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Preface Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:43 PM

Burundi is an interesting country and you will find the Burundians are a very friendly people. The climate here is mild year-round, and the American community is a close-knit one.

A new democratic government was installed on August 26, 2005, bringing to an end the worst phases of a civil war that began in 1994. Nonetheless, Bujumbura area was the focus of much of the war's violence and remains unsettled. In this environment, security consciousness for Embassy, temporary duty employees, Americans and visitors, remains an absolute necessity.

We hope you find this information useful, and we hope you have a pleasant stay.

The Host Country

Area, Geography, and Climate Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:44 PM

Located in east-central Africa and surrounded by Congo (DRC), Rwanda, and Tanzania, the landlocked Republic of Burundi is a heart-shaped country of 10,747 square miles, about the size of the State of Maryland.

The Ruzizi River and Plain and Lake Tanganyika, part of the Western Great Rift Valley, form the border between Burundi and Congo. Lake Tanganyika, 390 miles long, ranks second in the world in depth and volume, and seventh in surface area.

East of the lake, sharply sculpted and intensely cultivated hills rise to the 9,000 foot Congo-Nile watershed divide. East of the divide, the land slopes more gently between 6,000 and 3,500 feet down to the plateau and savanna lands of the Tanzania border.

Burundi is picturesque: traditional African mud and thatch houses are scattered among the steep hills, every square foot of which is cultivated with beans, peas, maize, bananas, rice, and cassava; men stand watch over lyre-horned cattle; and colorfully draped women dig in the fields or visit relatives carrying banana beer in handcrafted pottery set into baskets.

With the exception of Bujumbura, the capital, there is a notable lack of towns and villages. Farmsteads called “rugos” are scattered evenly throughout the countryside, where 90% of the population lives, engaged primarily in subsistence agriculture. The country is densely and homogeneously populated, though a few areas in southeastern Burundi and the river plain north of Bujumbura are less so due to malaria and poor soil. Though less than 5° south of the Equator, the entire country has a pleasant climate.

Bujumbura, on the northeastern shore of Lake Tanganyika, averages 73°F. Daytime temperatures are in the mid to upper 80s: In the highlands, temperatures are cooler, in the 60s and 70s, arid at night, and occasional frost occurs.

The short rains occur from October to December, the long rains from February to May. During the dry seasons, a haze obscures otherwise spectacular views of the Mitumba Mountains of Eastern Congo, and the air becomes dusty. During the rainy season, the temperatures cool slightly. Rainfall is only occasionally torrential and comes in brief, intense showers, rather than steady downpours. More violent weather, including hailstorms, occurs chiefly in the highlands. Rainfall averages 30 inches in Bujumbura and 47 inches in the uplands.

Population Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:44 PM

Burundi’s population is 5,292, 793 million, with a growth rate of 3% increasing population pressure in this already densely populated country. The population density is 550 people per square mile.

Bujumbura has a population of about 333,044 half of whom are foreign. The principal groups of foreigners are Congolese (24%), Rwandan (18%), and Asian (8%). Europeans number 3,500. The other significant urban center is Gitega, with a population of 35,000. Three ethnic groups comprise the indigenous population: Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa. All three share a common language, Kirundi. There are more than 200,000 refugees in Burundi, mainly Rwandan Tutsis and Zairians fleeing instability or civil war. On the other hand, more than 200,000 Burundian Hutus live in nearby countries as a result of past ethnic clashes. In 1972 an estimated 100–250,000 Hutus were killed, and ethnic tensions continued despite a government program of national reconciliation.

Kirundi and French are the official languages, and Swahili is widely spoken in the streets and markets. Embassy personnel use French to communicate with Burundians. English is becoming popular, and the government is stressing English in schools.

Public Institutions Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:45 PM

In the colonial scramble for Africa, Burundi was awarded to Germany, becoming part of German East Africa in 1895. After World War I, Burundi formed the southern half of Ruanda-Urundi, the League of Nations Trust Territory administered by Belgium. Burundi gained limited self-government in 1961 and full independence as The Kingdom of Burundi on July 1, 1962.

In its more than 30 years of independence, Burundi has been ruled primarily by the military. The Mwami, the traditional king, was deposed in 1966 by Michael Micombero, who declared Burundi a republic and consolidated Tutsi domination of the Armed Forces, political and economic structures, and the Catholic church. Lieutenant Colonel Jean-Baptiste Bagaza led a successful military coup in 1976, ruling by presidential decree until Major Pierre Buyoya seized power in 1987.

Pledging that the military would not be in power “for very long,” Buyoya has made an effort to include the majority Hutu ethnic group in his government and has established goals of national reconciliation and economic expansion. A new constitution was debated and approved by referendum in March 1992, and a timetable has been established for a return to constitutional democracy in 1993.

The UPRONA party (Unite et Progres National) was the sole legal political party, but seven new parties have come into being as a result of the pluralism allowed by the new constitution.

The Year 2005 saw the culmination of a long peace process with a series of successful elections. In August the first inauguration was held since 1993. President Pierre Nkurunziza, a former Hutu rebel leader, assumed power for a 5-year term.

The country is divided into 17 provinces, each headed by an appointed governor. Provinces are divided into 129 communes; communes, in turn, are composed of zones; and finally there are collines, which are traditionally organized along family lines.

Arts, Science, and Education Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:46 PM

There is no compulsory education in Burundi. About 45% of Burundian children attend school, and the country’s literacy rate is about 30%.

The University of Burundi has 3,300 students and 400 professors, and awards degrees in humanities, law, economics, administrative science, agronomy, applied science, and physical education. The Institut Technique Superieur is part of the University and offers 3-year programs in various fields of engineering. The University also has a medical school and 2-year Institut Pedagogique for training teachers. Three other institutions, of higher education have combined enrollments of 523 in commerce, agriculture, and technology.

Four schools operate primarily for foreign students in Bujumbura: the Belgian and French Schools, the Lycee International, and the King's School International Academy.

Both the Belgian and French school are kindergarten through grade 12, and instruction for students is in French. The Lycee International offers classes in kindergarten through grade 6 and some are in English. The American International School of Bujumbura has classes in kindergarten through grade 6 and instruction is in English. The King's School International Academy is kindergarten through grade 10, and instruction is in English.

Many small private kindergartens operate for preschool children ages 3 to 5, primarily in French.

