Area: 3.29 million sq. km. (1.27 million sq. mi.); about one-third
the size of the U.S.
Cities: Capital--New Delhi (pop. 12.8 million, 2001 census).
Other major cities--Mumbai, formerly Bombay (16.4 million);
Kolkata, formerly Calcutta (13.2 million); Chennai, formerly Madras
(6.4 million); Bangalore (5.7 million); Hyderabad (5.5 million);
Ahmedabad (5 million); Pune (4 million).
Terrain: Varies from Himalayas to flat river valleys.
Climate: Alpine to temperate to subtropical monsoon.
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Indian(s).
Population (2003 est.): 1.05 billion; urban 27.8%.
Annual growth rate: 1.6%.
Density: 319/sq. km.
Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid 2%, others.
Religions: Hindu 81.3%, Muslim 12%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other
groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5%.
Languages: Hindi, English, and 16 other official languages.
Education: Years compulsory--9 (to age 14). Literacy--55.2%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--61/1,000. Life expectancy--63
Work force (est.): 416 million. Agriculture--63%; industry
and commerce--22%; services and government--11%;
transport and communications--4%.
Type: Federal republic.
Independence: August 15, 1947.
Constitution: January 26, 1950.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime
minister (head of government), Council of Ministers (cabinet).
Legislative--bicameral parliament (Rajya Sabha or Council of
States, and Lok Sabha or House of the People). Judicial--Supreme
Political parties: Bharatiya Janata Party, Congress (I), Janata Dal
(United), Communist Party of India, Communist Party of
India-Marxist, and numerous regional and small national parties.
Political subdivisions: 28 states,* 7 union territories.
Suffrage: Universal over 18.
GDP: $576 billion (2003); $648 billion (2004 est.).
Real growth rate: 8.2% (2003).
Per capita GDP: $543 (2003); $602 (2004 est.).
Natural resources: Coal, iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite,
chromite, thorium, limestone, barite, titanium ore, diamonds, crude
Agriculture: 22.7% of GDP. Products--wheat, rice, coarse
grains, oilseeds, sugar, cotton, jute, tea
Industry: 26.6% of GDP. Products--textiles, jute, processed
food, steel, machinery, transport equipment, cement, aluminum,
fertilizers, mining, petroleum, chemicals, computer software.
Services and transportation: 50.7% of GDP.
Trade: Exports--$62 billion; agricultural products,
engineering goods, precious stones, cotton apparel and fabrics, gems
and jewelry, handicrafts, tea. Software exports--$12.5
billion. Imports--$76 billion; petroleum, machinery and
transport equipment, electronic goods, edible oils, fertilizers,
chemicals, gold, textiles, iron and steel. Major trade partners--U.S.,
EU, Russia, Japan, Iraq.