001): 2.5%.
Natural resources: Iron, hard coal, lignite, potash, natural gas.
Agriculture (accounts for 1% of GDP): Products--corn, wheat,
potatoes, sugar, beets, barley, hops, viticulture, forestry,
Industry (34% of GDP): Types--iron and steel, coal,
chemicals, electrical products, ships, vehicles, construction.
Trade (2001): Exports--$628 billion: chemicals, motor
vehicles, iron and steel products, manufactured goods, electrical
products. Major markets--France, U.S., and U.K. Imports--$594
billion: food, petroleum products, manufactured goods, electrical
products, motor vehicles, apparel. Major suppliers--France,