Commerce and Industry Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:46 PM

Burundi’s economy is predominantly agricultural. Its most important export is high quality arabica coffee, which provides 80% of export earnings. Tea, cotton, and rice production are also being encouraged to reduce dependence on coffee. Lake Tanganyika supports a small fishing industry, though it is in decline.

A few basic industries produce beer, soft drinks, coffee, textiles, plastics, soap, metal parts, tools, insecticides, and paint.

Transportation Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:47 PM

Transportation in Burundi is difficult for direct-hire American personnel. As of November 2005, post is still confined to a 3-mile radius around the Embassy because of security concerns. The only means of seeing the outlying communities in Burundi is to use the World Food Program plane, which is often full. It is much easier to fly to Nairobi or Adidas Ababa than to go "upcountry!" That being said, as the peace process continues and grows, there are high hopes that the area of confinement will gradually be lifted.

Automobiles Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:48 PM

Burundi’s rudimentary public transportation system makes a dependable personally owned vehicle a necessity. Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire use left-hand drive vehicles, but right-hand drive vehicles are permitted. A valid driver license is the only requirement of obtaining a license to drive in Burundi. Post personnel may import one duty-free vehicle per family. Predominant types of vehicles include Toyota, Nissan, Peugeot, Renault Suzuki, Mitsubishi, Mercedes, Volkswagon, Land or Range Rovers, and Hyundai. Regular gasoline costs about $2.75 a gallon, and there is no unleaded diesel readily available.

Purchasing a vehicle locally is much more expensive than in the U.S. The primary factor in choosing a vehicle is availability of service and spare parts. Peugeot and Toyota probably offer the best prospects for spare parts availability. Secondary factors include durability, high ground clearance for rough roads, and resale value. Manual transmission is highly recommended, as parts and trained service personnel are virtually nonexistent for automatic transmissions.

Cars should be equipped with heavy-duty suspension, cooling systems, and batteries, and tube-type tires. Air-conditioning is a welcome feature, but not essential. Ship an adequate supply of oil, gas, and air filters; oil, brake and transmission fluids; fan belts, windshield wipers, spark plugs and bulbs and fuses. This will simplify maintenance and reduce costs.

Local resale value is higher than in the U.S., except for vehicles with automatic transmission. Resale premiums are higher for makes listed above and for four-door versus two-door models.

Aside from the usual documents (registration, serial number, etc.) owner’s original purchase price documentation is especially important both for initial entry through customs and for local resale requirements. Customs clearance requires a horsepower rating. Do not include CB radio or any other transmitter in the car. Burundi customs procedures may take longer than many other posts, so send ahead documents and one set of keys as early as possible.

Some employees bring used American makes with extra spare parts and have no serious problems. Four-wheel-drive vehicles are popular in Burundi, as they provide off-road capability and high-ground clearance for rough roads.

Roads within Bujumbura range from bad to worse. However good, paved roads extend to Bukavu (Zaire) and Kigali (Rwanda). Within the country, good, paved roads extend to Gitega, Source du Nil, Nyanza Lac, Muramvya, Kayanza, and Ngozi. Other roads are unpaved, but passable.

Vehicles are shipped to post via air through European Logistical Support Office (ELSO) Antwerp

Local Transportation Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:49 PM

AmEmbassy Bujumbura provides a 'Taxicab' service for its American personnel. 'Taxicab' is available during normal working hours, 06:00 to 23:00. Post personel are authorized Taxicab until their personal vehicle arrives. If post personnel desire, they may utilize Taxicab as they wish on a pay-for-service basis. One price example is from your home to the Embassy, $1.00. Other errands are charged at $0.25 per kilometer.

Due to security concerns post personnel cannot use local buses, local taxis, local motorcycle taxis, or local bike taxis.

Self-drive cars can be rented but post personnel are restricted to a 3-mile radius around the Embassy.

Regional Transportation Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:49 PM

A World War I era German steamer used to transport passengers and cargo on Lake Tanganyika, but has not been sighted for a number of years. Rumors are constantly arising as to its whereabouts and when it will begin service again.

Direct-air service exists between Bujumbura and Rwanda, Kenya, and Ethiopia.

For post personnel, no overland travel is available without the direct permission of the Chief of Mission.


Telephones and Telecommunications Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:50 PM

Local and international telephone service is good. Calls to the U.S. cost $5.50 a minute.

Commercial cable service is available, but expensive, with cable costing as much as US$100. The rate system is complex. Interested-party cables can be sent at the standard rate through the Embassy. Fax service is also available.

Wireless Service Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:52 PM To have an Internet at your house depends: dial up mode does not need any subscription fees it costs $0.05 a minute. However, it is slow (max 56 Kb/s). Second, it is digital one. The speed is 128 Kb/s (fast). Installation fee is $150, one time; rent fee is $40/month and $ 0.05/min.

Internet Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:52 PM

Internet is available at your home via the phone lines or at work.

To have an Internet at your house depends: dial up mode does not need any subscription fees it costs $0.05 a minute. However, it is slow (max 56 Kb/s). Second, it is digital one. The speed is 128 Kb/s (fast). Installation fee is $150, one time; rent fee is $40/month and $ 0.05/min.

Mail and Pouch Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:52 PM

Full pouch service is available to employees and their dependents. Letter mail, periodicals, and packages up to a maximum of 40 pounds, and of a maximum combined length, width, and girth of 62 inches should be addressed as follows:

Name Bujumbura (Name of Agency) Department of State Washington, D.C. 20521–2100

The U.S. Post Office may refuse to deliver insured parcels to pouch addresses.

Outgoing mail service is limited to letters, film, and packages containing returned merchandise. Letters and packages sent from the U.S. arrive in Bujumbura 10 days to 3 weeks later.

International airmail letter service to and from Burundi is good (faster than the pouch). Postage is about 50¢. Letters to Europe take about 5 days and about 10 days to the U.S. Sending packages through international mail is not recommended.

International mail should be addressed as follows:

Name American Embassy B.P. 1720 Bujumbura, Burundi (central Africa)

Radio and TV Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:53 PM

The radio station in Burundi is the government-operated Voice of the Revolution, also known as RTNB, Radio-Television Nationale du Burundi. It broadcasts on several AM and FM frequencies in French, Kirundi, Swahili, and English. A good, shortwave receiver will pick up the major international broadcasts.

