Area: 1,001,450 sq. km. (386,000 sq. mi.); approximately equal to
Texas and New Mexico combined.
Cities: Capital--Cairo (pop. estimated at 16 million).
Other cities--Alexandria (6 million), Aswan, Asyut, Port Said,
Terrain: Desert, except Nile valley and delta.
Climate: Dry, hot summers; moderate winters.
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Egyptian(s).
Population (July 2005 est.): 77,505,756.
Annual growth rate (2005 est.): 1.78%.
Ethnic groups: Egyptian, Bedouin Arab, Nubian.
Religions: Muslim 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6%.
Languages: Arabic (official), English, French.
Education: Years compulsory--ages 6-15. Literacy--total
Health: Infant mortality rate (2005 est.)--32.59 deaths/1,000
live births. Life expectancy (2005 est.): 71 years.
Branches: Executive--president, prime minister, cabinet.
Legislative--People's Assembly (444 elected and 10
presidentially appointed members) and Shura (consultative) Council
(176 elected members, 88 presidentially appointed). Judicial--Supreme
Administrative subdivisions: 26 governorates.
Principal political parties: National Democratic Party (ruling).
Principal opposition parties--New Wafd Party, Liberal Party,
National Progressive Unionist Grouping (Tagammau), and Nasserite
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
GDP (2005 est.): $91.7 billion.
Annual growth rate (2005 est.): 4.8%.
Per capita GDP (2005 est.): $4,282.
Natural resources: Petroleum and natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc.
Agriculture: Products--cotton, rice, onions, beans, citrus
fruits, wheat, corn, barley, sugar.
Industry: Types--food processing, textiles, chemicals,
petrochemicals, construction, light manufacturing, iron and steel
products, aluminum, cement, military equipment.
Trade (FY 2004): Exports--$10.5 billion: petroleum,
clothing and textiles, cotton, fruits and vegetables, manufactured
goods. Major markets--EU, U.S., Middle East, Japan.
Imports--$18.3 billion: machinery and transport equipment,
petroleum products, livestock, food and beverages, paper and wood
products, chemicals. Major suppliers--EU, U.S., Japan.