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Area: 41,526 sq. km. (16,485 sq. mi.).
Cities: Capital--Amsterdam (pop. 739,104). Other cities--The Hague, seat of government (469,059); Rotterdam (598,923); Utrecht (270,244).
Terrain: Coastal lowland.
Climate: Northern maritime.

Population: 16.3 million.
Nationality: Noun--Dutchmen and Dutchwomen. Adjective--Dutch.
Ethnic groups: Predominantly Dutch; largest minority communities are Moroccans, Turks, Surinamese.
Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, other.
Language: Dutch.
Education: Years compulsory--10. Attendance--nearly 100%. Literacy--99%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--5.0/1,000. Life expectancy--78 yrs.
Work force (2003: 7.4 million): commercial services—46.3%; non-commercial services—32.4%; industry—19.6%; agriculture—1.7%.

Type: Parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch.
Constitution: 1814 and 1848.
Branches: Executive--monarch (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), cabinet. Legislative--bicameral parliament (First and Second Chambers). Judicial--Supreme Court.
Subdivisions: 12 provinces.
Political parties: Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Labor Party (PvdA), Liberal Party (VVD), other minor parties.
Suffrage: Universal at 18.

GDP (2004 est.): $591 billion.
GDP real growth rate (2004 est.): 1.3%.
GDP per capita (2004 est.): $36,236.
Natural resources: Natural gas, petroleum, fertile soil.
Agriculture (2.4% of GDP): Products--dairy, poultry, meat, flower bulbs, cut flowers, vegetables and fruits, sugar beets, potatoes, wheat, barley.
Industry (25% of GDP): Types--agro-industries, steel and aluminum, metal and engineering products, electric machinery and equipment, bulk chemicals, natural gas, petroleum products, transport equipment, microelectronics.
Services (73% of GDP): Types--trade, hotels, restaurants, transport, storage and communication, financial (banking and insurance) and business services, care and other.
Trade (2004): Exports--$313 billion (f.o.b.): mineral fuels, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, processed food and tobacco, agricultural products. Imports--$274 billion (f.o.b.): mineral fuels and crude petroleum, machinery, transportation equipment, consumer goods, foodstuffs. Major trading partners in 2003 (exports/imports)--EU (76%/57%), Germany (24%/20%), Belgium (12%/11%), U.K. (10%/7%), U.S. (4%/8%).

Adapted from material published in the CIA World Factbook.
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