Burundi has limited TV system (SECAM), which broadcasts about 6 hours a day, mainly in Kirundi, French, and Swahili. There is a 30 minute news broadcast every Wednesday evening. Many personnel bring American standard (NTSC) TV and videotape players and order commercially or privately made tapes from the U.S. The post has a videotape library in the VHS format. Also, you can receive Zaire TV, with a set capable of receiving SECAM standard broadcasts for color or CCIR standard for black and white.

The Armed Forces Radio/TV Service is available to Mission personnel via satellite. This is a 24-hour service providing CNN, sports broadcasts, MacNeil-Lehrer, and other programs.

Newspapers, Magazines, and Technical Journals Last Updated: 11/21/2005 6:55 AM

The government newspaper, LeRenouveau, is a 6-page French language publication appearing 6 days a week, offering official versions of government events. With the coming of democratization, however, it has opened up a little, reporting on opposition party events and providing space to opposition party events and providing space to opinions other than official. There are currently five other French-language newspapers, ranging from weekly to monthly in circulation. Two are staunchly pro-UPRONA, two are opposition party organs, and one is neutral. There is also a Kirundi Government daily and a Kirundi Catholic monthly. The International Herald Tribune arrives from The Hague 1–5 days late. Time, Newsweek L’Express, Le Monde, Le Nouvel Observateur, Jeune Afriyue, and a few others are available more or less regularly.

Health and Medicine

Medical Facilities Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:54 PM

The Embassy maintains a small infirmary, with a part-time contract nurse who is available daily for consultation. A contract doctor is available for consultation 2 days a week. The infirmary is stocked with medicines and equipment to treat a variety of problems ranging from first aid to parasites and viruses. The regional medical officer visits quarterly from Nairobi.

Routine dental treatment is available in Bujumbura, but complete all major dental work before arriving. The Embassy sends patients to Nairobi, Kenya, which has good dental facilities, for major dental work. Western Europe and South Africa offer the nearest acceptable facilities for orthodontic work.

Optometrical and ophthalmological care is available in Bujumbura and in Nairobi. Bring an extra pair of corrective lenses. Frames and lenses are available, but expensive.

Although the post maintains a wide range of medicines in the Medical Unit, include prescribed medications and routine supplies, such as bandages and aspirin in personal effects. Malaria prophylactics are available and should be started at least 1 week before arriving. Mefloquine is recommended, as some mosquitoes are chloroquine resistant. Adhere to the Department’s recommended list of inoculations. Yellow fever and cholera immunizations are required for entry into the country.

Community Health Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:54 PM

Malaria, viral infections, colds, infected cuts and insect bites, and parasites are the most common medical problems. Dust during the dry season may create problems for those with asthma or allergies.

The public sanitation level compares favorably with that of other developing countries, but falls below U.S. standards. Open drains, garbage piles, open-field burnings, and other such practices are still common. The General Services Office (GSO) provides trash collection. Embassy houses have septic tanks.

The risk of contracting AIDS is high, unless proper precautions are taken: condoms, monogamy, or abstinence.

Preventive Measures Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:54 PM

The water supply is treated, but the Embassy recommends boiling and filtering water. Filters are provided for all homes. Vegetables should be disinfected; and household staff should receive periodic physical examinations. Locally bottled beverages (soda, soda water, and beer) are safe.

Swimming in the lake near Bujumbura is dangerous due to crocodiles and hippopotami and is discouraged by the Embassy. Tourists who make the mistake of wading in the lake have occasionally disappeared under its glassy surface, welcomed in by gently smiling jaws.

Employment for Spouses and Dependents Last Updated: 12/1/2005 2:54 PM

Spouses find few employment opportunities in Bujumbura on the open job market. In hiring, Burundi Government policy gives preference to local citizens. Most positions, such as secretarial, are low paid. Spouses may work as temporary employees at the Embassy, USIS, or USAID. They have also found English- or other language-tutoring jobs, and those with nursing skills or teaching credentials can find work. Computer and French language skills are an asset.

American Embassy - Bujumbura

Post City Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:06 AM

Downtown Bujumbura stretches along the flat northeastern edge of Lake Tanganyika. The better residential areas have been slowly climbing the hillsides east of the city and spreading into the plain south of the city. Some of the villa-like homes have magnificent views of the lake, the Ruzizi River plain, and the beautiful mountains of Zaire just 15 miles away across the lake.

Bujumbura, a small city, can be traversed by car in a matter of minutes. All of the main city streets were paved at one time, though currently are in a state of disrepair; traffic is heavy during rush hours, and delays may be experienced. Streets throughout much of the residential areas are not paved, but remain passable even during the rainy season. Flowering trees throughout Bujumbura — even the downtown area — include flamboyant, acacia, jacaranda, and frangipani. Tropical ornamental plants thrive, and flowers are plentiful year round.

In the downtown commercial area, the streets are lined with small stores owned by Greeks, Belgians, Asians, and a growing number of Africans. These include butcher shops, bakeries, grocery stores, general, dry goods shops, tailors, shoe repair shops, shoe stores, stores selling office equipment, some European gift shops, fabric shops, drugstores and pharmacies, and flower and vegetable shops. Street vendors also sell fresh fruits and vegetables.

The large market is next to the Embassy, but off-limits to American personnel. Fruits, vegetables, chickens, fresh fish, used clothing, cloth, and household supplies are available there. Many people send their household staff to purchase items for them.

Just south of the port is a scenic beach area where Bujumburans like to drive in the evening to have their cars washed, view the sunset, and watch hippopotami wallowing in the mud and reeds along the shore. Sunday afternoons at Saga Plage are a great place to go and people watch.

The city’s population of about 333,000 lives in various “quartiers,” which have developed according to the ethnic, geographical, or economic status of the residents. Large, foreign groups living in the city include Zairians, Belgians, Indians, Ismaeli Muslims, French, and a few Arabs. Kirundi and French are the official languages, but Swahili is widely spoken in the streets and markets. Since little English is spoken in Bujumbura, some knowledge of French is necessary for both shopping and social life.

The official American community is limited to the U.S. Mission, about 25 people including the Marines. There are a dozen or so missionaries. Little tourism means that few Americans visit Bujumbura, though the Embassy does receive a number of temporary duty visitors. Due to the unaccompanied, danger pay status, post discourages personal visitors to the American staff.

Security Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:07 AM

Although political violence has diminished somewhat in Bujumbura, the rebel FNL group is still active in Bujumbura Rural, the area around the city, especially along the road to Gatumbu and in the hills east of the town. Firefights are usually short-winded and outside of major urban areas. Post personnel are reminded that if they hear shooting near their residence, they should go to a safe place devoid of windows and stay low to the ground. They should contact the RSO/PSO.

