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Area: 1.1 million sq. km (472,000 sq. mi.); about the size of Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico combined.
Cities: Capital--Addis Ababa (pop. 2.6 million). Other cities--Dire Dawa (237,000), Nazret (189,000), Gondar (163,000), Dessie (142,000), Mekelle (141,000), Bahir Dar (140,000), Jimma (132,000), Awassa (104,000).
Terrain: High plateau, mountains, dry lowland plains.
Climate: Temperate in the highlands; hot in the lowlands.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Ethiopian(s).
Population (2003 est.): 70.5 million.
Annual growth rate: 2.7%.
Ethnic groups (est.): Oromo 35%, Amhara 30%, Tigre 6.3%, Somali 6%, Sidama 6%, Gurage 4%, Wolaita 4%, Afar 2%, other nationalities 6.7%.
Religions (est.): Ethiopian Orthodox Christian 45%, Sunni Muslim 40-45%, Protestant 5%, remainder indigenous beliefs.
Languages: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Arabic, Guaragigna, Oromigna, English, Somali.
Education: Years compulsory--none. Attendance (elementary) 57%. Literacy--35%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--97/1,000 live births.
Work force: Agriculture--80%. Industry and commerce--20%.

Type: Federal Republic.
Constitution: Ratified 1994.
Branches: Executive--president, Council of State, Council of Ministers. Executive power resides with the prime minister. Legislative--bicameral parliament. Judicial--divided into Federal and Regional Courts.
Administrative subdivisions: 9 regions and 2 special city administrations: Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa.
Political parties: Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), the Coalition for Unity and Democracy (CUD), the United Ethiopian Democratic Forces (UEDF), and other small parties.
Suffrage: Universal starting at age 18.
Central government budget (2004): $2.4 billion.
Defense: $348 million (5.6% of GDP FY 2003).
National holiday: May 28.

Real GDP (2004): $8.1 billion.
Annual growth rate (2004): 11.6%.
Per capita income (2004): $116.
Average inflation rate (2004): 7%.
Natural resources: Potash, salt, gold, copper, platinum, natural gas (unexploited).
Agriculture (47% of GDP): Products--coffee, cereals, pulses, oilseeds, khat, meat, hides and skins. Cultivated land--17%.
Industry (12% of GDP): Types--textiles, processed foods, construction, cement, and hydroelectric power.
Trade (2004): Exports--$563 million. Imports--$2.1 billion; plus remittances--official est. $400 million; unofficial est. $400 million.
Fiscal year: July 8-July 7.

Adapted from material published in the CIA World Factbook.
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