|Preface Last Updated: 10/31/2001
Like the Roman god Janus, Italy wears two faces. One, soft with
the patina of age, looks back on a glorious history—the awesome
monuments of Imperial Rome, the ruins of Pompeii, the magnificence
of canal-fretted Venice or colorful Florence, cradle of the
Renaissance. The other face, shiny and new, reflects the modernity
of a nation surging with superhighways, busy factories, and
Northern Italy, center of the nation's economic life, sprawls
busily across the Po River plain. Industries sprout alongside
time-worn medieval towns, and the alluvial soils make the area one
of the richest agriculturally in southern Europe. Terraces on
mountain slopes along the northern border grow grapes for wines and
mulberry trees for leaves to feed silkworms.
Central Italy is dominated by Apennine ridges. Once they helped
bar unity; even now a village dialect may not be well understood
only a few miles away. This is the nation's heartland; the region of
Dante, Saint Francis, and Leonardo.
Southern Italy, once poverty ridden and ravaged by malaria and
erosion, rebounds under reclamation projects and expanding industry.
Pacing its life is sunny Naples, the city of Vesuvius, of Capri, and
Amalfi, of effervescent people who sing when they are happy, sad, or
Italy is one of the most attractive assignments in the Foreign
Service. The country boasts not only a rich cultural and historical
tradition, but also enjoys a varied, pleasant climate. Italians are
favorably disposed toward Americans, partly for historical reasons,
but mainly because of their appreciation of things American.
Americans generally enjoy Italy, though some find it more difficult
than they expect. There is a chaotic element to life here that
becomes immediately visible in street traffic, in bank lines, and in
getting repairs done on an emergency basis. Urban air pollution has
become a serious problem, particularly in Milan, Rome, and Naples.
Italy, as other Western democracies, currently faces striking
economic and political challenges. It must reduce the economic
differences between the wealthy north and the poorer south and
control organized crime. In recent years, significant steps have
been taken to deal with these problems, but they stubbornly persist.
Approached with a spirit of adventure, humor, and patience, a tour
in Italy is sure to be rewarding, both personally and
The Host Country
Area, Geography, and Climate Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Italy covers 116,300 square miles (301,225 sq. km.), an area
roughly the size of Georgia and Florida combined. Its prominent
geographical feature is the 500-mile-long Italian Peninsula, which
is shaped like a boot and extends southeast from Europe into the
Mediterranean Sea. The Apennine Mountains form the backbone of the
peninsula. North of the Apennine range lies the Po River Valley (300
miles from east to west), Italy's breadbasket and the center of
Italian industry. North of the Po Valley are the foothills of the
Alps, in which lie Italy's lake district. Its northern border
meanders along the highest points of the southern Alpine passes.
The Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia, which lie southwest
and west of the Italian peninsula, respectively, are the largest
islands in the Mediterranean. These, along with Italy's other,
smaller islands, have hosted trading colonies since the dawn of
recorded history and have traditionally provided a window on the
rest of the Mediterranean Basin (the western tip of Sicily, for
example, is only 90 miles from Tunisia).
Italy's climate is generally pleasant. Although summer
temperatures can rise into the mid-90s with high humidity, evenings
are considerably cooler, allowing people to take to the streets and
squares. In the winter, night time temperatures often drop to
freezing, but snowfall outside the mountains is rare. In all
seasons, the south tends to be warmer and drier than the north.
Population Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Italy has a population of roughly 57.6 million on a land mass
about three-quarters the size of California. Population density is
about twice that of California. Historically, many Italians have
emigrated (significant numbers of Italian communities are in the
U.S., Canada, Belgium, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, and Australia),
and approximately 2 million Italians still work in other countries.
Recently, however, Italy has been experiencing a growing influx of
immigrants (around 100,000 new legal immigrants per year), a cause
of controversy despite the fact that there would be essentially a
population decrease in Italy were it not for the arriving
Outside of Rome and the main tourist centers, few Italians speak
a second language. Even in the big cities, truly bilingual persons
are hard to find. The most commonly spoken foreign languages are
English and French. With the exception of the German-speaking
autonomous province of Bolzano (Bozen) and the significant Slovene
population around Trieste, ethnic minorities are small. Isolated,
ancient communities of Albanians, Greeks, Ladinos, and
Frenchspeakers, however, are here. The Italian constitution provides
religious freedom for all. Roman Catholicism is the predominant
religion, although only a small minority regularly attends church.
There are small Protestant (Waldensian), Jewish, and Greek Orthodox
communities. The Vatican or "Holy See" is an independent sovereign
nation located in Rome, whose head of state is the Pope.
Public Institutions Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Italy has been a Republic since June 2, 1946, when a national
referendum abolished the monarchy. The constitution, which took
effect on January 1, 1948, established a bicameral Parliament
(Senate and Chamber of Deputies), a separate judiciary, and an
executive branch composed of the Council of Ministers (Cabinet) and
President of the Council (Prime Minister), who is Head of
Government. The Council of Ministers must retain the confidence of
The President of the Republic, who is Head of State, is elected
for seven years by Parliament sitting jointly with delegates from
the 20 regions. The President has limited powers. He or she appoints
the Prime Minister, subject to Parliamentary concurrence. The
President can also dissolve Parliament and call for elections, if it
is clear that no governing majority can be formed.
Seventy-five percent of parliamentarians are elected as
individual candidates, 25% by proportional ballot. There are 630
deputies and 315 senators, plus a small number of senators-for-life
including all former Presidents of the Republic and a few appointed
by the President in recognition of service to the nation. Parliament
is elected for five years but may be dissolved by the President
before the expiration of its full term. Legislative bills may be
introduced in either house but must be voted by a majority in both.
Below the national level, Italy is divided into 20 regions
(roughly equivalent to U.S. states), 103 provinces and over 8,000
communes (cities and townships). Regions and provinces have
presidents and governing councils. Mayors and city councils are
elected locally. Each province has a prefect appointed by and
representing the central government. The prefect has special
responsibility for law and order issues.
Since 1953, no single political party has held an absolute
majority in either house. Successive Italian governments have been
formed by coalitions or other parties providing "external" support.
Until recently, governments centered around the now-defunct
Christian Democratic Party (DC) and until the early 1960's, were
generally "center" coalitions (the DC plus Liberals, Social
Democrats and Republicans). From 1962-94, most governments were
"center-left" (the DC plus varying combinations of Socialists,
Social Democrats, Liberals and Republicans). The Italian Communist
Party (PCI) was excluded from government coalitions although, after
the late 1970's, the PCI often provided "external" support to
center-left government coalitions. The center-right governed briefly
The "clean hands" trials of the early 1990's, which investigated
illegal funding of political parties, completely changed the static
landscape of Italian politics, and opened a period of transition and
transformation which continues even at the beginning of the new
century. By 1994, the large and powerful DC and Socialist parties
had collapsed and out of their ranks, a number of new parties were
formed. In 1991, the PCI broke with its communist tradition and
eventually joined with former socialists, left-wing Christian
Democrats and others to form the Democrats of the Left (DS). Center
right "Forza Italia" was founded by entrepreneur Silvio Berlusconi
in 1994. In 1998, the center-left formed the first government headed
by a former Communist (DS) Prime Minister, Massimo D'Alema.
Since the 1994 elections, a roughly "bipolar" arrangement has
emerged in Parliament with the majority of seats controlled by
either the center-right "POLO" coalition or the center-left
coalition. New parties have subsequently been formed within the
coalitions and a few parties (see below) remain unaligned.
The following are major parties with representation in the
national Parliament (as of January 2000).
Democratici (Democrats) Democratici di Sinistra (Democrats of the
Left) Partito dei Communisti Italiani (Italian Communists) Partito
Popolare Italiano (Italian People's Party) Unione Democratica per
L'Europa (Democratic Union for Europe) Verdi (Greens)
Center-Right "POLO" Coalition
Allianza Nazionale (National Alliance) Centro Cristiano
Democratico (Christian Democratic Center) Forza Italia
Lega Nord (Northern League) Rifondazione Communista (Communist
Renewal) Radicali (Radical Party)
Arts, Science, and Education Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Italy is the wellspring of Western civilization and has been a
world crossroads for over 2,000 years. Continuous learning,
creativity, and technological advancement on the Italian peninsula
have shaped virtually every aspect of Western culture. Etruscan and
Samnite cultures flourished in Italy before the emergence of the
Roman Empire, which conquered and incorporated them. Phoenicians and
Greeks established settlements in Italy beginning several centuries
before the birth of Christ, and the Greek settlements in particular
developed into thriving classical civilizations. The Greek ruins in
southern Italy are perhaps the most spectacular and best preserved
anywhere. With Emperor Constantine's conversion to Christianity in
312, Rome became the open and official seat of the Catholic Church,
and Italy has had a profound effect on the development of
Christianity and of Western concepts of faith and morality ever
Italy became a seat of great formal learning in 1088 with the
establishment of the University of Bologna, the first university in
Europe. Other Italian universities soon followed. These great
centers of learning presaged the Renaissance, as did innovative
works by Italy's great late-Gothic artists. The European Renaissance
began in Italy and was fueled throughout Europe by Italian painting,
sculpture, architecture, science, literature, and music. Italy
continued its leading cultural role through the Baroque and
Classical periods and into the Romantic period, when its dominance
in painting and sculpture diminished and it reestablished a strong
presence in music. Italian artists have been quite influential in
the twentieth century. They were the primary exponents of Modernism
in the 1920s and '30s, and continue to have a strong presence in the
international contemporary art market.
Today, Italy has one of the world's strongest and most vibrant
popular cultures, and plays a large role in shaping worldwide trends
in fashion, film, cuisine, industrial and interior design,
advertising, and popular music. Following World War II, Italian
neo-realism became an important force in motion pictures, and by the
1960s, Italy had established itself as one of a handful of great
film cultures. Italian design shaped the look of the post-war world,
and today Italy is arguably the international leader in fashion and
Italy's great presence in literature and the arts often
overshadows its role in the development of science and technology.
Italy has been a home for innovation in science and engineering in
the centuries since Galileo formulated his theories of planetary
movement and Leonardo da Vinci designed a primitive helicopter based
upon his studies of nature. At the turn of the century, Marconi
carried out experiments in electricity and developed the wireless,
but he was preceded by Count Alessandro Volta, one of the pioneers
of electricity, over 100 years earlier. By the end of the Second
World War, Enrico Fermi's work in nuclear physics led to the
development of both the atomic bomb and peaceful atomic
applications. Today Italy is a strong competitor in high-technology
sectors, including aerospace and communications. Italian education
is still held in high regard for its rigor and thoroughness, and
although the Italian curriculum and teaching method remains very
traditional, Italy also produced Maria Montessori and her
revolutionary educational theories.