All travel outside of Bujumbura must be cleard by the RSO/PSO and an itinerary must be approved before the departure date. Vehicle travel from Bujumbura to the provinces is forbidden. Although travel in the provinces outside of Bujumbura and Bujumbura Rural is generally and relatively secure, travelers should be vigilant and avoid precarious situations.

The Post and Its Administration Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:09 AM

The U.S. Mission to Burundi consists of representatives from the Department of State, USAID, and DAO. In addition to maintaining diplomatic relations, the Mission promotes closer relations through educational exchanges and provides humanitarian and developmental assistance. Official U.S. presence in Burundi began with the opening of a Consulate on 31 October 1960. The post was elevated to Embassy status when Burundi became independent in 1962.

The Chancery is a two-story building, located on Avenue des Etats-Unis behind the Banque Commerciale du Burundi, just off the city’s principal street, Chaussee Prince Louis Rwagasore. Hours are from 07:30 am to 17:30 four days a week and 07:30 to 12:30 on Fridays. Marine Guards are on duty 24 hours daily. The telephone number is +257-22-34-54.

The USAID Mission is on Avenue du I-Amitie a short walk from the Chancery and in the GSO complex. The telephone number is +257-24-36-25.

The GSO complex, which includes USAID and the Health Unit, is on Avenue du I’Amitie. The telephone number is +257-21-97-76.

Housing Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:27 AM

One of the wonderful things about Burundi is the housing.

Temporary Quarters Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:27 AM

Personnel usually move directly into the house they are to occupy. In the past some have been lodged at Hotel Botanika (+257-22-67-92), Clos des Limbas Hotel (+257-25-30-00) or in another standard hotel, the Novotel (+257-22-26-00). Rates are about US$80 for a single room with breakfast, except at the Novotel which is currently at US$110.00. Other smaller hotels offer much lower rates, but are not commonly used due to security concerns.

Permanent Housing Last Updated: 11/21/2005 11:05 AM

Government-owned or -leased housing is provided for all employees. The homes are spacious, comfortable, and some have large yards. Some have spectacular views of the lake and mountains. Operating under joint State/USAID/DAO regulations, an InterAgency Housing Board assigns housing primarily on the basis of rank. As post is currently unaccompanied there hasn't been a concern about family size. The post has been able to secure reasonable housing that meets board standards for all employees. The Embassy contracts for 24‑hours daily security for each house.

Furnishings Last Updated: 11/21/2005 11:08 AM

Since the Embassy provides a broad range of furnishings, including major appliances, air-conditioners for bedrooms, furniture, and appropriate carpets and drapes, Bujumbura has been designated a limited shipment post. In addition to the normal complement of furniture, post standards also call for providing one electric range, two refrigerators, one freezer, three stepdown transformers, and one vacuum cleaner. Most houses have a generator for power outages. Some also have ceiling fans for the living room, dining room or bedrooms. Air conditioners are provided for the masterbedroom and one guestroom.

Except for personal items, the Ambassador’s residence and Deputy Chief of Mission’s (DCM) home are fully furnished. For all other employees, a complete linen supply is essential. Bring plenty of towels, washcloths, sheets, pillowcases, dishtowels, bedspreads, pot holders, bath mats, napkins, and table cloths. Your predecessors at post or GSO can tell you types and sizes of tables and the number of shower curtains to bring. All beds are queen or twin sized. Blankets are sometimes needed during the rainy season, but they are readily available in the local market.

Private homes tend to be the focal point for social life in Bujumbura, and the Embassy GSO has some items to lend for entertaining, such as glassware, card tables, chairs, and hurricane lamps. However, large supplies of china, glassware, and flatware are useful. Bring a wide range of cooking equipment, serving trays, napkins (cloth and paper, including cocktail napkins), and a generous supply of candles. Charcoal grills are in wide use, and charcoal is readily available.

The post is outdoor oriented. Ice chests, Thermos bottles, paper cups and plates, and plastic utensils are essential, but expensive to buy locally. Beach umbrellas are also handy.

Airfreight shipments should include basic linens, tableware, kitchen and household equipment, and spices. As optional items consider a shortwave radio, children’s toys, and a small cassette player with cassettes, which could be used later for outside work in the post-language program.

Utilities and Equipment Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:28 AM

Electricity is 220v, 50 hertz (50 cycles), 3 phase. Voltage fluctuations are common and range from 175v to 280v. For expensive or delicate electrical appliances, a line regulator and a surge protector are recommended for each piece of equipment. Schanko style, grounded outlets are the most common type. To convert American plugs to standard European plugs (two round prongs), bring adapters with you. A European plug adapter is also useful when traveling in parts of East Africa.

The post has a limited supply of stepdown transformers. Nevertheless, bring 220v or dual (110/220v) equipment. This applies to household and kitchen appliances or any high-wattage item. Useful electrical appliances include a mixer, toaster, coffee maker and grinder, blender, and clothes iron.

Food Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:29 AM

Fresh tropical fruits, such as bananas, a papayas, mangoes, pineapples, Japanese plums, citrus, avocados, and strawberries are available and inexpensive. Vegetables, including cucumbers, green beans, dried beans and lentils, green peas, cabbage, tomatoes, artichokes, carrots, cauliflower, beets, lettuce, potatoes, turnips, onions, green onions, leeks, and green peppers are also inexpensively available. Fresh spices are also found, including thyme, oregano, basil, rosemary, sage, cilantro, fennel and parsley.

Many people enjoy gardening or a hiring a gardener to practice “gentleman” farming. Bring warm-climate vegetable and flower seeds.

Lake Tanganyika is the source of many types of fish: Capitaine, Sangala, and Bangabanga are the most popular and of excellent quality. The lake also contains minnow-sized sardines, which are delicious fried or prepared in traditional local recipes.

There are many local butcheries, which supply good quality beef, pork, lamb, goat, and poultry. Turkeys are raised in a nearby Italian Mission. A variety of sausages and coldcuts are made locally. Imported meat and seafood is expensive.

Local, powdered, and long-life milk is available, but expensive. Local yogurt and butter are good. Some very good cheeses are made in Burundi and Zaire.

European cheese, butter, powdered milk, ice cream, poultry, fruit, and other special foods are available in food stores that cater to Europeans or can be specially ordered from Europe, but prices are high because of airfreight costs.

