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Area: 331,114 sq. km. (127,243 sq. mi.); equivalent in size to Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee combined.
Cities (2002): Capital--Hanoi (2.842 million). Other cities--Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon; 5.378 million), Hai Phong (1.711 million), Da Nang (715.000).
Terrain: Varies from mountainous to coastal delta.
Climate: Tropical monsoon.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Vietnamese (sing. and pl.).
Population (2004): 82.1 million.
Annual growth rate (2004): 1.02%.
Ethnic groups: Vietnamese (85%-90%), Chinese (3%), Hmong, Thai, Khmer, Cham, mountain groups.
Religions: Buddhism, Hoa Hao, Cao Dai, Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic, some Protestant), animism, Islam.
Languages: Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area languages.
Education (2002): Literacy--91%.
Health (2003): Birth rate--19.58/1000 Infant mortality rate--26/1000. Life expectancy--66.7 yrs. male, 71.4 yrs. female. Death rate--6.56/1,000.

Type: Communist Party-dominated constitutional republic.
Independence: September 2, 1945.
New constitution: April 15, 1992.
Branches: Executive--president (head of state and chair of National Defense and Security Council) and prime minister (heads cabinet of ministries and commissions). Legislative--National Assembly. Judicial--Supreme People's Court; Prosecutorial Supreme People's Procuracy.
Administrative subdivisions: 59 provinces, 5 municipalities (Can Tho, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh).
Political party: Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) with over 2 million members, formerly (1951-76) Vietnam Worker's Party, itself the successor of the Indochinese Communist Party founded in 1930.
Suffrage: Universal over 18.

GDP (2004): $45.4 billion.
Real growth rate (2004): 7.7%.
Per capita income (2004): $553.
Inflation rate (2004): 9.5%.
External debt (2004 est.): 34% of GDP, $15.4 billion.
Natural resources: Coal, crude oil, zinc, copper, silver, gold, manganese, iron.
Agriculture and forestry (21.8% of GDP, 2004): Principal products--rice, maize, sweet potato, peanut, soya bean, cotton, coffee, cashews. Cultivated land--12.2 million hectares per year. Land use--21% arable; 28% forest and woodland; 51% other.
Industry and construction (40.1% of GDP, 2004): Principal types--mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity, gas, water supply, cement, phosphate, and steel.
Services (38.1% of GDP, 2004): Principal types--wholesale and retail, repair of vehicles and personal goods, hotel and restaurant, transport storage, telecommunications, tourism.
Trade (2004): Exports--$26 billion. Principal exports--garments/textiles, crude oil, footwear, rice (second-largest exporter in world), sea products, coffee, rubber, handicrafts. Major export partners—U.S., EU, Japan, China, Singapore, Australia, Taiwan, and Germany. Imports--$31.5 billion. Principal imports--machinery, oil and gas, garment materials, iron and steel, transport-related equipment. Major import partners—China, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Thailand. Exports to U.S. (2004)--$5 billion. Imports from U.S. (2004)--$1.1 billion.

Adapted from material published in the CIA World Factbook.
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