Commerce and Industry Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Italy has a diverse, industrial economy, the sixth largest in the
world. It is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of
textiles, clothing, gold jewelry, footwear and machinery to produce
all those goods, as well as some agricultural products. Numerous
Italian companies are famous worldwide, but it is small and
medium-sized firms that dominate the economy and are responsible for
its dynamism. Germany, France and the U.S. are the most important
export markets. As in other industrialized countries, the role of
the service sector is growing. Italy is very dependent on imported
petroleum and natural gas from Libya, Iran, Algeria and Russia.
Industrial activity is concentrated in the north in a swath that
runs from Torino in the west to the Veneto region near Venice in the
east. This is one of the most industrialized and prosperous areas in
Europe, and accounts for some 50 percent of national income. By
contrast the center and particularly the south, or Mezzogiorno, are
less developed. Unemployment in the Mezzogiorno is three times that
of the north, and per capita incomes are much lower. Italy has a
large underground economy. Researchers attribute that to high taxes
and rigid labor laws, and estimate it accounts for one-quarter of
gross domestic product.
Italy is a founding member of the European Union (formed through
the Treaty of Rome) and, in 1998, of Europe's Economic and Monetary
Union (EMU). Members of the EMU have ceded monetary authority to a
European central bank and begun using the "euro" for accounting
purposes. Euro bills and coins go into circulation in 2002. Polls
indicate that Italians are among the strongest supporters in Europe
of EMU and continued European integration. To qualify for the
Monetary Union, successive Italian governments in 1992–97
implemented widely-praised fiscal discipline measures that produced
sharply reduced government deficits and debt levels, lower interest
rates and lower inflation. Challenges that Italy still faces are
liberalizing labor laws and regulations that govern businesses,
improving infrastructure, reducing bureaucracy and addressing a
looming pension burden.
Automobiles Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Official cars are used for official business only. Although a car
is not a necessity, most personnel own one, and many own two. Due to
traffic jams, narrow streets, and pedestrian-only sections in some
shopping areas, public transportation is preferable in city centers.
Private cars are preferable for traveling outside the city, however.
Large models of American cars are not well suited for the narrow
roads in Italy; mid-size and compact U.S. models are preferable.
Some vans may be too large for standard underground parking and have
reportedly been targets of thieves and vandals. Larger European
models like Mercedes, BMW and Audi may be a good option if you plan
to do a lot of autostrada driving. Minivans are also popular.
Diplomatic and consular officers may import two cars duty free at
any time during their tour. Administrative and Technical (A&T) staff
may also import two cars duty free within one year from arrival at
post. All personnel are exempt from paying the circulation (road
use) tax for two cars.
Personally owned vehicles must be shipped to Italy with license
plates and a registration card reflecting such plates. Employees
transferring from posts located in countries with languages not
widely read (Cyrillic, Chinese, and Arabic) must have the
registration card translated into Italian by the nearest Italian
Embassy or Consulate. Vehicles may be driven immediately upon
arrival with their foreign plates and registration, pending
re-registration with Italian plates.
Diplomatic and Consular Officers. Imported vehicles of diplomatic
and consular officers can be registered with CD or CC license
plates. The Italian Ministry of Transportation requires that all
imported vehicles have catalytic converters. To obtain license
plates, the vehicle must pass two inspections. The first inspection
is by Customs and the second is by the Motor Vehicle Department,
where the license plates will be issued. The licensing process will
take approximately two months, and it cannot begin until the owner
receives his/her Ministry of Foreign Affairs Identification Card
through the Embassy Personnel Office. Cars imported duty free may be
sold at any time to other persons with duty-free entry privileges.
On the open market, however, a car originally imported duty free and
registered with CD or CC license plates can be sold only after it
has been "nationalized" (see below).
Diplomatic and consular officers may also purchase private
vehicles on the local market and have them registered with CD, CC,
or city license plates. If the vehicle is purchased new, the owner
is exempted from paying IVA (Value Added Tax-VAT). You can purchase
a brand new vehicle, only if you have not imported two vehicles.
Administrative and Technical Staff (A&T). The private vehicles
imported by A&T staff will be registered with national
(non-diplomatic) license plates. The Embassy has an agreement with
the local Government that allows imported vehicles to be licensed
with local national license plates without having to convert the
vehicle to meet the European Community (EC) requirements. Based on a
reciprocal agreement, such vehicles must be exported at the
termination of the owner's assignment to Italy or sold to a
diplomatic or consular officer or to another A&T staff member of the
U.S. Mission. On the open market, it can be sold only after it has
been "nationalized" (see below).
The vehicle registration process takes approximately three months
from when the request is forwarded to the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs. The Embassy will need the following documentation to submit
A technical data information sheet from the vehicle manufacturer.
GSO/Motorpool will translate and notarize this document. We strongly
recommend A&T staff, who are not eligible for CD and CC plates and
who plan to import a vehicle, to arrange for this document before
they arrive at post. Certificate of residence. GSO/ Transportation
will assist you in obtaining this document after your arrival at
post. Photocopies of the vehicle title and registration card. A&T
staff may also purchase private vehicles on the local market and
have them registered with national license plates. If the vehicle is
purchased new, the owner is exempted from paying IVA (VAT). You can
purchase a brand new vehicle, only within 1 year from arrival to
post, and only if you have not imported two vehicles. Locally
Purchased Vehicles. New vehicles are sold with city license plates,
and it will take between 60 to 120 days before the vehicle becomes
available. Car dealers ask for a maximum 10 percent deposit when the
contract is signed. When a diplomatic and consular staff member
chooses CD or CC license plates, the request must be submitted
through the Embassy and the dealer must be advised when the officer
signs the contract. When the car is available, the owner must pay
the balance and the vehicle can be collected approximately three
days later with the license plates.
Secondhand vehicles are available through local car dealers, but
there is no IVA exemption on such vehicles. The cost for the
transfer of titles ranges from $450-$600, based on the size of the
engine of the vehicle. Contact the GSO/Motorpool Unit before making
any commitment when purchasing a vehicle on the local market; do not
purchase a secondhand vehicle without a catalytic converter.
Nationalization Procedure of an Imported Vehicle. Full customs
duties must be paid on imported vehicles nationalized within three
years from date of importation. (Date of importation is the day the
vehicle cleared through Customs for registration with Italian plates
and not the date of arrival of the vehicle in Italy.)
Nationalization is granted duty free after 3 years from official
date of importation.
All vehicles must be converted to European requirements. This
includes seat belts, headlights (sealed-beam headlights are not
permissible), and amber-colored blinker-type directional lights in
the front and on both sides of the vehicle.
Italy is a member of the European Community; its road code, in
compliance with EC policies, requires catalytic converters. If you
want to nationalize your vehicle with city plates, you must produce:
1) a manufacturer's certificate stating that the catalytic converter
on the vehicle meets EC standards; 2) a technical data information
sheet. These documents must be endorsed and legalized with the Seal
of the Secretary of the State (Apostille) from where the vehicle is
purchased. These documents must be translated into Italian and
notarized by an authorized translator in Italy.
The title and the registration card must also have the Apostille
Seal and be translated into Italian.
The Italian Government and the Mission require all personnel to
purchase local liability insurance. Premiums for third-party
liability are set by law and are, therefore, equal for all
companies. Duty-free-entry requests are not processed until the
liability policy is in effect. Vehicles driven into Italy must have
an international "green card" certificate of insurance. Collision
and theft insurance is available locally (but is expensive) or can
be obtained from American insurers such as Clements in Washington,
D.C., American International Underwriters, or USAA.
Current regulations allow foreigners to drive in Italy if they
have a valid driver's license. If the license is not Italian, the
original license with translation must be carried at all times.
Italian authorities limit the amount of duty-free gas allowed to
Mission personnel. Once registered with the Foreign Office, vehicles
are allotted gasoline as follows: diplomatic officers are allotted
300 liters per month for the first vehicle and 200 liters for the
second; A&T staff are entitled to 200 liters per month for the first
vehicle and 100 liters for the second. Gasoline coupon books are
sold at the Embassy commissary. Vehicles that have not been licensed
with CD, CC or local plates are not eligible for duty-free gas
coupons. Only unleaded gas and diesel are available.
PXs in Italy carry some basic parts for American cars. Bring the
most critical spare parts to post or be prepared to order them.
Parts available locally cost far more than in the U.S. Smaller parts
can be ordered from the U.S. via APO facilities. A few shops
experienced in repairing American cars can be found in Rome and
Naples, but not in other communities.
Traffic moves on the right side of the road. The highways are
generally well maintained but are often narrow and winding, the
exception being the superhighways, called "autostrade."
Local Transportation Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Transportation within the cities, whether by bus, tram, or subway
(in Rome and Milan) is good, although crowded at rush hours. Always
be alert to the danger of pickpockets and purse-snatchers on public
transportation. Taxis are usually available but expensive. They do
not cruise looking for fares but wait at taxi stands throughout the
cities or can be called by phone.
Telephones and Telecommunications Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00
Telephone connections within Italy and to international points
are of excellent quality and reliable. For local calls, there is a
usage charge of approximately two cents per minute. A long distance
call to the U.S. can be direct dialed from any city at a rate of
approximately $.50 per minute. You can also subscribe to callback
services in the U.S. or utilize calling cards such as AT&A and MCI.
Additional residential lines or service for a newly leased residence
can be obtained within two weeks of placing an order.
Personal telegrams can be sent for about $4.
Telephones and Telecommunications
Wireless Service Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM Cellular phone
service is reliable with a usage fee of approximately $1 per minute
and a monthly basic service charge of $30. Bringing a cellular phone
from the U.S. to Italy is risky in that converting and registering
it is not always possible. A basic unit runs approximately $100
depending on the service agreement.
Internet Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Internet access in Italy is widely available. A number of
Internet service providers (ISP) provide free internet access via
dial up phone lines. The telephone charges during connection to the
ISP from within Rome are approximately one cent per minute,
depending upon the time of day.
Limited common internet access is available via equipment located
in the Community Liaison Office (CLO) resource room at the Embassy.
Newly arrived personnel may utilize this equipment to send and
receive e-mail from existing accounts prior to arranging with an
Internet service provider.
Personal Computers. Personal computers with U.S. specifications
may be used successfully, although transformers may be required.
Computer accessories and peripherals are available in Italy and are
generally compatible with equipment brought from the U.S. although
purchasing equipment online for shipment via APO may be less
expensive. Shipment of computer equipment via UPS or Federal Express
is not recommended.
