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Area: 377,864 sq. km. (145,902 sq. mi.); slightly smaller than California.
Cities: Capital--Tokyo. Other cities--Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Kobe, Kyoto, Fukuoka.
Terrain: Rugged, mountainous islands.
Climate: Varies from subtropical to temperate.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Japanese.
Population (2005 est.): 127.4 million.
Population growth rate (2005 est.): 0.05%.
Ethnic groups: Japanese; Korean (0.6%).
Religions: Shinto and Buddhist; Christian (about 0.7%).
Language: Japanese.
Education: Literacy--99%.
Health (2003): Infant mortality rate--3.3/1,000. Life expectancy--males 77 yrs., females 84 yrs.
Work force (67 million, 2003): services--42%; trade, manufacturing, mining, and construction--46%; agriculture, forestry, fisheries--5%; government--3%.

Type: Constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government.
Constitution: May 3, 1947.
Branches: Executive--prime minister (head of government). Legislative--bicameral Diet (House of Representatives and House of Councillors). Judicial--civil law system based on the model of Roman law.
Administrative subdivisions: 47 prefectures.
Political parties: Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), New Clean Government Party (Komeito), Conservative New Party (CNP), Japan Communist Party (JCP), Social Democratic Party (SDP).
Suffrage: Universal at 20.

GDP (2004 est.): $4.9 trillion ($3.57 trillion on a purchasing power parity-PPP basis in 2003).
Real growth rate (2004 est.): 2.7%.
Per capita GDP (2004 est.): $38,201 (PPP: $29,400 in 2004).
Natural resources: Negligible mineral resources, fish.
Agriculture: Products--rice, vegetables, fruit, milk, meat, silk.
Industry: Types--machinery and equipment, metals and metal products, textiles, autos, chemicals, electrical and electronic equipment.

Adapted from material published in the CIA World Factbook.
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