Burundi coffee and tea are excellent and inexpensive. Local breweries brew Primus and Amstel. Amstel comes in light and dark varieties. It is inexpensive. Also bottled in Burundi are Coca Cola, Orange Fanta, Citron, and Schweppes is now bottling Tonic, and carbonated water.

Many shops carry European goods and canned and otherwise processed foods, but they are expensive.

There is no Embassy Commissary; consumables are shipped from the U.S. or Europe. Air delivery, from Denmark, takes 1 month, and freight costs are high. Airfreight items ordered from Belgium one week are delivered the following week; airfreight costs for these items average 50% or more, depending on value.

Currently, all personnel assigned to Bujumbura, regardless of family size, are authorized an additional 2,500 pounds of consumables to be shipped at government expense. If some or all of this amount is shipped with HBE from the U.S., indicate the total weight of foodstuffs separately on the packer’s invoice. If the entire 2,500 pounds is not used before arrival, this allowance will cover any consumables order placed during the first year at post up to the 2,500-pound limit. Shipments can also be charged against unused excess baggage, airfreight, or surface weight allowances.

Consider the following items when shipping consumables: baking needs, such as mixes, molasses, vanilla, baking chocolate and chocolate chips, dried or canned fruits, nuts (peanuts are plentiful locally), candied fruit, brown sugar, powdered sugar, corn syrup, graham crackers and crumbs, cake decorating materials, cornstarch, dried spices (most Indian spices are available here, as the Asian community is large), canned vegetables, olives, olive oil, cooking oil, dried pasta, vinegars, catsup, relish, hot sauce, Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, jams and jellies (local strawberry jam and honey are terrific), peanut butter, snacks (chips, nuts, crackers); dry cereals, cooked cereals, such as oatmeal and cream of wheat; bathroom and facial tissues, paper towels, baby food and pet food.

Bring paper products for cocktail and picnic needs, paper towels, aluminum foil, plastic wrap, and ziploc bags (ants!). Ship cleaning supplies, such as furniture polish, oven cleaner, all-purpose cleaners, and lots of dishwashing and laundry detergents. Bring a variety of drugstore items; those available locally are expensive.

Clothing Last Updated: 11/21/2005 11:14 AM

Summer clothing is worn throughout the year. Good rain gear is essential. Little readymade clothing is sold locally, though competent tailors abound at reasonable rates. Local cloth is pretty, but variety is small, and quality is average to low. Those who sew should bring fabric and supplies. Drycleaning is available — there’s even an express service!

Bring gear for any sports you plan to undertake or continue — swimming (several suits, ), boating, tennis, golf, horseback riding, cycling, etc.

Men Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:30 AM

Lightweight suits similar to those worn in the summer in Washington, D.C. are appropriate year round. Short-sleeved shirts can be worn to work, but a coat and tie are required for visits to high-ranking Burundian officials. For most evening social occasions, a sport shirt, without tie, and a jacket are worn. Men on the diplomatic list should have at least one dark, lightweight suit for invitations requiring “tenue de vine.” A dinner jacket is rarely needed. For trips into the mountains, a light jacket or sweater is useful. Bring a variety of footwear.

Women Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:30 AM

Summer dresses, slacks, or pantsuits are worn to the office or around town. Nylon stockings are not needed. Bring a good supply of shoes; open styles are best for this tropical climate, along with tennis or hiking shoes for outdoor activities. For most evening occasions the dress is “tenue relaxe,” for women, usually short of calf-length dresses or evening pants outfits that range from casual to dressy, depending on the occasion and the host. One or two fancy, long dresses will serve for more formal occasions. Senior officers should have an ample wardrobe for daytime and evening representational functions, which include dresses of silk, polyester, chiffon, or other fabrics dressier than cotton. A stole is useful for cool evenings, and mountain trips call for a light jacket or sweater. Some find raincoats too hot in the tropics, but umbrellas are necessary.

Children Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:30 AM

Currently, this is a unaccompanied post.

Office Attire Last Updated: 11/21/2005 11:17 AM

For women in the workplace summer dresses, slacks, or pantsuits are worn to the office or around town. Nylon stockings are not needed.

For men, lightweight suits similar to those worn in the summer in Washington, D.C. are appropriate year round. Short-sleeved shirts can be worn to work, but a coat and tie are required for visits to high-ranking Burundian officials.

Supplies and Services Last Updated: 11/21/2005 11:18 AM

Products for basic hygiene, such as toothpaste, deodorant, soap, and feminine hygiene items may be purchased locally. Please scroll down for more on Supplies.

Supplies Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:31 AM

Products for basic hygiene, such as toothpaste, deodorant, soap, and feminine hygiene items may be purchased locally. Paper products and household cleaning supplies are available, but they too are expensive. Limited supplies of gift wrap, party favors, and birthday presents (also expensive) are depleted rapidly during holiday seasons, so bring your own supply. Bring clothes hangers, household gadgets, and repair adhesives, such as epoxy glue and tape. A basic tool kit is useful.

Some American cigarettes are available, but bring a supply of a favorite brand. Malaria prophylaxis is available from the dispensary. Local pharmacies stock basic needs, but bring items you prefer. Bring hobby supplies.

Basic Services Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:32 AM

Bujumbura has reliable drycleaning service. Most personnel hire help to do the washing and ironing. Some tailors are available. There are several good hairdressers. For Embassy housing, the GSO provides basic repair services, such as plumbing, electrical work, and carpentry, and arranges for fumigation and pest control.

Color film may be sent by pouch to the U.S., but there are several good-quality processors in town. Slide film processing is available. Prices for film processing are high.

Unaware if copying from digital photographs is available in town.

Telephones: all homes have a landline and the cost to call the U.S. is about $0.42 per minute. All American Direct Hires are given a cell phone for use at Post, but must pay for personal phone calls, currently Telecel, our provider, charges about $0.72 per minute for a phone call to the U.S.

Domestic Help Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:32 AM

Reliable household help is available, and monthly salaries range from US$50–US$100 a month. Most households employ someone to cook, clean and do laundry. Many also employ a gardener at a slightly lower salary. The employer is responsible for the medical care of the workers and their families. The employer customarily provides work clothing and an additional month’s pay for a New Year’s bonus. Larger families often hire workers who specialize in a particular function, such as laundry, cooking and childcare.

Religious Activities Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:33 AM

Most Burundians are Christians, and the Catholic church has the largest congregation. Churches play an important role in Burundi, particularly in the country’s rural areas where foreign church missions provide schools, hospitals, and rural development projects.