Mail and Pouch Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
International mail service between Italy and the U.S. is
unreliable. Surface mail takes 6–8 weeks. Packages sent via
international mail are subject to customs inspection. APO or FPO
should be used whenever possible for importing from the U.S.
Official personnel and their dependents assigned to the Embassy
or Consulates General are entitled to use the APO or FPO facilities.
APO and FPO offices at Embassy Rome and Consulate General Naples
provide airmail, U.S. postal money orders, parcel post, registered
and insured mail, and Parcel Airlift (PAL) and Space Available Mail
(SAM). Parcels sent via SAM must conform to weight and size
limitations of 100 inches in length and girth combined and 70 pounds
maximum weight. Parcels mailed PAL should conform to weight and size
restrictions of 15 pounds and 60 inches in length and girth
Personnel assigned to the other Consulates General in Italy may
use the nearest APO/FPO for mailing letters and parcels, registering
and insuring mail, and purchasing money orders.
Use the following forms of address:
For Embassy's APO:
Full Name PSC #59, Box XX (Use your section's box number for
official and personal mail) APO AE 09624
For International Mail:
Full Name American Embassy Via Vittorio Veneto, 119/A 00187 Rome
Pouch for Embassy Rome:
Full Name: Department of State 9500 Rome Place Washington, DC
Pouch for Consulate General Florence:
Full Name 5670 Naples Place Washington, DC 20521–5670
Pouch for Consulate General Milan:
Full Name 690 Milan Place Washington, DC 20521–2690
Pouch for Consulate General Naples:
Full Name 5700 Naples Place Washington, DC 20521–5700
The APO address for the Consulates General is the same as for the
Embassy; however, the box number should read Box-M (for Milan), Box
F (for Florence). Although the Consulate General in Naples receives
a few pieces through Embassy Rome, its mailing address is:
Box 18 PSC 810 FPO AE 09619
Radio and TV Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Italy has three state-controlled radio networks that broadcast
day and evening hours on both AM and FM, in addition to RAI
International on shortwave and virtual radio via internet. Program
content varies from popular music to lectures, panel discussions,
classical music, and opera, as well as frequent newscasts and
feature reports. In addition, many private radio stations mix
popular and classical music. A short-wave radio, though unnecessary,
aids in reception of VOA, BBC, Vatican Radio in English and the
Armed Forces Network in Germany and in other European stations.
The three public TV networks controlled by Radio-Televisione
Italiana plus many other private stations offer varied programs,
including news, operas, game shows, sitcoms, cartoons, plays,
documentaries, musicals, and films—all in Italian. RAI also has a
new 24-hour news and information system that is available on cable
and at night on RAI-3. All programs are in color, except for the old
black-and-white movies. Most Italians still depend on VHF/UHF
reception, but both cable systems and direct satellite reception is
increasingly common. Conventional satellite dishes can pick up
European broadcasts, including some in English. Telemontecarlo and
other private networks retransmit CNN and other American network
programs late at night or in the early AM. CNN is widely available
in four and five star hotels. Embassy staff eligible for PX
privileges can purchase or rent an AFRTS satellite receiver, which,
with a standard residential satellite dish provides access to AFN TV
and radio. Programs are chiefly news, sports, network comedies and
Radios, TVs, VCRs (both using the PAL/SECAM standard) and DVDs
are available locally, but at much higher prices than in the U.S.
They are also sold at the PXs.
Newspapers, Magazines, and Technical Journals Last Updated:
10/31/2001 6:00 PM
The International Herald Tribune is published six days a week in
Italy and is available with an English-language supplement, "Italy
Daily" (edited jointly with RCS Corriere della Sera) throughout most
of the country. The European edition of The Wall Street Journal is
published in Bologna, and along with USA Today, is available in
major cities. European editions of Time and Newsweek are available
one or two days after publication. Other foreign newspapers and
magazines are also available on newsstands, and current U.S.
magazines can be found there as well. PXs have a large selection of
magazines and paperbacks. The Center for American Studies in Rome
subscribes to a variety of American magazines and professional
journals and has over 70,000 volumes on subjects related to the U.S.
Rome has several English-language bookstores with a varied but
high-priced stock. A more limited selection in English is found in
bookstores in other cities.
Health and Medicine
Medical Facilities Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Quality medical facilities, including English-speaking
physicians, specialists in most fields, and hospitals and clinics,
are available in the post cities. Public hospitals are usually
understaffed, and frequently the staff does not speak English.
Private hospitals are similar to those in the U.S. and are equally
expensive. The staff in private hospitals may or may not speak
English. U.S. military medical facilities are available to American
personnel and their dependents in Naples, Livorno, and Vicenza on an
appointment and emergency basis. The cost of outpatient care at
military facilities is the employee's responsibility. Dental
services are sometimes available at military facilities for Foreign
The Embassy's Health Unit is staffed by an American-trained
family nurse practitioner and an Italian-trained nurse. They provide
primary care and can refer patients to English-speaking consultants
as needed. Those with special needs are encouraged to have a private
physician or specialist. The regional medical officer (RMO) and the
regional psychiatrist (RMO/P) are assigned to Frankfurt and London
Equivalents to most American medicines are available in local
pharmacies. Bring an adequate supply of medications, however, in
case what is needed is not available. The Embassy Health Unit has
only a small pharmacy of frequently prescribed medications and each
individual is responsible for obtaining and reordering his or her
long-term medications. Over-the-counter cold and cough remedies,
antacids, aspirin and Tylenol are available in limited quantities in
the Embassy commissary. A favorite brand may not be available, and
the seasonal demand may exceed the supply. Bring a reasonable supply
of such items with you.
Health and Medicine
Community Health Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Sanitary controls throughout Italy are good. The water is safe
but not fluorinated. Good pasteurized milk is available. Uncooked
shellfish and uncooked pork are not safe. Precautions, such as
washing fresh fruit and vegetables and avoiding raw seafood, are the
same as those advisable in the U.S.
Health and Medicine
Preventive Measures Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Environmental allergy symptoms are common during the spring and
summer months due to dust and pollen levels, viral and bacterial
respiratory ailments are common during the winter months. Smog
levels can be high in any of the major cities. Throughout the
country, when certain smog levels are exceeded, alternate-day
driving is instituted. No special immunizations are necessary, other
than those generally recommended by the Medical Division.
Employment for Spouses and Dependents Last Updated: 10/31/2001
The U.S./Italy Bilateral Work Agreement allows for the employment
of Eligible Family Members (EFMs) on the local economy. However, the
requirement for Italian language proficiency may be a source of
difficulty in the job search, particularly if the EFM is not seeking
a teaching position. Provisions of the Bilateral Agreement are
available in an Embassy Administrative Notice and can be obtained
from the Embassy Personnel Office or the Overseas Briefing Center.
EFMs should notify the Personnel Office prior to acceptance of
positions on the local economy.
EFMs can apply for local-hire positions at post. Employment
opportunities are available under the Family Member Appointment
program, PIT appointment (Part-time, Intermittent, Temporary) and
through personal services contracts. Many of these positions are
clerical in nature and are made available on a competitive basis.
EFMs interested in working at the Embassy may write to the CLO and
bring an updated SF–171 to the Personnel Office upon arrival at
American Embassy - Rome
Post City Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Rome, one of the world's most famous cities, has been the capital
of Italy since the nation's unification in 1870. It surrounds the
small independent Vatican State, worldwide capital of the Roman
Catholic Church. Rome is located about halfway down the Italian
Peninsula, 15 miles inland from the Tyrrhenian Sea, astride the
Tiber River. Although the seven original hills of the city are small
(roughly 44-50 feet above sea level), some of the hills on the west
bank of the Tiber, such as Monte Mario (elevation 462 feet), are
A city of about 2.6 million people, Rome is primarily a
government and commercial center, though with growing industrial
presence. It remains a city deeply imbued with a sense of history.
Nevertheless, it is also a modern city with all the modern amenities
Rome is an international capital. Not only does it host the world
headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church, it is also the home to
the Food and Agricultural agencies of the United Nations (FAO). A
sizable foreign community is in Rome. Approximately 17,000 Americans
permanently live in the consular district, which includes the
regions of Lazio (Latium), Abruzzo, Marche, and Umbria.
The Post and Its Administration Last Updated: 8/23/2004 10:37 AM
The U.S. Diplomatic Mission is headed by the Ambassador, who is
assisted by the DCM. The major State Department organizational
elements are Political, including Labor and Political/Military;
Economic, including Science; Public Affairs; Consular and
Administrative Sections. The Country Team includes representatives
from Defense, Customs and IRS; Justice, FBI, Drug Enforcement
Administration, and Immigration and Naturalization Service;
Agriculture; Commerce; and Federal Aviation Administration. Two
independent offices are represented: the U.S. Sending State Office
for Italy and the American Battle Monuments Commission. The
constituent posts in Italy are located in Florence (See Special
Information), Milan, and Naples. Consular agents are in Genoa,
Palermo, and Trieste. The Mission also supports the American Embassy
to the Holy See, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations Agencies for
Food and Agriculture (FODAG) and the Office of the Special
Representative for the Southeast European Initiative (SEI). In
total, the U.S. diplomatic missions in Italy number about 370
official Americans and 410 Foreign Nationals.
The main Embassy building, known as the Palazzo Margherita, is
centrally located at Via Veneto 119A, a few blocks from the railway
station and near many well-known hotels. The recently acquired INA
building is next to the main chancery, the Consular Section is in a
building adjacent to the Embassy at Via Veneto 121. The Public
Affairs Offices are at Via Boncompagni 2, also adjacent to the
Embassy. These four buildings house almost all Embassy offices, plus
the commissary and APO.
Personnel coming to Rome should notify the Embassy in advance of
their arrival time and mode of travel so that arrangements can be
made to meet them. If not met, personnel should telephone the
Embassy at 46741, or take a taxi to the Embassy. A few public phones
still accept coins, but most require a "scheda" -a telephone card
that may be purchased from a newspaper stand or a cashier at a
snackbar. Embassy hours are 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Monday through
Friday. During off-duty hours, the telephone operator or the Marine
Guard on duty at the Embassy will be able to assist you. Avoid
arriving on weekends or holidays (see Local Holidays).
Temporary Quarters Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
If permanent housing is not ready upon the arrival of a new
employee, either TDY quarters or hotel rooms are available. When
possible, post accommodates new arrivals in TDY apartments with a
Welcome Kit and basic furnishings. If TDY apartments are not
available, new arrivals stay in hotels. As part of the CLO program
for arriving personnel, your sponsor or parent agency will reserve
rooms for incoming personnel and dependents upon notification of
arrival times. Early notification of arrival information is helpful.
