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Area: 803,943 sq. km. (310,527 sq. mi.); almost twice the size of California.
Cities: Capital--The city of Islamabad (pop. 800,000) and adjacent Rawalpindi (1,406, 214) comprise the national capital area with a combined population of 3.7 million. Other cities--Karachi (11,624,219) (2005 est.), Lahore (6,310,888) (2005 est.), Faisalabad (1,977,246) and Hyderabad (1,151,274).

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Pakistan(i).
Population (2005 est.): 162,419.946.
Annual growth rate (2005 est.): 2.03%.
Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushtun, Baloch, Muhajir (i.e., Urdu-speaking immigrants from India and their descendants), Saraiki, and Hazara.
Religions: Muslim 97%; small minorities of Christians, Hindus, and others.
Languages: Urdu (national and official), English, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushtu, Baloch, Hindko, Brahui, Saraiki (Punjabi variant).
Education: Literacy (2003)--45.7%; male 59.8%; female 30.6%. Unofficial estimates are as low as 35%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2005 est.)--72.44/1,000. Life expectancy (2005 est.)--men 62.04 yrs., women 64.01 yrs.
Work force (2004): Agriculture--42%; services--38%; industry--20%.

Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: August 14, 1947.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government). Legislative--Bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora (100-seat Senate, 342-seat National Assembly). Judicial--Supreme Court, provincial high courts, Federal Islamic (or Shari'a) Court.
Political parties: Pakistan Muslim League (PML), Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Muttahid Majlis-e-Amal (umbrella group) (MMA), Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM), and Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N).
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Political subdivisions: 4 provinces; also the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region (Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas).

GDP (2004 est.): PPP $347.3 billion.
Real annual growth rate (2004): 6.1%.
Per capita GDP (2004): PPP $2,200.
Natural resources: Arable land, natural gas, limited oil, substantial hydropower potential, coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone.
Agriculture: Products--wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, eggs, fruits, vegetables, milk, beef, mutton.
Industry: Types--textiles & apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, shrimp, fertilizer, and paper products.
Trade (2004): Exports--$15.07 billion: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, carpets, rugs, chemicals & manufactures. Major partners--U.S. 21.3%, United Arab Emirates 9.8%, U.K. 7.1%, Germany 5.2%, Hong Kong 4.2%, Saudi Arabia 4.1%. Imports--$14.01 billion: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, paper and paper board, transportation equipment, edible oils, pulses, iron and steel, tea. Major partners--China 10.8%, U.S. 10.2%, United Arab Emirates 9.3%, Saudi Arabia 9.0%, Japan 7.0%, Kuwait 5.3%, Germany 4.2%.

Adapted from material published in the CIA World Factbook.
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