In Bujumbura, Catholic Sunday services are held in Kirundi or French at the Cathedral Regina Mundi. The Papal Annucio also holds services every morning at 06:30 and on weekends, his church is located on the corner of Ave. Rwagasore and Blvd. 28 Novembre. Protestant services are offered, in Kirundi or French, in various churches. There is an Anglican cathedral that holds services in French at 08:00 on Sundays near Dimitri's Supermarket. In addition, there is an English-speaking interdenominational service and Sunday school that meets every Sunday afternoon.

There is also a thriving Muslim community and various mosques conduct services throughout the city.

Education Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:33 AM

This is currently a high danger, unaccompanied post. Two current members of the Embassy community have families and are Seperate Maintenance Allowance. All others are single. There is no American based school in Bujumbura, it was closed in 1993.

Dependent Education Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:33 AM

This is currently a high danger, unaccompanied post. Two current members of the Embassy community have families and are Seperate Maintenance Allowance. All others are single. There is no American based school in Bujumbura, it was closed in 1993.

At Post Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:34 AM The schools are listed under “Arts, Science, and Education." The education allowance for Bujumbura is adequate to cover fees at any of these schools. A supplemental education allowance is provided for French-language tutoring and additional course work to help maintain students at their appropriate U.S. educational system grade level. Tutors are also available for supplemental English classes to help school-aged children attain appropriate levels of reading, writing, grammar, and spelling in English.

Away From Post Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:34 AM An education allowance is available for sending school-aged children to American or European boarding schools. In addition, some English-language schools in Kenya offer boarding facilities, but matriculation is sometimes difficult.

This is currently a high danger, unaccompanied post. Two current members of the Embassy community have families and are Seperate Maintenance Allowance. All others are single. There is no American based school in Bujumbura, it was closed in 1993.

Special Needs Education Last Updated: 11/22/2005 7:45 AM

This is currently a high danger, unaccompanied post. Two current members of the Embassy community have families and are Seperate Maintenance Allowance. All others are single. There is no American based school in Bujumbura, it was closed in 1993. There are currently no famcilities for special needs education here.

Higher Education Opportunities Last Updated: 11/22/2005 7:46 AM

French lessons are available for official Americans in the post language program. All lessons are taught by a private tutor.

Adult education in art, music, or dancing is limited because the availability of qualified instructors varies from year to year.

Exercise classes are conducted when an instructor is available. There are many private aerobic classes given when an instructor is available. At times there are classes in ballet, modern dance, piano, recorder, and violin.

Recreation and Social Life Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:34 AM

Most post personnel would note that there is an active recreational and easily available social life here at the Embassy. Due to outside circumstances we spend a lot of time together and entertain ourselves. There are some recreational activities available within the city limits.

Sports Last Updated: 11/22/2005 7:55 AM

Soccer is the national sport, and basketball is popular in Bujumbura. Volleyball and basketball are played in the schools, and Mission members have instructed and played on local basketball teams. The sporting clubs hold occasional tournaments, but otherwise spectator sports occur infrequently.

The few organized activities center around the private clubs. Personnel may join any of the private clubs mentioned below. Dues are reasonable, and no special clothing is required, except for tennis whites.

Entente Sportive. A social and sports club with a large outdoor swimming pool, tennis courts, playgrounds, outdoor basketball courts, nine-hole golf course, and a clubhouse with an excellent restaurant that is a center of social activities in Bujumbura.

Cercle Hinniaue. A riding club offering lessons for children and adults. Rates are reasonable, and formal riding clothes are not required. They have their own horses.

Cercle Nautiaue. A small yacht club on the lake shore with moorings for sail and motorboats. Boats cannot be rented, but may be purchased. The Embassy has a power boat available for rental or for representational events. It can be used when the lake is at its normal water levels. Renters may use it for waterskiing as skis are provided.

A large swimming pool and lighted tennis court are located at the Ambassador’s residence, which are available at the Ambassador’s discretion. The beaches around Bujumbura are dangerous due to crocodiles and hippopotami; and swimming is discouraged.

No restrictions on beach attire exist, and, in fact, some Burundians can be observed performing their ablutions “au naturel” on weekends. However, it is not considered polite to stare.

Touring and Outdoor Activities Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:35 AM

Post personnel are confined to a three mile radius around the US Embassy in Bujumbura. They are not allowed to use motor vehicles to drive through Bujumbura Ruruale to the interior. That being said, if restrictions ever change, the mountainous interior of Burundi is beautiful, and the source of the Nile in southern Burundi is of interest.

If one were to fly to Gitega, you could look up the museum. The National Museum in Gitega is small, but interesting. A Catholic Mission school, at Gitega, sells some native carvings, bas-reliefs, and ceramics.

If road trips were possible to Eastern Zaire and Rwandaone, you could travel by car from Bujumbura north to Kigali in 5 hours. From Kigali you can reach the Akagera Game Park in northeastern Rwanda. The park has abundant wildlife, and its flora has not been damaged by elephants and giraffes, as is sometimes the case in East Africa. But this park is now closed due to civil war. Rwanda also has a highly scenic volcano region around Lake Kivu where mountain gorillas can be seen — US$120 for a l‑hour visit. The nearby towns offer good accommodations.

The same area can be reached through Zaire, a difficult, but magnificently beautiful trip on the road from Bukavu to Goma. Active volcanoes can be climbed there and gorillas observed. North of Goma is the Virunga Game Park, known for hippopotami, elephants, lions, and Cob antelope. There is continous rebel activity in this area.

Entertainment Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:35 AM

Several restaurants are patronized by the American community. Menus are varied, and the cuisine is French, Greek, or Belgian. Prices are moderate to expensive, US$6–US$15 for lunch, and US$12–US$25 for dinner (without drinks).

There is one cinema in town, which shows Kung Fu, Rambo, and Terminator movies or their imitations.

Many videos are exchanged from personal collections, and many video rental clubs are in town. Currently Post provides one multi system TV and VCR per house.

The French Cultural Center shows European films and puts on plays. Its library is also good.

There are several discotheques in town frequented by a mixed crowd and offer very danceable Zairian music interspersed with Reggae and pop. Post personnel are reminded though of a 23:00 curfew. National Burundian curfew is 24:00 until 05:00.

Social Activities Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:36 AM

The social activites are many and varied.