Single and double rooms located near the Embassy are available.
Several boarding houses ("pensioni") near the Embassy offer a single
room with bath and breakfast. Restaurants near the Embassy serve
American and Italian food in varying price ranges. Several residence
hotels offer small suites with one or more bedrooms, a living area,
and a small kitchenette with daily or monthly rates.
Personnel traveling with babies should bring all equipment for
heating bottles and preparing formula. Powdered formula and bottled
baby foods are available locally (at extremely high prices), but
necessary services may not be available at hotels.
Permanent Housing Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
The Ambassador's residence, the 16th century Villa Taverna, was
first leased by the U.S. Government in 1933 and subsequently
purchased in 1948. It is located about one mile from the Chancery.
Two adjoining government-owned apartment buildings (Grazioli)
containing 30 units with one to three bedrooms are located near the
Embassy. Six garages are assigned on the basis of seniority at post,
while outdoor parking space is available for other cars. There is a
small play area for children around the buildings. Apartments on the
upper floors have balconies. Each apartment has a washer and dryer.
About five miles from the Chancery, the Embassy owns a building
(Val di Sole) with four apartments: three 3-bedroom and one
2-bedroom. Each unit has a washer and dryer. Storage and parking for
one car per apartment are located in the basement. The Embassy also
owns a 4-unit furnished apartment building (Villa Pinciana) less
than 1 mile from the Embassy and a small, furnished house (Villa
Allegri). These are assigned to the DCM and Minister-Counselors of
Mission policy is to assign all employees whose agencies
participate in the post's housing program to quarters prior to
arrival. This includes most, but not all agencies at post. The post
Housing Board makes housing assignments after considering all
pertinent factors. You can request a copy of the Housing Handbook,
which contains a full discussion of assignment criteria and process.
Incoming personnel should consult the Embassy Housing Office (in the
General Services Office) or their agency to find out if they are
covered by the Post Housing Program and/or to discuss personal needs
(e.g., medical limitations, schooling, etc.) for living quarters. If
personnel do not contact the GSO Housing Office upon assignment to
Rome, it will be assumed that they have no special requirements that
might affect a housing assignment.
Most housing is provided in short-term leased housing. Leased
housing is virtually all apartment-style. Bedrooms are small; eat-in
kitchens are rare; and heating and air-conditioning are not equal to
U.S. standards. Modern apartment complexes with one- to
three-bedroom units are found in the suburbs 3–7 miles from the
Embassy. Some have pools and tennis courts. Larger apartments are
scarce. Apartments within two miles of the Chancery are particularly
Furnishings Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
All quarters are unfurnished. Exceptions to this policy are for
the official residence and dedicated housing for the Deputy Chief of
Mission, the Minister-Counselors for Political, Economic, and
Administrative Affairs, and the consul general. In addition, those
State employees up to and including the FS–04 level assigned to the
government-owned Grazioli buildings are given government furniture.
Because these apartments are limited, they are subject to
Housing pool units are provided (and paid for by the occupying
agency) with the following items: washer, dryer, stove,
refrigerator, freezer, air-conditioners, small appliances,
wardrobes, kitchen cabinets, light fixtures, ceiling fans, bathroom
cabinets; accessories such as towel racks, mirrored medicine
cabinet, shower rod and curtain, wall hooks, floor cabinet and
wall-mounted cabinet, one fire extinguisher, two transformers, two
space heaters, smoke detectors, kitchen exhaust fans, and filters.
Minister-Counselors, Counselors and heads of Agencies are provided
with a dishwasher.
Household furniture and appliances can be bought locally, but at
prices higher than in the U.S. The military PXs (Livorno or Naples)
offer basic items and can special order items not in stock. Delivery
can take 3–6 months. Folding beds, tables, and chairs are available
for loan. A few cribs are available for temporary loan on arrival.
Floor coverings are often needed. Although refreshingly cooler than
carpeting in summer, marble or terrazzo floors found in most
apartments and villas are cold in winter. Purchase carpets and rugs
elsewhere, as local items are expensive. American curtains rarely
fit the windows and French-style doors are found in Italian
apartments. Hospitality Kits containing linens, china, and kitchen
utensils are loaned on arrival.
Utilities and Equipment Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Most buildings are poorly heated by American standards, and
electricity levels available to apartments restrict the use of
multiple air-conditioning units in the hotter months. Local
government regulation establishes the period that central heating
systems can be operated, as well as the number of hours per day.
Steam radiators are the most common form of central heating. Central
heating systems are usually turned off in the early morning or late
evening hours. Space heaters may be needed for a few months.
All quarters have 220v, 50-cycle, AC current. The
government-owned apartments at Villa Grazioli, Villa Pinciana and
Villa Allegri have 220v outlets. Transformers for 110v American
appliances are sold locally and are also available in the PXs. You
can often purchase them from departing personnel.
Turntables and tape recorders (unless direct drive) must be
adapted for 50-cycle operation. This can be done in Italy, but there
may be a long delay in getting replacement parts. Other motor-driven
appliances run satisfactorily, although some at lower speed. Older
American microwave models may not function properly because they
operate at 60-cycle. Voltage fluctuates up to 10%, which makes
voltage stabilizers useful, particularly for personal computers and
stereos or TVs. Inexpensive plug adapters that eliminate the need
for changing American plugs are sold locally and at the PX.
Food Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
A large variety of fresh produce is available locally. Prices and
availability of particular items vary greatly with the seasons. Good
beef can be hard to find, but veal and pork are plentiful. Meats and
poultry are more expensive than in the U.S., and the meats are of
different cuts. Groceries are available in great variety, including
typically American cereals, crackers and cheeses. Local bread keeps
only a short time because it lacks preservatives.
A medium-sized commissary, on the Embassy premises, is run on a
cooperative basis. It carries food, including a limited variety of
baby food and basic household items, pet supplies, some toiletry
articles, American tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. There
is a small section, which carries international magazines,
newspapers and Embassy Rome logo items. The commissary also has a
boutique carrying a sampling of Italian handicrafts as well as
American greeting cards. Film developing is available for reasonable
prices. English language videos formatted for American VCRs are
available for rental. Color and black-and-white film are sold
locally; film is also stocked at the PXs in Naples and Livorno.
Employees wishing to use the commissary must join the Commissary
Association. Initial deposit for commissary membership is $300 for
families, $200 for singles and $50 for military employees with rank
of E-6 and under. All privileges for tax-free import of food and
drink are pooled for the commissary's use; thus, individuals may not
import food or drink. American employees also have commissary
privileges at the military facilities at Naples (3-hour drive) and
Livorno (4-hour drive), but the distances to these facilities make
regular use impractical. The CLO sponsors a shopping bus trip to
Naples about once every other month.
Men Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
American clothing is practical and satisfactory. Summer suits of
synthetic materials can be worn here 6 months a year. Winter suits,
a medium-weight overcoat and a raincoat are also needed. Sports
jackets are very useful.
Tuxedos are worn for formal nights at the opera and for
occasional formal dinners during the winter. White dinner jackets
are sometimes worn in the summer. Tails are rare. Formal wear can be
rented in Rome.
Good readymade suits are available, as are excellent tailors and
a good selection of materials. Although prices vary greatly, the
best tailoring is cheaper and the best material more expensive than
in the U.S. Custom-made shirts of cotton and silk, worn by
well-dressed Italians, are expensive. Underclothing, socks and
readymade shirts are expensive. Fine silk ties and scarves, leather
gloves, coats and bags are a good buy.
Although Americans generally prefer American styling for their
shoes, Italian shoes are considered attractive and are available in
a wide range of styles and sizes. Military PXs carry a supply of
American brands of shirts, underwear and some sportswear and shoes,
but selection is limited.
Women Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Wool or knit dresses and suits are popular and practical in Italy
most of the year. American cottons are ideal for the summer. A
full-length evening gown is rarely needed (except for an occasional
event like the Marine Ball), but cocktail and short dinner dresses
are worn frequently to the opera, concerts and parties.
Sportswear of all kinds is useful. Warm slippers or house shoes
are useful during the winter, since apartments often have cold
marble floors. American clothes, including lingerie, shoes and
stockings, are available in limited variety at the PXs.
Dress shops are abundant in Italy, but the selection found in any
one shop is limited. Clothing is in high fashion and made mostly of
natural fibers (all wool, cotton or silk). Casual wash-and-wear
summer fashions are hard to find (i.e., knit tops and skirts), and
many women prefer to bring a supply of their favorite items or order
from catalogs or shop online. Winter skirts and sweaters are
abundant and of good quality. Prices tend to be considerably higher
than in the U.S. Remember that sizes and cuts are different and are
not always to American taste. Good quality undergarments are usually
more expensive than similar items in the U.S. Some American brands
are found locally.
Italian women occasionally have clothes made. This is expensive,
but it assures quality. Quality materials are expensive, and simple
cotton dresses may often cost as much as silk dresses. Silks and
woolens, or blends, are beautiful and of good quality.
Italian shoes are stylish and attractive, but sizes generally
vary by length only and do not always fit American feet. A few
stores carry American-last shoes. Good comfortable walking shoes are
a necessity and may be hard to find, but all leather boots are
Hats are seldom worn. Several hat shops in Italy sell readymade
or made-to-order hats at prices comparable to those in the U.S.
Ladies' gloves and other leather goods are an Italian specialty and
are generally cheaper than those in the U.S. Designer items from
houses such as Gucci, Fendi and Valentino are expensive but cheaper
than in the U.S.
Children Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Beautiful handmade baby clothing and children’s party dresses are
abundant but expensive. Play clothes for children under 10 are
available but also expensive. Practical, inexpensive items, such as
no-iron polyester/cotton clothing, are generally not available
locally. American children’s clothes and shoes can sometimes be
found in the PXs or can be ordered from catalogs or on-line.
Supplies and Services
Supplies Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
The Embassy commissary stocks a small supply of toiletries and
household supplies. A wider choice is available at the PXs. Both
American and Italian brands are available locally, the former at a
considerable mark up. Bring your favorite brands of cosmetics, drugs
and toiletries, or arrange to order via APO. A variety of household
and hobby equipment and tools is sold locally. Do not plan to bring
heavy power tools, as space to set them up is limited, and the
electrical system cannot handle them.
Supplies and Services
Basic Services Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Adequate laundry and drycleaning services are available, although
not as numerous as in the U.S. Drycleaning is expensive. Rome has
both laundromats and coin-operated drycleaning machines; however,
paid attendants operate the machines with varying reliability. Shoe
repair prices are comparable to those in the U.S., and the work is
very good. Excellent hairdressers and barbers are available, but
they are expensive by American standards. Several have
English-speaking hairstylists. One should inquire about expertise
with different hairstyles and types. It is possible to have an
American manicure and pedicure.
