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Area: 337,113 sq. km. (130,160 sq. mi.); about the size of New England, New Jersey, and New York combined.
Cities: Capital--Helsinki (pop. 560,500). Other cities--Espoo (213,000), Tampere (195,500), Vantaa (178,500), Turku (173,000).
Terrain: Low but hilly, more than 70% forested, with more than 60,000 lakes.
Climate: Northern temperate.

Nationality: Noun--Finn(s). Adjective--Finnish.
Population: 5.2 million.
Population growth rate: 0.16%.
Ethnic groups: Finns, Swedes, Lapps, Sami, Roma, Tatars.
Religions: Lutheran 89%, Orthodox 1%.
Languages: Finnish 93%, Swedish 6% (both official); small Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities.
Education: Years compulsory--9. Attendance--almost 100%. Literacy--almost 100%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--3.8/1,000. Life expectancy--males 74 yrs., females 82 yrs.
Work force (2.6 million; of which 2.3 million are employed): Public services--32%; industry--21%; commerce--15%; finance, insurance, and business services--13%; agriculture and forestry--6%; transport and communications--7%; construction--6%.

Type: Constitutional republic.
Constitution: July 17, 1919.
Independence: December 6, 1917.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), Council of State (cabinet). Legislative--unicameral parliament. Judicial--Supreme Court, regional appellate courts, local courts.
Subdivisions: Six provinces, provincial self-rule for the Aland Islands.
Political parties: Social Democratic Party, Center Party, National Coalition (Conservative) Party, Leftist Alliance, Swedish People's Party, Green Party.
Suffrage: Universal at 18.

Economy (2004)
GDP: $171.6 billion (EUR 142.7 billion).
GDP growth rate: 3.0%.
Per capita income: $29,000.
Inflation rate: 0.7%.
Natural resources: Forests, minerals (copper, zinc, iron), farmland.
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting (3.5% of GDP): Products--meat (pork and beef), grain (wheat, rye, barley, oats), dairy products, potatoes, rapeseed.
Industry (25.7% of GDP): Types--metal (including electronics and electrical equipment) and engineering, forest products, chemicals, shipbuilding, foodstuffs, textiles.
Trade: Exports--$61.04 billion. Major markets--EU 53%, U.S. 6.4%, Russia 8.9%, China 4.1%. Imports--$45.17 billion. Major suppliers--EU 55%, Russia 12.8%, U.S. 4.7%, China 4.3%.

Adapted from material published in the CIA World Factbook.
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