Among Americans Last Updated: 11/22/2005 8:47 AM There is no American Club. Private, social activity is frequent among post personnel and includes barbecues, short hiking trips, poker nights, or dinner and a movie on the VCR.

International Contacts Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:36 AM The private clubs and routine business meetings are the best sources of international contacts. Entertainment takes place in the home. Arrangements can be made to entertain in restaurants and private clubs, but is expensive. Several nightclubs and discos have recorded or taped music, but private clubs offer the best opportunity to meet new people. The Lions Club International, the Rotary Club, and Round Table are represented in Bujumbura.

Official Functions Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:36 AM

Burundi is basically a pretty relaxed place and official functions, while taking place, are not ball gown-tuxedo type of events.

A nice suit and a nice long dress suffice for most events. Military personnel often wear their official uniforms to such functions as July Fourth and the Marine Ball in November. Women may wish to bring a dress suitable for the ball.

Nature of Functions Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:37 AM

The major functions follow the calendar year, there are New Year's Eve parties around town to which a person could be invited, there are National Days such as the Fourth of July and Bastille Day, Queen's Birthdays for the Dutch, British and Belgians. The Front Office is invited to all these events with some spillover into other parts of the Embassy based on personal contacts. Christmas parties abound.

Standards of Social Conduct Last Updated: 11/22/2005 9:09 AM

Burundians value courtesy and good manners and seem to enjoy the relaxed, informal style of entertaining favored by many Americans.

Many Americans have expressed frustration that Burundians seem difficult to get to know well. There is a reserved and aloof manner that is difficult for many foreigners here to break through. It is almost unheard of, for example, for an American to be invited to a Burundian home.

Invitation cards and calling cards of adequate quality can be printed locally, but no engraving is done. Courtesy calls, just after arrival on counterparts in the government and other Missions, are useful and recommended. The Burundian Government accords diplomats a high status, and, in turn, expects diplomats to exhibit exemplary standards of conduct.

Special Information Last Updated: 11/22/2005 9:14 AM

Post Orientation Program

Because of its small size, the post has no orientation program. However, every new arrival is briefed by his supervisor, the management officer, and the DCM on local conditions and U.S. interests in Burundi. A very complete Welcome To Post folder is provided. The information packet includes maps, shopping and restaurant tips, recreation information, and health information. A sponsor for each new arrival assists in easing the new employee into life at post.

Related Internet Sites Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:50 AM

There are a variety of good internet sites available for additional information about Burundi.

Suggested sites include: Country_Specific/Burundi.html

Notes For Travelers

Getting to the Post Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:40 AM

Travel to Burundi is by air via Nairobi. Employees are met on arrival. Provide the Embassy with your itinerary before departing for Burundi. Most American Direct Hires are eligible for Business Class for this trip. Arriving or departing Bujumbura during hours of darkness is prohibited for Post personnel, also the airport closes at 18:00.


Airfreight from the U.S. takes 4–6 weeks to reach Burundi. An accurate inventory of airfreight contents and a statement of the value are mandatory and should be forwarded in advance. Shipments of HHE are consigned to the European Logistical Support Office (ELSO) in Antwerp, Belgium and forwarded by air to Bujumbura. Total transit time averages 2- to 3 months. Ship HHE early. As with airfreight, an accurate inventory is essential.

Currently, most vehicles are shipped by air via ELSO Antwerp. The post recommends early shipment. Interim arrangements can be made, but are costly. Those who ship a personally owned vehicle, please bring an extra set of keys and title to the vehicle with you to Post. All shipments should be insured. Airfreight shipments should be marked as follows:

Employee’s Name American Embassy B.P. 1720

For HHE and cars, use the above address, adding the following:

Via European Logistical Support Office American Consulate-Antwerp In Transit

Customs, Duties, and Passage Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:41 AM

All Mission personnel are permitted duty-free entry of vehicles and HHE during the initial installation period, which is defined as the first 6 months. After this period, members of the administrative and technical staff usually are not permitted duty-free privileges. Customs authorities may inspect unaccompanied shipments. Pilferage occurs, but is not a significant problem.

In principle, diplomatic personnel are exempt from paying taxes, but a 17% sales tax is included in the cost of most items. Where this tax is calculated separately, vendors will exempt personnel upon display of their diplomatic identification.

Goods that enter the country duty-free often are exempted, with an "Importation Temporaire" license. The Management Section monitors this license on a yearly basis and renews it.

Sale of personal property must be approved by the DCM. In addition, the currency conversion on certain types of sales is restricted. Generally, sales are permitted only within 6 months of departure.

Customs and Duties Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:41 AM

All Mission personnel are permitted duty-free entry of vehicles and HHE during the initial installation period, which is defined as the first 6 months. After this period, members of the administrative and technical staff usually are not permitted duty-free privileges. Customs authorities may inspect unaccompanied shipments. Pilferage occurs, but is not a significant problem.

Pornographic material is prohibited and confiscated when found.

To repeat: In principle, diplomatic personnel are exempt from paying taxes, but a 17% sales tax is included in the cost of most items. Where this tax is calculated separately, vendors will exempt personnel upon display of their diplomatic identification.

Goods that enter the country duty free often are exempted, with an "Importation Temporaire" license. The Management Section monitors this license on a yearly basis and renews it.

Sale of personal property must be approved by the DCM. In addition, the currency conversion on certain types of sales is restricted. Generally, sales are permitted only within 6 months of departure.

Passage Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:43 AM

A valid passport, with a Burundi visa is required. U.S. citizens traveling for work or official purposes are officially required by Burundian immigration authorities to have a visa. Travelers coming from countries where there is a Burundian embassy must obtain their visa before arriving in Bujumbura. Those travelers coming from countries where there is not a Burundian embassy can obtain a visa at the Bujumbura airport upon arrival. Visitors carrying diplomatic passports receive a visa at no charge. Others must pay a fee of US$20.00 for a two day visa and US$40.00 for a one month visa. Post will meet and assist all official travelers at the airport. A Kenyan visa is necessary for a Nairobi stopover, travelers on diplomatic passports are given them gratis, all other travelers must pay US$50.00. All travelers must carry international health cards showing proper inoculation against smallpox, yellow fever, typhus, and cholera. (Check with the Medical Division for the latest information on Burundi and current Department requirements.)

Bring at least 24 passport-sized pictures for identity cards, drivers licenses, and visas. The Management Section, specifically the travel section, will obtain multiple-entry visas, residence permits (visa de sejour), identity cards, and drivers licenses after arrival. It is beneficial to obtain an international drivers license in advance.

