Area: 504,750 sq. km. (194,884 sq. mi.), including the Balearic and
Canary Islands; about the size of Arizona and Utah combined.
Cities: Capital--Madrid (5.5 million). Other cities--
Barcelona (4.9 million), Bilbao (353,950), Malaga (1.3 million),
Seville (1.8 million), Valencia (2.3 million), Zaragoza (871,000).
Terrain: High plateaus, lowland areas such as narrow coastal plains,
and mountainous regions.
Climate: Temperate. Summers are hot in the interior and more
moderate and cloudy along the coast; winters are cold in interior
and partly cloudy and cool along the coast.
Time zone: Spanish mainland and Balearic Isles--local time is 1 hour
ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) in winter and 2 hours ahead in
summer. Canary Islands are on GMT.
Nationality: Noun--Spaniard(s). Adjective--Spanish.
Population: 42.7 million.
Annual growth rate: 1%
Ethnic groups: Distinct ethnic groups within Spain include the
Basques, Catalans, and Galicians.
Religion: Predominantly Roman Catholic.
Languages: Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan-Valenciana 17%, Galician
7%, Basque 2%.
Education: Years compulsory--to age 16. Literacy—98%
Work force (17.2 million): Services—64.8%; agriculture—5.2%;
construction—12.0%; industry—18.0% (2004 est.).
Type: Constitutional monarchy (Juan Carlos I proclaimed King
November 22, 1975).
Branches: Executive--president of government nominated by
monarch, subject to approval by democratically elected Congress of
Deputies. Legislative--bicameral Cortes: a 350-seat Congress
of Deputies (elected by the d'Hondt system of proportional
representation) and a Senate. Four senators are elected in each of
47 peninsular provinces, 16 are elected from the three island
provinces, and Ceuta and Melilla elect two each; this accounts for
208 senators. The parliaments of the 17 autonomous regions also
elect one senator as well as one additional senator for every 1
million inhabitants within their territory (about 20 senators).
Judicial--Constitutional Tribunal has jurisdiction over
constitutional issues. Supreme Tribunal heads system comprising
territorial, provincial, regional, and municipal courts.
Subdivisions: 47 peninsular and three island provinces; two enclaves
on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco (Ceuta and Melilla) and three
island groups along that coast--Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la
Gomera, and the Chafarinas Islands.
Political parties: Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), Popular
Party (PP), and the United Left (IU) coalition. Key regional parties
are the Convergence and Union (CIU) in Catalonia and the Basque
Nationalist Party (PNV) in the Basque country.
GDP (2004): $955.1 billion in current prices (seventh-largest
Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Annual growth rate: 2.5%.
Per capita GDP: $22,421.
Natural resources: Coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury,
pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin,
Agriculture and fisheries (2.9% of GDP, 2004 est.): Products--grains,
vegetables, citrus and deciduous fruits, wine, olives and olive oil,
Industry (17.3% of GDP, 2004 est.): Types--processed foods,
textiles, footwear, petrochemicals, steel, automobiles, consumer
Trade (2003): Exports--$137.8 billion: automobiles, fruits,
minerals, metals, clothing, footwear, textiles. Major markets--EU
71.8%, U.S. 4.12%. Imports--$184.1 billion: petroleum,
oilseeds, aircraft, grains, chemicals, machinery, transportation
equipment, fish, consumer goods. Major sources--EU 63.9%,
Average exchange rate (first semester 2004): 0.815 euros=U.S.$1.