Singapore is a conglomeration of Chinese (76%), Malay (15%) and
Indian (6%) cultures. In the past, this racial mixture has lead to
some conflict. However, today most Singaporeans enjoy racial harmony
and national unity. Each group works hard to maintain its cultural
traditions while building a modern, cohesive society. Singaporeans
of the younger generation think of themselves as Singaporean first,
and as Chinese, Malay or Indian second.
Meeting and Greeting
- Shake hands with everyone present at a business meeting or
social occasion. Shake hands again when leaving. Your handshake
should be firm.
- Singaporeans may bow slightly as they shake your hand. Many
Westerners are generally taller than Singaporeans, so it would be
polite to give a small bow. A slight bow for Chinese or older
people is polite.
- Never touch a person's or child's head. The head is considered
- The foot is considered the lowest part of the body, and is
thought to be unclean. The foot should never be used to point at
someone, and you should never show the bottom of your feet.
Tapping your foot or fidgeting your legs denotes feebleness and
lack of interest. When crossing your legs, do so only by placing
one knee over the other.
- Raise your hand to get someone's attention. Never signal or
point at a person with the forefinger. Do not pound your first on
an open palm; this is obscene. The forearm jerk is a rude gesture.
- Westerners are expected to be punctual for social occasions
and business meetings. Call if you are delayed. Tardiness is
viewed as a sign of disrespect.
- Business cards are exchanged upon being introduced. Exchange
business cards with both hands after you are introduced.
- The government finances many of the large corporations in
Singapore. This bureaucratic system is known for its high
efficiency and corruption-free business style. Western-style
management is evident in large firms managed by Singaporeans.
- Personal contacts are important in business. It takes several
years to develop business relationships. Take time to know people
before discussing business.
- Singaporeans tend to get right down to business in meetings.
Singaporeans are fast-paced and can make decisions quickly.
- You are expected to deliver reports, correspondence, packages,
etc. when promised.
- Always talk straight and get right to the point with
Singaporeans. You can be direct when dealing with issues of money.
Dining and Entertainment
- Dinner is the most common form of business entertainment, but
it is a time to socialize and build relationships rather than
discuss business. Don't be surprised if business dinners are
scheduled for every night of the week. Most entertainment is done
- Food is usually put on the table with all dishes served at
once and to be shared by all. Drinks and appetizers are uncommon,
though they are available in Western restaurants.
- Allow the host to order all the dishes.
- Chinese may offer a banquet. A Westerner should always
reciprocate with a banquet of equal value before departing.
- Chinese use chopsticks for most food and porcelain spoons for
the liquid part of soup. Western style utensils are used, but are
not as common as chopsticks.
- Allow a Chinese host to invite you to start your meal and
begin eating before you start to eat.
- When finished with your meal, place chopsticks on the
chopstick rest (setting them on your plate means you are not
- Be on time for dinner in a Malay home. The dinner is usually
served immediately with no drinks or appetizers beforehand.
- Indians always wash their hands before and after a meal. In a
Malay home, you will be given a small bowl of water and a towel.
Use the water to wash your hands.
- Malays and Indians use a spoon along with their hands to eat,
but never use your left hand to eat (unclean). If given a spoon
and fork, hold the spoon in your right hand and use your fork
(left hand) to push food onto the spoon.
- Never let the serving spoon touch your plate and never share
your leftovers. Indians believe that anything that touches
someone's plate is tainted.
- It is impolite to refuse initial offers of food or drink. To
refuse seconds, place your hand above your plate and say, "No,
thank you." When finished, place your spoon and fork together on
your plate. If they are not placed together, you will be offered
- After a meal with Indians, expect to stay for approximately
one hour of conversation.
- Due to different ethnic groups and the modern character of
Singaporeans, there are many different attires acceptable. Dress
is normally very casual. Western clothing is most common.
- For business, men should wear white shirts, tie and slacks.
Jackets are usually not required.
- Women should wear blouses with sleeves and skirts or
- Each ethnic group shares different gift giving traditions.
- Business gifts are generally not exchanged.
- Use both hands to give someone a gift. A gift given to a guest
or the host is not opened in the presence of the giver.
- Be careful of the gift being misinterpreted as a bribe, even a
small gift. Never give a government official a gift, which might
be considered a bribe.
- Always bring the hosts a gift when invited to someone's home.
- Singapore has strict regulations which carry stiff fines,
possible jail sentences or even death. You should never do the
following: jaywalk; smoke in public or in air-conditioned
buildings (except country clubs); enter the country with drugs;
litter, or import, manufacture, sell or use chewing gum.
- Avoid public displays of affection.
- Do not show anger or emotions or raise your voice. Remain
disciplined and in control.
- Avoid discussing religion or politics.
- Avoid jokes until you know someone well. Few jokes will be
understood or appreciated.
Especially for Women
- Western women may confront a small bias when doing business in
Singapore. Being taller than Singaporeans may be advantageous to
- Singapore has an official policy against discrimination of
women, and Singaporean women are gaining a wider acceptance in