Pets Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:46 AM

Employees planning to bring pets to Bujumbura are advised to begin the planning process early. The Government of Burundi does not restrict the import of pets, but increasingly strict airline regulations and the relative lack of flights to Bujumbura make pet transport logistically complicated and often, costly. As of this writing, there are no direct flights from Europe. Most regional carriers which service Burundi — usually through Nairobi or Addis Ababa — do not permit pets to travel with their owners in the cabin.

Some airlines require pets to be transported as cargo, rather than as accompanied excess baggage. Animals arriving as cargo will require an import permit from the Burundian government. The Embassy can help to obtain this document.

All pets entering Burundi must have rabies and health certificates issued by an accredited veterinarian. The rabies vaccination should be given 30-60 days before arrival. The health certificate should be dated within 48 hours of the start of the pet’s travel and should specify that the pet is free of ticks and contagious diseases. Quarantine is not required for arriving animals.

Both pet food and pet supplies are expensive in Burundi, and the selection is limited. Many people prepare pet food from what is locally available; others prefer to order pet food from outlets in the United States or from neighboring countries. Pet owners are advised to bring a substantial supply of related products, including flea and tick collars or medications and vaccines, with them to post.

Veterinary care is available, but some clients have expressed concerns about the quality of surgery and other major veterinary procedures.

Firearms and Ammunition Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:47 AM

The RSO is the focal point within the Mission for all matters pertaining to firearms policy. As such the RSO will notify COM of an employee's desire to import firearms. If the COM approves the request, RSO will provide appropriate local forms and information about the registration process to the employee.

For personal use, only sporting rifles and shotguns are authorized per Burundian law. Mission reserves the right to determine what constitutes sporting firearms beyond that stated by Burundian law. Implicit in any authorization to carry firearms is their proper use. Possession and use of firearms is controlled by Burundian law and the Mission firearms policy.

Employees wishing to carry USG issued firearms in the course of conduct of their official duty must obtain permission from the Chief of Mission or his designated representative.

Complete firearm policy will be sent to those personnel requesting further information.

Currency, Banking, and Weights and Measures Last Updated: 11/22/2005 10:09 AM

The official currency is the Burundi franc. It is linked to the Standard Drawing Right, and the rate of exchange fluctuates, but is currently 246 francs=US$1. Currency importation is not restricted, but must be declared.


Convertible checking accounts are available, but, in practice, are not used. The Embassy Class B cashier is available to make all accommodation exchanges with dollars or dollar instruments. A limited supply of U.S. dollars is available.

In Burundi, the metric system of weights and measures is used.

Taxes, Exchange, and Sale of Property Last Updated: 11/23/2005 4:52 AM

In principle, diplomatic personnel are exempt from paying taxes, but a 17% sales tax is included in the cost of most items. Where this tax is calculated separately, vendors will exempt personnel upon display of their diplomatic identification.

Goods that enter the country duty free often are exempted, with an “Importation Temporaire” license. The Administrative Section monitors this license on a yearly basis and renews it.

Sale of personal property must be approved by the DCM. In addition, the currency conversion on certain types of sales is restricted. Generally, sales are permitted only within 6 months of departure.

Recommended Reading Last Updated: 12/2/2005 10:48 AM

These titles are provided as a general indication of the material published on this country. The Department of State does not endorse unofficial publications.

American University. Area Handbook for Burundi. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C., 1969.

Cazenave-Piarrot, Francoise et al. Burundi Touristique. (French/English) Burundi National Tourism Office. Edicef,1979.

La Civilisation Ancienne ties Peuples ties Grands Lacs. Centre de Civilization Burundaise: 1979.

Gahama, Joseph. Le Burundi Sons Administration Beige. Karthala: Paris, 1983. ISBN 2–86537–089–5

Guillet, Claude and Pascal Ndayishinguje. Legendes historiques du Burundi. Karthala: Paris:, 1987. ISBN 2–8650–717–8

Kupper, Leo. The Pity Of It All. University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, 1977.

Lemarchand, Rend. Rwanda and Burundi. Praeger. New York, 1970.

Melady, Thomas. Burundi: The Tragic Years: Maryknoll: Orbis, 1974

Meyer, Hans. Les Barundi. Societe Francaise d’historie d’outre-mer: 1984.

Mikaza, Came and Jean C. Harahagazwe. L’essentiel sur le Burundi. Paris: Difcom (3, rue Roquepine. 75008 ’ Paris).

Sendegeya, Pierre-Claver. Anthologie Ties Sculpteurs et Peintres Burundais Contemporains. Nathan: Paris, 1989. ISBN 2-288-82091-8

Van den Berghe, P. The Ethnic Phenomenon. Elsevier Amsterdam, 1981.

The Wild Boy of Burundi.

Weinstein, Warren and Robert Schrire. Political Conflict and Ethnic Strategies: A Case Study of Burundi. Syracuse University. Eastern African Studies: Publication XXIII, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs: Syracuse, 1976.

Wolbers, Marian T. Burundi. Chelsea House: 1989. ISBN 1-55546-785-7

In addition to these suggested titles, extensive slides and more information on life at post, visit the Overseas Briefing Center, in Rosslyn, Virginia at NFATC/FSI. All prospective employees and their families should use this material, as it will answer many pre-departure questions.

Local Holidays Last Updated: 11/22/2005 10:43 AM

Here is a list of American and Burundian holidays. The embassy is closed on all these days. Often Burundian offices/stores and the government are closed on their holidays. This year for the first time, the end of Ramadan, Eid-Al-Fatar was a national holiday on Thursday, November 3rd, the Embassy was closed at this time. We are waiting to hear if this will become a permanent holiday.

Burundian holidays are identified with an asterisk.

New Year’s Day January 1 Martin Luther King Jr.'s B/day January 17 Unity Day* February 5 Presidents Day February 21 Labor Day May 1 Ascension Day* May 20 Independence Day (Burundi)* July 1 Independence Day (USA) July 4 Assumption Day* August 15 Labor Day September 5 Columbus Day October 10 PrinceRwagasore Day* October 13 President Ndadaye Day* October 21 All Saints Day* November 1 Veterans Day November 11 Thanksgiving Day (USA) November 24 Christmas Day December 25

Adapted from material published by the U.S. Department of State. While some of the information is specific to U.S. missions abroad, the post report provides a good overview of general living conditions in the host country for diplomats from all nations.
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