Area: 803,943 sq. km. (310,527 sq. mi.); almost twice the size of
Cities: Capital--The city of Islamabad (pop. 800,000) and
adjacent Rawalpindi (1,406, 214) comprise the national capital area
with a combined population of 3.7 million. Other cities--Karachi
(11,624,219) (2005 est.), Lahore (6,310,888) (2005 est.), Faisalabad
(1,977,246) and Hyderabad (1,151,274).
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Pakistan(i).
Population (2005 est.): 162,419.946.
Annual growth rate (2005 est.): 2.03%.
Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushtun, Baloch, Muhajir (i.e.,
Urdu-speaking immigrants from India and their descendants), Saraiki,
Religions: Muslim 97%; small minorities of Christians, Hindus, and
Languages: Urdu (national and official), English, Punjabi, Sindhi,
Pushtu, Baloch, Hindko, Brahui, Saraiki (Punjabi variant).
Education: Literacy (2003)--45.7%; male 59.8%; female 30.6%.
Unofficial estimates are as low as 35%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2005 est.)--72.44/1,000.
Life expectancy (2005 est.)--men 62.04 yrs., women 64.01 yrs.
Work force (2004): Agriculture--42%; services--38%;
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: August 14, 1947.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime
minister (head of government). Legislative--Bicameral
Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora (100-seat Senate, 342-seat National
Assembly). Judicial--Supreme Court, provincial high courts,
Federal Islamic (or Shari'a) Court.
Political parties: Pakistan Muslim League (PML), Pakistan People's
Party (PPP), Muttahid Majlis-e-Amal (umbrella group) (MMA),
Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM), and Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N).
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Political subdivisions: 4 provinces; also the Federally Administered
Tribal Areas and the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed
Jammu and Kashmir region (Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas).
GDP (2004 est.): PPP $347.3 billion.
Real annual growth rate (2004): 6.1%.
Per capita GDP (2004): PPP $2,200.
Natural resources: Arable land, natural gas, limited oil,
substantial hydropower potential, coal, iron ore, copper, salt,
Agriculture: Products--wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, eggs,
fruits, vegetables, milk, beef, mutton.
Industry: Types--textiles & apparel, food processing,
pharmaceuticals, construction materials, shrimp, fertilizer, and
Trade (2004): Exports--$15.07 billion: textiles (garments,
bed linen, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, leather goods, sports
goods, carpets, rugs, chemicals & manufactures. Major partners--U.S.
21.3%, United Arab Emirates 9.8%, U.K. 7.1%, Germany 5.2%, Hong Kong
4.2%, Saudi Arabia 4.1%. Imports--$14.01 billion: petroleum,
petroleum products, machinery, plastics, paper and paper board,
transportation equipment, edible oils, pulses, iron and steel, tea.
Major partners--China 10.8%, U.S. 10.2%, United Arab Emirates
9.3%, Saudi Arabia 9.0%, Japan 7.0%, Kuwait 5.3%, Germany 4.2%.