Repairs to American radios, sound systems and electrical
appliances are not always dependable because most local repairmen
are not familiar with equipment made for the American market. It
helps to have circuit diagrams or maintenance instructions for each
item. Other repair services are generally good, but substantial
effort may be required to locate the particular service needed.
Inexpensive plug adapters that eliminate the need for changing
American plugs are sold locally and at the PXs.
Supplies and Services
Domestic Help Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
American staff often find it necessary to engage the services of
household workers. Domestic help is expensive, particularly if you
are seeking experienced personnel. Italian workers are rare and the
majority does not speak English. There are many third-country
nationals available. The mandatory requirement for locally hired
non-EU household workers is that they possess a valid sojourn permit
for work in Italy.
Household worker employment is governed by specific Italian laws
and by a National Contract for Household Workers, which is reviewed
and renewed every four years. Italian law requires that employers
pay several benefits, including health and social security
insurance, food/lodging when appropriate, annual leave, 13th-month
bonus, and termination pay. The cost of these benefits may equal the
worker’s basic salary. This applies to all workers (EU or non-EU
citizens) regardless of whether they are temporary, full time, or
part time. Workers’ rights are based on Italian standards that are
legally enforceable and failure to observe these basic standards can
lead to unpleasant situations for the employer.
The Personnel Office has prepared a handbook on the main
provisions governing the relationship between employer and a
household worker in Italy. American staff members should read this
handbook and, if necessary, seek further information from the
Personnel Office. Staff members who wish to bring foreign domestics
to Italy should also contact the Personnel Office.
Religious Activities Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Churches, synagogues and mosques in Rome with services in English
include American Episcopal, Anglican, Baptist, Christian Scientist,
Evangelical Assembly of God, Methodist, Mormon, Roman Catholic and
Presbyterian. Services of other faiths include Bahai, German
Lutheran, Greek, Seventh-day Adventist, Italian Waldensian
Protestant, Jehovah's Witness, Russian Orthodox, Islamic and Jewish.
Dependent Education Last Updated: 8/23/2004 10:54 AM
The following schools should be contacted as far in advance as
possible for registration. Most schools provide student lunch
facilities, athletic and recreational programs and bus service. The
school year begins in September and ends in June. Good American,
British, French and German schools are available. Private schools,
including English and French, enroll an increasing number of Italian
students because of disciplinary and curriculum reform problems in
Italian public schools. Copies of the Directory of the Rome
International Schools Association are available in the CLO.
American Overseas School of Rome (AOSR) Via Cassia 811, Rome
00189 Tel: 06 334381, Fax: 3326 2608 E-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org. Website: http://www.aosr.org/
Nondenominational, coeducational day school offering instruction in
the American educational system (kindergarten through grade 12.)
Instruction is by a multinational but predominantly American
faculty. The school program is primarily designed to prepare
students for American universities. Credits are transferable to U.S.
schools and colleges. The school has boarding facilities available
for high school students at the Villa St. Dominique. Middle school
students can board with local families. Preschool is available for
3- and 4-year-olds.
Marymount International School Via di Villa Lauchli 180, Rome
00191. Tel: 06 3630 1742, Fax: 06 3630 1738, E-mail:
email@example.com. An independent private day school is operated
by the Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Mary. It follows the same
course system and offers the same credits as their school in
Tarrytown, N.Y., which is guided by the N.Y. State Board of Regents
program. It also offers the International Baccalaureate program. The
faculty is primarily nonclerical and international, drawing many
teachers from Ireland and Great Britain. Instruction is offered in
English to girls and boys from kindergarten through grade 12. Early
childhood classes are available for 3- and 4-year-olds.
St. Stephen's School Via Aventina 3, Rome. Tel: 06 575 0605, Fax:
06 574 1941. A private international high school accredited by the
New England Association of Schools and Colleges, it offers a program
in English designed to meet the entrance requirements of U.S. and
European universities through the International Baccalaureate
program to boys and girls in grades 9 through 12. Faculty is
primarily American. Boarding facilities are available for both boys
and girls. The school does not provide bus service for day students.
St. George's British International School Via Cassia Km. 16, (La
Storta) 00123 Rome. Tel: 06 3089 0141, Fax: 06 3089 2490, E-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org Nondenominational English day school,
offering instruction in English to boys and girls from kindergarten
through high school. Faculty is British and the curriculum is the
standard general college preparatory program designed to prepare
students for British schools and universities. For students in the
International Baccalaureate program, it is adaptable for transfer to
American schools and universities.
CORE-The Cooperative School Via Orvino 20, 00199 Rome. Tel/Fax:
06 8621 1614. This school was established in 1983 by a group of
British-trained teachers and was formed as a cooperative. It is open
to children of all nationalities from ages 3 to 11. All lessons are
in English, although an optional Italian program provides for those
who wish to enter the Italian state system at a later date. The
curriculum emphasizes the basic skills, with each CORE teacher
specializing in a subject that they teach throughout the school.
Music, art, physical education and drama are part of their program.
Ambrit Rome International School Via Filippo Tajani, 50 00149
Rome. Tel: 06 559 5305, Fax 06 559 5309, E-mail:
email@example.com. Providing an international education based
on American and British approaches and techniques, the school's
programs of study and activities foster the development of the whole
child with opportunities for growth in all areas. Awareness and
understanding of different cultures is encouraged, especially an
appreciation of Italy, its language and its culture. Foreign
language instruction is introduced at any early age.
Higher Education Opportunities Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
American University of Rome (300 students) Via Pietro Roselli 4,
00153 Roma. Tel: 06-5833- 0919, Fax: 06-5833-0992, E-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org. Instruction is in English. AUR offers
bachelor-degree programs in business administration, international
relations, interdisciplinary studies, and Italian studies and an
associate degree in liberal arts. The American University of Rome is
accredited by the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and
Schools and licensed by the Education Licensure Commission of the
District of Columbia. It is the Rome study-abroad center for several
American colleges and universities.
John Cabot University (400 students) Via della Lungara 233, 00165
Roma. Tel: 06681- 9121; Fax: 06683-2088, E-mail: email@example.com.
Instruction is in English. John Cabot University offers bachelor
degree programs in business administration, international affairs,
art history, and English-language literature. Some associate degree
programs are also available. John Cabot is affiliated with Hiram
College in Ohio, which is accredited by the North Central
Association of Colleges and Schools. All courses at John Cabot are
transferable to Hiram College, which issues official transcripts for
John Cabot students. It is the Rome study-abroad center for several
American colleges and universities.
The Bologna Center of the Johns Hopkins University Paul H. Nitze
School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) Via Belmeloro 11,
40126 Bologna. Tel: 05-1232- 185, Fax: 05-1228-505, E-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org. Instruction is in English. The Bologna
Center is an integral part of The Johns Hopkins University's Paul H.
Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) in Washington,
D.C. The center offers an interdisciplinary program of graduate
studies in international relations. Courses are given in
international economics, European studies (history, politics and
culture), international law, U.S. foreign policy, and related topics
(demography, the environment, and human resources). Degrees earned
at the Center are granted by the Johns Hopkins University. Degrees
offered: diploma in international relations (one year), M.A. in
international relations (two-years, with year two at SAIS in
Washington), master of international public policy (MIPP—one-year
program for mid-career professionals), and M.A. in international
relations (two-year program for non-Americans in Bologna).
St. John's University: Oratorio San Pietro, Via Santa Maria
Mediatrice 24, 00165 Roma. Tel:06636-937, Fax: 06636-901. Internet:
http://www.stjohns.edu/academics/ cba/g raduate/rome.html.
Instruction is in English. The Graduate Center of St. John's
University, located at the Oratorio San Pietro in Rome, offers
programs of study in business administration, church administration,
and international relations. The M.B.A. program is fully accredited
by the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business
(A.A.-C.S.B.) and offers a fulltime and part-time American M.B.A.
with a concentration in international finance. The church
administration program began in 1996; the M.A. program in
international relations began in 1997. This is a program of St.
John's University in New York.
Recreation and Social Life
Sports Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Almost any form of sports activity can be enjoyed in the vicinity
of Rome, including golf, tennis, skiing, swimming, riding, boating,
bicycling, hunting, and fishing. Spectator sports include soccer,
boxing, horseracing, and auto and motorcycle racing.
Much of Rome's sports activity is organized around private clubs.
Most memberships in private clubs are expensive and are not
refundable. The Acqua Santa Golf Club, 5 miles from the city, has an
18-hole course. Embassy employees sponsored by two club members in
good standing may apply for membership. The Olgiata Country Club,
about 10 miles north of the city, has a 27-hole golf course,
swimming pool, tennis courts, riding horses, and a fine clubhouse.
Membership is open to all Embassy personnel who are sponsored by two
club members. The membership fee is very high.
The Foreign Ministry has a river club with pool, tennis courts,
and rowing equipment that employees of the Embassy may join. Tennis
and rowing memberships costs are extra. Several other tennis and
swimming clubs are open to Americans. It should be noted that all
sports/recreational facilities are very expensive to join.
Good sports equipment is available locally and at the military
Recreation and Social Life
Touring and Outdoor Activities Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
An incredible number and variety of places of historical and
artistic interest are found in and around Rome. Commercial and
cultural organizations arrange tours and visits daily. Tours are
conducted in a variety of languages, including English.
Naples is less than 3 hours by car and Florence is almost as
close. Rome itself has major monuments and archeological and
historical sites. These exist in greater richness and variety in
Italy than in any other country. The many good guidebooks to Italy
available locally or in the U.S. give details on tourist
Many recreation areas and campgrounds are found in the
countryside. Good, but often crowded, beaches with cabanas and some
beach equipment for rent lie within 20 miles of Rome and can be
reached by public transportation. To the south, 2 hours or less by
car, are beautiful and spacious beaches. Terminillo and Ovindoli, 2
hours by car or bus, are the nearest ski resorts with tow systems
and equipment for rent. Some hunting and fishing is available in the
countryside around Rome, but most hunting is generally limited to
invitation-only private reserves. Horses are available from several
riding academies in Rome at reasonable prices.
Hikers and mountain climbers will find a wealth of possibilities
in the nearby Apennines. The Club Alpino Italiano offers 1-day trips
for mountain hiking and, in winter, cross-country skiing.
Rome has many parks for children. The large, beautiful Villa
Borghese park has a zoo, a small theater where children's movies are
shown in Italian, Punch and Judy shows, pony rides, small bicycles
for rent, a lake with boats for rent, and a large playground.
