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Area: 504,750 sq. km. (194,884 sq. mi.), including the Balearic and Canary Islands; about the size of Arizona and Utah combined.
Cities: Capital--Madrid (5.5 million). Other cities-- Barcelona (4.9 million), Bilbao (353,950), Malaga (1.3 million), Seville (1.8 million), Valencia (2.3 million), Zaragoza (871,000).
Terrain: High plateaus, lowland areas such as narrow coastal plains, and mountainous regions.
Climate: Temperate. Summers are hot in the interior and more moderate and cloudy along the coast; winters are cold in interior and partly cloudy and cool along the coast.
Time zone: Spanish mainland and Balearic Isles--local time is 1 hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) in winter and 2 hours ahead in summer. Canary Islands are on GMT.

Nationality: Noun--Spaniard(s). Adjective--Spanish.
Population: 42.7 million.
Annual growth rate: 1%
Ethnic groups: Distinct ethnic groups within Spain include the Basques, Catalans, and Galicians.
Religion: Predominantly Roman Catholic.
Languages: Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan-Valenciana 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%.
Education: Years compulsory--to age 16. Literacy—98% (2003 est.).
Work force (17.2 million): Services—64.8%; agriculture—5.2%; construction—12.0%; industry—18.0% (2004 est.).

Type: Constitutional monarchy (Juan Carlos I proclaimed King November 22, 1975).
Constitution: 1978.
Branches: Executive--president of government nominated by monarch, subject to approval by democratically elected Congress of Deputies. Legislative--bicameral Cortes: a 350-seat Congress of Deputies (elected by the d'Hondt system of proportional representation) and a Senate. Four senators are elected in each of 47 peninsular provinces, 16 are elected from the three island provinces, and Ceuta and Melilla elect two each; this accounts for 208 senators. The parliaments of the 17 autonomous regions also elect one senator as well as one additional senator for every 1 million inhabitants within their territory (about 20 senators). Judicial--Constitutional Tribunal has jurisdiction over constitutional issues. Supreme Tribunal heads system comprising territorial, provincial, regional, and municipal courts.
Subdivisions: 47 peninsular and three island provinces; two enclaves on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco (Ceuta and Melilla) and three island groups along that coast--Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and the Chafarinas Islands.
Political parties: Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), Popular Party (PP), and the United Left (IU) coalition. Key regional parties are the Convergence and Union (CIU) in Catalonia and the Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) in the Basque country.

GDP (2004): $955.1 billion in current prices (seventh-largest Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development--OECD--economy).
Annual growth rate: 2.5%.
Per capita GDP: $22,421.
Natural resources: Coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, hydroelectric power.
Agriculture and fisheries (2.9% of GDP, 2004 est.): Products--grains, vegetables, citrus and deciduous fruits, wine, olives and olive oil, sunflowers, livestock.
Industry (17.3% of GDP, 2004 est.): Types--processed foods, textiles, footwear, petrochemicals, steel, automobiles, consumer goods, electronics.
Trade (2003): Exports--$137.8 billion: automobiles, fruits, minerals, metals, clothing, footwear, textiles. Major markets--EU 71.8%, U.S. 4.12%. Imports--$184.1 billion: petroleum, oilseeds, aircraft, grains, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment, fish, consumer goods. Major sources--EU 63.9%, U.S. 3.7%.
Average exchange rate (first semester 2004): 0.815 euros=U.S.$1.

Adapted from material published in the CIA World Factbook.
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