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Area: 45,226 sq. km. (17,462 sq. mi.); about the size of New Hampshire and Vermont.
Cities: Capital--Tallinn (pop. 397,150). Other cities--Tartu (101,190); Narva (67,752); Kohtla-Jarve (46,765); Parnu (44,781); Viljandi (20,509). The last population census was held in 2000.
Terrain: Flat, average elevation 50 m. Elevation is slightly higher in the east and southeast. Steep limestone banks and 1,520 islands mark the coastline. Land use--9.5% arable land, 47,4% forest and woodland, 22% swamps and bogs, 21.5% other. Coastal waters are somewhat polluted.
Climate: Temperate, with four seasons of near-equal length. Annual precipitation averages 50-75 cm.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Estonian(s).
Population: 1.332 million.
Annual growth rate: -0.65%. Birth rate--9.3/1,000. Death rate--13.6/1,000. Migration--616 persons (1999). Density--30/sq. km. Urban dwellers--70%.
Ethnic groups: Estonians 65%, Russians 28%, Ukrainians 2.5%, Belarusians 1.4%, Finns 0.9%, other 2.2%.
Religions: Lutheran; the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox, subordinated to Constantinople; the Estonian Orthodox, subordinated to the Moscow Patriarchate; Baptist.
Languages: Estonian (official).
Education: Years compulsory--9. Attendance--218,600 students at 550 schools, plus 50,800 university students. Literacy--98.2%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--7.87 deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy--65 yrs. men, 76 yrs. women.
Work force: 704,500.

Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Constitution: On June 28, 1992 Estonians ratified a constitution based on the 1938 model, offering legal continuity to the Republic of Estonia prior to Soviet occupation.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), elected by Parliament every 5 years; prime minister (head of government). Legislative--Riigikogu (Parliament--101 members, 4-year term). Judicial--Supreme Court.
Administrative regions: 15 counties, 42 towns, and 205 municipalities.
Political parties/coalitions: Estonian Center Party--Chairman, Edgar Savisaar/Coalition; Estonian Reform Party--Chairman, Andrus Ansip/Coalition; Pro Patria Union--Chairman, Mart Laar; Estonian People's Union--Chairman, Villu Reiljan/Coalition; Moderates--Chairman, Ivari Padar; Estonian United People's Party--Chairman, Jevgeni Tomberg; Estonian Social Democratic Labor Party--Chairman, Tiit Toomsalu; Estonian Independence Party--Chairman, Vello Leit; Res Publica--Chairman, Juhan Parts; Estonian Christian People's Party--Chairman, Aldo Vinkel; Russian Party in Estonia--Chairman, Stanislav Cherepanov; Estonian Democratic Party--Chairman, Jaan Laas; Republican Party--Chairman, Kristjan-Olari Leping.
Suffrage: Universal at 18 years of age; noncitizen residents may vote in municipal elections.
Government budget: $2.3 billion.
Defense: 2% of GDP.
National holidays: Jan. 1 (New Year's Day), Feb. 24 (Independence Day), Good Friday, Easter Sunday, May 1 (May Day), Whitsunday, June 23 (Victory Day--anniversary of Battle of Vonnu in 1919), June 24 (Midsummer Day), Aug. 20 (Day of Restoration of Independence), Dec. 25 (Christmas Day), Dec. 26 (Boxing Day).
Government of Estonia Web site:

GDP (2005 est.): $19.2 billion (World Bank).
Growth rate (2004): 6%.
Per capita GDP (2004): $14,500.
Inflation (2004): 3.0%.
Unemployment (2004): 9.6%.
Natural resources: Oil shale, phosphorite, limestone, blue clay.
Agriculture (3% of 2001 GDP): Products--livestock production (milk, meat, eggs) and crop production (cereals and legumes, potatoes, forage crops). Cultivable land--433,100 hectares.
Industry (26% of 2002 GDP): Types--engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, and textiles.
Services (70% of 2002 GDP): Transit, information technology (IT), telecommunications.
Trade: Exports (2004)--$5.7 billion. Partners--Finland 16.6%, Sweden 11.1%, U.K. 8.6%, Russia 6.9%, Latvia 7.4%, Germany 7.2%, U.S. 5.5%, Lithuania 4%. Imports (2004)--$ 7.3 billion. Partners--Finland 20%, Germany 11%, Russia 13%, Sweden 8%.
Exchange rate (2004): 12.5 kroon EEK=U.S.$1.
Foreign direct investment (June 2003): Sweden 39%, Finland 30%, Netherlands 6%, U.S. 7%, Norway 3%, Denmark 2%, Germany 2%.

Adapted from material published in the CIA World Factbook.
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