Recreation and Social Life
Entertainment Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Rome offers a variety of entertainment facilities appropriate to
a major capital city. Knowledge of Italian is valuable. Movie
theaters show current Italian, American, and other films with
Italian soundtracks. One or two theaters offer French, English, and
American films with original soundtracks.
Several theaters present classics, modern plays, and revues,
usually in Italian. Rome's formal opera season opens in December and
continues through May, with excellent productions and performances
by leading Italian artists. During the summer, opera moves outdoors
to a variety of interesting stages. In the past, these have included
the Baths of Caracalla, the Olympic Stadium and the archeological
site at Ostia Antica. Concert performances are given frequently
during the winter season; outdoor performances are held in summer,
usually in the late evening. Prices for most of these musical events
are reasonable. Visiting theatrical groups, as well as local
pageantry, offer additional interest.
Rome has many discos and a few nightclubs. Good restaurants are
plentiful, some steeped in atmosphere and others featuring famous
food specialties. Many places offer outdoor dining in summer. Meals
in fine restaurants can be expensive, some very expensive, but the
discerning diner can often find a good buy as well as a good meal.
Recreation and Social Life
Among Americans Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM For most members
of the Embassy family, social contact with fellow Americans, as well
as with Italians, depends largely on the initiative of the
individual. The volunteer board of the American Embassy Club,
comprising of all members of the Mission community, organizes
several holiday parties and children's events throughout the year.
Rome has a variety of American organizations for men and women.
Several hold monthly luncheons. Cub Scout and Brownie packs and Boy
Scout and Girl Scout troops are supported by the American community.
Recreation and Social Life
International Contacts Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM The
success of contacts with the Italian and foreign communities depends
largely on individual initiative. Efforts are being made to further
relationships within international groups.
Nature of Functions Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Except for senior officers, attendance at formal functions is
infrequent. For those few occasions, a dark suit (men) or a cocktail
dress (women) is generally worn. The Protocol Assistant in the
Ambassador's Office can give information about functions at the
Standards of Social Conduct Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
It has been the practice in Rome to forgo some of the formality
usually found at large posts. Social life tends to be informal and
based on individual initiative. Some senior staff members have heavy
representational obligations, and Rome's tourist attractions keep
many people busy with out-of-town guests, especially during the
summer. You will find that there is not as much official
entertaining as there is in some small posts.
Officers can bring an initial supply of calling cards with them
or have them printed locally. Protocol procedures at the Embassy are
not elaborate. Informal cards from the same plate are used for
invitations, reminders, and thank-you notes. Bring your plates with
you; printing costs and quality are comparable to that in the U.S.
Special Information Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Visitors on Non-Official Travel
Tax-free goods (commissary, PX, gasoline coupons) are strictly
limited by agreement with the Italian Government to government
personnel in Italy on official orders. Given the large number of
government employees visiting Italy privately, the Embassy cannot
make travel arrangements for such travelers. Visitors on nonofficial
travel should make reservations through airlines or travel agencies.
In addition to the many good guides to Italy, the tourist office in
each city provides free maps, guides, and hotel lists, including
prices. Offices are usually located at railroad stations or central
Post Orientation Program
The Embassy conducts an orientation program for newcomers. A
valuable part of the program is the panel discussion featuring
selected people who have arrived in the past year and made a smooth
adjustment to life in Rome.
All newcomers are assigned both an office sponsor and a community
sponsor. They will answer questions, assist with the check-in
process and aid newcomers in getting acquainted with the Embassy and
its staff as well as the neighborhood in which the newcomer will
live. An FSI Italian language program is offered by the Embassy.
Employees and adult dependents of all agencies with language support
agreements who meet the Embassy criteria for training are eligible
The Florence consular district consists of the regions of Tuscany
and Emilia-Romagna (except for the provinces of Parma and Piacenza)
and the province of La Spezia, with a total population of about 7
The principal officer is also the U.S. Representative to the
Republic of San Marino, the world’s oldest and smallest republic.
Believed to have been founded about 300 A.D., the Republic covers 24
square miles and has 23,000 inhabitants.
Described by Petrarch as the “Pearl of Cities,” Florence’s
glorious past and dynamic present never cease to fascinate students
and visitors from all parts of the world. The splendors of the
Italian Renaissance are seen not only in its famous churches,
palaces, and museums, but are also kept alive in the tradition of
craftsmanship, which makes Florence and the region of Tuscany one of
the world’s major artisan centers. The high fashion industry has
found a world-renowned home in Florence.
Florence is in the heart of a rich agricultural region whose
principal products are cereal grains, vegetables, olives, and the
famous Chianti wines. The city has a population of about 500,000.
About 30,000 are non-Italian residents, mainly other Europeans,
American and Chinese citizens. Most members of the foreign colony
(except the Chinese) and the Italians who move in this circle speak
English. Fewer in the general Italian population, however, and only
some Italian officials speak or understand English. Shopkeepers,
travel agencies, and hotels catering to tourists have
The Post and Its Administration
Consulate General offices and residential housing occupy a city
block bounded by Lungarno Amerigo Vespucci, Corso Italia, Via
Garibaldi, and Via Palestro. The main entrance is at Lungarno
Amerigo Vespucci 38, on a boulevard running along the Arno River.
The Consulate General is in a residential area but within walking
distance of the main shopping and cultural centers and the railway
station. The telephone number is (055) 2398-276. The Consulate
General’s office hours are Monday through Friday, 8:30 am to l pm
and 2 pm to 5:30 pm. On holidays and after working hours, the duty
officer can be reached through the number above.
The American staff consists of the principal officer and the
consular/administrative officer, and a locally hired American
Foreign Commercial Service Representative, plus eight FSN employees.
Florence receives over a million American visitors each year,
including many VIPs in all fields of endeavor. The routine needs and
problems of these visitors, and of the large active American
community, constitute a heavy consular and representational
The second floor apartment in the Annex, as well as some rooms on
the third floor of the main building, are available for the use of
TDY personnel. See the description below.
Both American Foreign Service employees have government housing
in the Consulate General compound. The second floor apartment in the
main building, Palazzo Canevaro, is the principal officer’s home,
while the deputy principal officer (consular/administrative officer)
currently occupies the top floor apartment in the annex building.
The ground floor of the Annex building, across the garden from the
main building, is open for use as a cultural and commercial
The Palazzo Canevaro is a great government treasure. It was built
in 1857, the last in a series of residential palaces to be built in
Florence, and was acquired by the U.S. Government in 1947. The
principal officer’s quarters are a spacious apartment ideally suited
for entertaining on a large scale. In a separate, elegant
representational area are a large reception area, library, drawing
room, and a dining room that seats 14 people comfortably. The
private living quarters consist of a sitting room and two bedrooms
with adjoining bathrooms on the same floor as the representational
rooms, plus two additional bedroom suites, each with a sitting room,
bedroom, and bathroom half a flight down from the second floor (a
mezzanine). The large, eat-in kitchen is equipped with stove,
refrigerators, and a freezer. There is a laundry room with washer
and dryer. There is also a third suite which has in the past been
used as quarters for domestic help.
The third floor of the Palazzo has several bedrooms that are used
by interns and TDY personnel.
The second-floor apartment (Annex) consists of a large
living-dining room, two bedrooms, and one bath. The kitchen has a
gas stove, refrigerator, and washer and dryer. There is also a
The third-floor apartment (Annex) consists of a large
living/dining room, three bedrooms (two large and one half-size),
two bathrooms, and kitchen. The kitchen contains a gas stove and
refrigerator. There is a laundry room equipped with a washer and
dryer. The apartment also has a large terrace with tables and
chairs. No elevator is available for the residences in the Annex.
Note: A complete set of photographs of all these apartments is
available in FBO.
In the Consulate General compound there is a four-car garage.
These covered parking places are occupied by three official cars and
the consul general’s private vehicle. There is room for two
additional cars in the driveway area.
All government quarters are fully furnished. The principal
officer’s home is supplied with china, glassware, flatware, and
kitchen utensils, but other employees should bring these items, as
well as linens and paintings. Storage space is limited in most
For additional information on furnishings, utilities, appliances,
food, clothing, supplies and services, and domestic help, see the
American Embassy section.
The following churches have services in English: Christian
Science Church, Via Baracca 150; Convento Ognissanti (All Saints
Catholic), Borgo Ognissanti, 42; St. James American Church
(Protestant Episcopal), Via Rucellai, 15; St. Marks (Anglican), Via
The American International School of Florence offers an American
curriculum as well as an international baccalaureate program for
children from preschool through grade 12, with preparation for
American schools and colleges. Transportation is available. The
address is Villa La Tavernule, 23/25 Via del Carota, 50012 Bagno a
Ripoli (Firenze). Tel: (055) 640033. Information on tuition and
other charges can be obtained by writing directly to the school. The
school is not officially supported by or connected with the
Florence also has a number of good private and state-run nursery
and elementary schools. Italian is the language of instruction in
most of these schools, although a few teach in French or German.
Many schools provide bus transportation at an additional charge. A
number of American parents have found Italian public schools very
satisfactory, especially in the lower grades.
There are no English-language schools in Florence for children
with learning disabilities. Italian schools include handicapped
children in classes with regular students under the guidance of
specially trained teachers.
American Universities and Colleges. Over 30 American colleges and
universities, including some of the most prestigious, conduct a rich
and wide range of full semester and summer program in Florence and
in other cities of the consular district. Contact the Consulate
General for a complete list.
Several excellent schools in the Florence area-graduate and
undergraduate — specialize in the fine arts, Italian language and
culture, and music. These include the Pius XII Institute, the
University of Florence Center of Culture for Foreigners, the Luigi
Cherubini Conservatory of Music, the Instituto Statale d’Arte, and
the Accademia delle Belle Arti. Tutoring is available in art, music,
and Italian language.
Post Orientation Program
New arrivals are given a short orientation by the Administrative
Section and a packet of general orientation materials. The FSI
Italian-language program is available.
Recreation and Social Life
There is ample opportunity to enjoy sports in the Florence area.
Golf, tennis, swimming, riding, bicycling, hunting, and fishing are
the most popular participant sports. Spectator sports are mostly
limited to horseracing and soccer.
A great deal of sports activity centers around private clubs. The
Ugolino Golf Club, about a 30-minute drive from the city, has an
excellent 18-hole course and swimming pool. The Circolo del Tennis,
about a 5-minute walk from the Consulate General, offers good tennis
courts and a small swimming pool. Children under 10 are not allowed
to use the pool. Membership in both clubs is rather expensive.
Public sports facilities are limited to a number of children’s
playgrounds and a few large public swimming pools. Horseback riding
is also available in and near Cascine Park. Good sports equipment is
available locally, but usually at higher than U.S. prices. Golf and
tennis balls and other small sports items are available at the Camp
Darby PX in Livorno, but selection is limited.
Touring and Outdoor Activities
The hills and mountains surrounding Florence are excellent for
hiking, picnicking, and camping. Fishing and small game hunting are
also popular in this area. In winter, there is skiing at nearby
Abetone and Vallombrosa. Equipment can be rented at moderate rates
at both places.
Seaside resorts and public beaches dot the Tyrrhenian coast
within easy weekend distance of Florence. Closest resort areas are
concentrated around the towns of Forte dei Marmi, Viareggio, and
Tirrenia. Camp Darby has a private beach with excellent facilities
near Tirrenia that Consulate General personnel and their dependents
may use for a modest fee.
Florence and the surrounding countryside are rich in points of
historical and cultural interest. Besides the world-famous museums,
churches, and palaces in the city proper, hundreds of charming and
historically important villas, monasteries, and churches are within
Bologna, Siena, Pisa, Lucca, and a number of smaller towns of
great cultural interest are all within easy driving distance. In
addition, excellent autostrade and train service link Florence with
most major Italian cities, making them accessible for weekend trips.
Many good campsites with facilities are open during the summer
Each season a number of worthwhile cultural and artistic events
happen in Florence. The city’s musical life reaches its high point
in May and June with the Maggio Musicale featuring concerts and
operas by world-famous performers and conductors. In addition, a
winter opera season is followed by a concert season and many other
musical events throughout the year. Open-air concerts are given at
the amphitheater in Fiesole and in various locations in Florence
during the summer. Plays are occasionally performed at the city’s
two theaters, the Pergola and the Verdi, always in Italian.
Movies are very popular with Italians, and the city has many
cinemas. Foreign films are shown dubbed in Italian. There is a small
English-language cinema that has films most of the year, and a few
other theaters show films in English once a week.
Florence is the site of a number of important fairs, including a
crafts fair, a biennial international antiques fair, a gift fair,
and others. Florence and other nearby towns have traditional
pageants and festivals, with participants in medieval costume, held
in the spring, summer, and fall. Among the most important are the
Scoppio del Carro and Calcio in Costume in Florence, the Palio in
Siena, and the Giostra del Saraceno in Arezzo.
Florence has many bookstores, some with a good selection of books
in English. Consulate General personnel may use the post library and
Stars & Stripes bookstore at Camp Darby in Livorno, the American
library of the University of Florence, and the library at St. James
American Church. All have many general interest books in English.
A wide selection of music, camera equipment, and film is
available locally at prices generally higher than in the U.S. The
Camp Darby PX stocks most brands and types of film and a fair
selection of cameras and photo equipment. It also carries a variety
of popular music and a small selection of classical music. Florence
and the other cities of Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna have many good
restaurants, ranging from the high-priced deluxe to the inexpensive,
simple establishments called “trattorie.” The nightclubs of Florence
are few and expensive.
Among Americans. The city has an active American community and
ample opportunities for Consulate General personnel to make
rewarding friendships with other Americans in the area. Much of the
charitable and social activity for Americans centers around the St.
James American Church and the American International League. Other
American organizations with primarily Italian memberships include
the American Chamber of Commerce, Rotary Clubs, and Lions Clubs.
International Contacts. The opportunities for forming friendships
with Italians and nationals of other countries are limited only by
the initiative of the individual. The many social, cultural, and
charitable organizations in Florence offer occasions for meeting
Italians. In addition, several foreign cultural organizations,
including the British Institute, the Institute Francais de Grenoble,
and the Kunsthis Torisches Institut, present opportunities for
getting acquainted with other foreign resident communities in
Nature of Functions
The principal officer and the consular officer are accredited to
the Republic of San Marino and are expected to attend the
semi-annual “Changing of the Regents” ceremony.
Standards of Social Conduct
Although formal functions are infrequent, official and private
social activities and obligations are often quite heavy. This is
especially true for the principal officer and the consular officer.
Social activity is seasonal; fall, winter, and spring are peak
periods for the Italians, but in summer both official and personal
visitors more than make up for the decrease in local social
activity. Calling cards are exchanged, but on a limited basis; a
supply of 200 should be adequate. Good-quality engraved cards can be
obtained in Florence at a higher price than in the U.S. Officers
should bring at least an initial supply of calling cards with them,
however, since there is a long delay in having plates engraved and
cards printed in Florence.
It is extremely difficult for Americans to find jobs on the local
economy. Spouses who have TOEFL training may be able to find
employment at one of the local language schools. The American
International School of Florence (AISF) employs American-citizen
teachers who are university graduates and hold a state teaching
certificate. Contact the principal at the school prior to arrival at
the following address: Villa le Tavernule, Via del Carota 23/25,
50012 Bagno a Ripoli (FI).
Consulate General - Milan
Post City Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
The Milan consular district includes the regions of Lombardia,
Friuli Venezia Giulia, Liguria, Piemonte, Trentino Alto Adige, Valle
d'Aosta, Veneto and parts of Emilia Romagna. Milan is Italy's second
largest city, with a population of about 1.6 million, and is also
the country's principal industrial, commercial, and financial
center. In the heart of the rich Po River Valley, Milan is linked to
important European highway, rail, and air networks.
Milan is a city of contrasts. Old buildings, some dating from the
Middle Ages, line the narrow winding streets of the central portion
of the city, while modern glass and marble skyscrapers and wide
boulevards characterize the newer areas. The city has a bustling
atmosphere reminiscent of New York or Chicago and has been called
the least Italian of all Italian cities. Milan is a city of
apartment buildings; most ranging from six-to-eight stories.
Practically all Milanese live in apartments, and the American
one-family house with its yard and garden exists only in the distant
suburbs. An extensive and growing industrial area surrounds Milan. A
number of satellite cities have sprung up, characterized by
two-to-six story, medium-priced, apartment complexes interspersed
with park and garden areas.
While probably 1.5 million tourists (10% to 15% American) travel
through Milan each year, most are on their way to another
destination. Many stop briefly to see the principal tourist
attractions. The Milan Cathedral (Duomo) is a late Gothic structure
and the third largest cathedral in the world. The Brera Museum is
one of Italy's outstanding galleries; and the refectory at the
church of Santa Maria delle Grazie houses Leonardo da Vinci's famous
painting, the Last Supper. Other major attractions are the fashion
district and the world-famous La Scala Opera House.
One of the finest aspects of life in Milan is its proximity to
the Italian lake district, Alpine ski and summer resorts, the
Italian Riviera and Adriatic beaches, and the tourist centers of
Florence and Venice. By train, car, or plane, practically all of
continental Europe is reachable in a day's travel time.
Milan is at about the same latitude as Portland, Oregon. The
climate is temperate. Winter temperatures average 35 °F to 50 °F;
summer temperatures 65 °F to 85 °F. Milan receives about 30 inches
of rainfall a year; snow usually appears at most a few times from
December to March. Year-round clothing for the whole family,
including gloves, hats, scarves for winter, and lightweight clothing
for summer is necessary.
The headquarters of many of the largest Italian industrial firms
are located in Milan, along with the headquarters of many of Italy's
leading industrial and trade associations, and largest banks. The
city hosts many specialized trade fairs, national and international,
throughout the year.
Milan is home to one of Europe's largest trade exhibition
centers, the Milan fairgrounds. The U.S. Department of Commerce
frequently holds exhibits of U.S. products and services at the trade
fairs staged in Milan.
The permanent foreign colony in the area is substantial,
including approximately 5,000 Americans. Only the Moroccans,
Albanians and Philippines are represented in greater numbers.
British, Swiss, German, and Austrian nationals also compose a large
part of the foreign population.
Consulate General families in Milan occupy quarters in apartment
buildings in the center of town, preferring to avoid the congested
traffic and long commutes from outlying areas. All quarters are
adequate in size, room arrangement, and location. The amenities of
urban life—electricity, gas, central heating, elevator service,
garbage collection, telephone service—are mostly on a par with those
in the U.S.
In recent years, Milan has become one of the most expensive
cities in the world, and the price of almost everything on the
economy is higher than in the U.S. For this reason, some American
families find it convenient to buy certain commonly used items in
bulk at the military base in Vicenza (a 2-hour drive from Milan).
The Post and Its Administration Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Offices of the Consulate General, U.S. Drug Enforcement
Administration, and U.S. Secret Service (Treasury Department) are on
the 5th and 7th through 11th floors of an office building at Via
Principe Amedeo 2/10, convenient to both the Central and Garibaldi
railway stations. The telephone number is (02) 290 351. The Foreign
Commercial Service offices are on the first floor in the same
building as the Consulate General but have a separate entrance at
Via Principe Amedeo 2. The Consulate General and Foreign Commercial
Service hours are 8:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. and 1:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m,
Monday through Friday. The commercial library is open to the public
from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. The phone number is 02-659-2260.
Personnel assigned to Milan usually arrive by air at Malpensa
Airport, which is about an hour's drive from the center of the city.
This airport handles mainly intercontinental traffic, including all
American carrier flights from the U.S. Airline buses transport
passengers to the central rail station, and train service runs
between Milan's north rail station and Malpensa Airport. Milan's
second, smaller airport, Linate, is about a 30-minute drive from
downtown Milan and accommodates mainly national flights.
During the period November through March, plane arrivals and
departures at Linate are frequently delayed by fog, resulting in
canceled flights or in last-minute rerouting to Malpensa Airport or
When advance notice is received, new arrivals in Milan will be
met by Consulate General staff. Personnel arriving without notice
should telephone the Consulate General.
Temporary Quarters Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
If advised in advance of arrival dates, the Consulate General
will make temporary housing arrangements for all incoming personnel
for whom assigned quarters are not available. Two types of
accommodations are available: hotels and residence hotels. The
temporary lodging allowance is adequate to cover the cost of either
Most families find the residence hotels, located in the vicinity
of the Consulate General, preferable. Accommodations at these hotels
consist of a combination living/dining room, bedroom, a kitchen, and
a bath. A connecting room is usually available for larger families.
A 30-day lease is required.
Accommodations are difficult to obtain during September and
April, the periods of the most intensive activity at Milan's
fairgrounds. Those who plan to arrive during these times should
notify the Consulate General well in advance.
Permanent Housing Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
The home of the principal officer is an apartment furnished with
government furniture. A principal officer assigned to Milan should
contact the General Services Section of the Consulate General for
details about the apartment and furnishings. Other employees
assigned to Milan will reside in government short-term leased
housing in accordance with Mission policy, which calls for the
provision and installation of refrigerator, washer and dryer, stove,
light fixtures, kitchen and bathroom accessories, and one
air-conditioner per bedroom and one for the living room. For
additional information on furnishings, utilities, appliances, food,
clothing, supplies, and domestic help, see the Rome section.
Religious Activities Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Most Milan churches are Roman Catholic and use the Ambrosian
rite. The Santa Maria del Carmine Catholic Church, about a 15-minute
walk from the Consulate General, holds services in English. Other
Catholic churches hold only Italian-language services, although the
cathedral and a few other churches have English-speaking priests who
will hear confessions.
The following Protestant churches hold services in English:
Methodist Church, Via Porro Lambertenghi 28, Sunday at 10:45 a.m.;
All Saints' Episcopal Church (Church of England in communion with
American Episcopal Church), Via Solferino 17, Sunday at 10:30 a.m.;
Church of Christ, Via del Bollo 5, Sunday at 10:30 a.m. Christian
Science Church, Via Bigli 16, holds English services every Sunday
morning and on Wednesday evening.
A Jewish synagogue, located in Via Guastalla 19, holds evening
prayer service daily in Hebrew and Italian. The North Italy Mission
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) is
located at Via Gadames 128. Two of the largest local Islamic
associations are located at Viale Monza 160 and Via Fara 30.
At Post Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM Most dependents of U.S.
Government personnel attend the American School of Milan (ASM), a
nonprofit institution accredited by the Midwest State Association.
ASM offers a typical American high school diploma as well as an
International Baccalaureate (I.B.) for those students who qualify.
Many U.S. colleges and universities recognize the I.B. as equivalent
to up to one full year of college education. Recent ASM graduates
have attended Harvard, Stanford, Princeton as well as other
prestigious U.S. schools. ASM is directed by an elected board of
governors. There is currently a Director and Vice Director of the
ASM is located in modern facilities on about 10 acres near the
outskirts of Milan, about 1/2 hour by car from the center of the
city. It averages an enrollment of about 500, including about 160
American students, and offers a full American curriculum from
nursery through grade 12. Over 70% of the teaching staff is
In the high school, almost half the courses are honors, advanced
placement, or international baccalaureate level. Class sizes are
usually small, and SAT scores are generally above average.
The school also offers extensive athletic, music, drama, and
other extracurricular programs. Field trips throughout Europe are
regularly scheduled for upper grades.
Children with serious learning disabilities cannot be effectively
accommodated. There is no learning disabilities instructor currently
at the school.
ASM offers optional bus service, which provides service to the
city. Every effort is made to ensure that a bus stop is within easy
walking distance of each passenger's home. Total fees, including bus
service, are fully covered for all grades by existing educational
Milan has two other institutions, the British School and the
International School, which offer English-language instruction under
the British educational system. Although these may be adequate at
the elementary level, there are possible accreditation issues
involved for middle or high school students returning to the U.S. or
transferring to other American-system schools. There are also
German, Dutch, Swiss, French and Japanese schools. American children
are ordinarily accepted in the Italian kindergartens and elementary
grades without special formalities. Although the Italian educational
system is good, inevitable language and curriculum problems occur,
which become more serious in the higher grades.
Away From Post Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM Boarding
facilities are available in Rome at St. Stephen's School, a
coeducational school modeled on the private preparatory schools of
New England. See the Rome section for more information.
English-language boarding schools are found in Switzerland,
England, and elsewhere in Western Europe. The International Schools
Services, 147 East 50th Street, New York, NY, can give you
information on such schools.
Higher Education Opportunities Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
The three universities in Milan offer instruction only in
Italian. Private and community-sponsored adult education courses are
also available to Italian speakers in a wide variety of subjects
ranging from the arts to technical areas such as engineering and
accounting. Arrangements can be made in Milan for private lessons or
tutoring in languages, music, art, dance, tennis, and horsemanship.
The Open University offers BA, BSc, MA, MSc, and MBA diplomas as
well as professional training certificates from a range of over 150
correspondence courses in English.
The opera and ballet schools of La Scala attract advanced
students of music and dance from many parts of the world. Many
private teachers in these fields are directly or indirectly
associated with La Scala.
Recreation and Social Life
Sports Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
The Consulate General has a small fitness room available to
Consulate General employees at no cost. Although Milan has some
outdoor sports facilities, most are on the outskirts or outside the
city center. With few exceptions, Milan's private clubs are
exclusive and prohibitively expensive. A small number of health
clubs with swimming pools are available at fees equivalent to
similar U.S. clubs.
Within the city there are public indoor and outdoor swimming
pools (one indoor pool open year round is within 4 blocks of the
Consulate General). Public pools are quite crowded on holidays and
during summer weekends.
Several riding schools and clubs are located in the city and in
the suburbs. Private and group riding lessons may be arranged.
The nearest golf courses are private clubs at Monza, Barlassina,
Carimate, and Montorfano. All are within reasonable driving
distances from Milan. Some occasionally issue honorary memberships,
particularly to principal officers. Otherwise, large, non-refundable
initiation fees (several thousand dollars) are required. Others,
with smaller initiation fees, rarely have enough turnover in
membership to accept new members. There is one public golf course
that is located on the outskirts of Milan.
The city's two ice palaces are open for ice skating from October
to April. A number of American-style bowling alleys can be found in
Milan and the near suburbs. In summer, boating, swimming and
picnicking at the nearby lakes (Como, Maggiore, Garda, Lugano) are
Swimming areas at the lakes usually have rock or gravel beaches,
and in some areas swimming is only possible by diving from rocks.
The nearest ocean beaches are near Genoa (2 hours by autostrada or 2
hours by train).
Many ski areas are within an easy drive of Milan, including
several within 2 hours of the city, so that even 1-day trips are
feasible. Ski season usually runs from November or December through
April or May. Resorts provide accommodations in all price ranges.
Slopes range from very easy to very difficult, with all types of
lift facilities. The lower Alpine areas are popular with mountain
climbers during the summer; climbing areas for the beginner and the
expert are available.
Baseball has a small following in Italy, and a number of amateur
teams compete during the summer in the Milan area. Basketball is
becoming increasingly popular; four major professional and
semiprofessional teams are in the area. American football is
beginning to find its place in the sporting scene. A racetrack on
the outskirts of Milan has horse races 5 days a week from spring
through fall and 3 days a week in winter. Italy's principal
spectator sport is soccer, with a season from September to June.
Milan has two class A teams, AC Milano and Internazionale. Their
matches at the San Siro Stadium draw crowds of up to 85,000 people.
Hunting and fishing in season are popular among Italians, and
licenses can be obtained for Consulate General personnel.
Recreation and Social Life
Touring and Outdoor Activities Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
In addition to the participation and spectator sports described
above, northern Italy and neighboring France and Switzerland have
much to offer the sightseer. Many points of historical and artistic
interest are easily reached on one-day trips.
Recreation and Social Life
Entertainment Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Milan offers rich entertainment for the music lover. There is a
large number of concert and recital series throughout the winter,
many presenting world famous artists, orchestras, and chamber music
groups that feature music from all eras.
The opera season at La Scala begins early in December and runs
through mid- July. Eight or nine theaters in Milan present
legitimate stage productions (all in Italian), ranging from
Shakespeare and Chekhov to works of contemporary Italian and foreign
playwrights, to musical revues and operettas.
Milan has as many cinemas as any large American city, presenting
foreign as well as Italian films. Several movie theaters present
foreign films, including American, in the original-language version.
Recreation and Social Life
Among Americans Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM The American
Consulate Association (ACA), established in 1991, includes American
and FSN employees who organize activities involving the entire
Consulate General family. The Consulate General's CLO organizes
events and outings for Consulate General staff and their families.
Consulate General personnel generally meet other Americans through
their jobs, the English-speaking churches, and the American School's
Recreation and Social Life
International Contacts Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM The
following organizations offer excellent opportunities to make
international contacts: the Benvenuto Women's Club, meets monthly
and regularly organizes additional inter-cultural programs for its
Americans in Milan is a group of Americans who operate under the
umbrella of the Benvenuto Club. Monthly luncheons organized by the
American Business Group are attended by Americans from a broad
spectrum of American and Italian businesses.
The American Chamber of Commerce in Italy consists of Americans
in business in Italy and Italian business representatives from firms
doing business in the U.S. Its headquarters are in Milan; the
Honorary President is the American Ambassador in Rome. Its business
meetings and luncheons offer a chance to meet Italians in the
commercial and economic fields. The Professional Women's Association
has monthly evening meetings that provide professional women the
opportunity to gather and make contacts in a social setting.
Nature of Functions Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
The principal officer's social obligations are heavy, since
attendance is a must at many official, semiofficial, and private
functions throughout the year (except during the summer when most
Milanese desert the city for the seashore or the mountains). In
return, the principal officer is expected to give a number of
dinners, luncheons, and receptions.
Other officers have more limited representational requirements
and generally find that they can maintain their official contacts
through entertaining at lunches and small office receptions.
Standards of Social Conduct Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
As in most European cities, dress at social events in Milan is
more formal than comparable functions in the U.S. For evening
occasions, suits are appropriate for men, suits or dresses for
women. Only the principal officer will encounter some events where a
black tie/long dress is appropriate. No recent principal officer has
found formal attire (white tie) necessary.
Calls on consular officers of other consular establishments are
not required for officers below the principal officer level. The
procedure for calls within the official family is quite informal.
Special Information Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
The post's administration provides orientation to each new
employee. Italian language classes are available at post and may be
arranged with private or agency funding.
The CLO seeks to be of assistance. It organizes shopping trips
and other programs according to the needs of the community and the
availability of volunteers.
Limited employment opportunities are available for dependents.
Some PIT positions are available from time to time, for which
dependents are encouraged to apply. In the past, some spouses have
found teaching positions at the American School and with private
English teaching schools.
Employment on the local economy is now possible with the
implementation of a reciprocal work agreement between Italy and the
U.S. However, because of the lack of employment opportunities and
the need for fluent Italian-language skills, finding employment on
the local economy remains difficult.
Consulate General - Naples
Post City Last Updated: 9/1/2003 8:15 AM
Few cities have undergone the social, political, and cultural
changes that Naples has in its long and colorful history. Although
Naples is a modern city, with modern problems, it remains a
beautiful city, a mixture of the old and modern, a city of great
historical interest. Once a major Greek colony, and later ruled by
the Romans, Byzantines, Normans, Swabians, and the Houses of Aragon
and Bourbon, Naples is today a city of diverse cultural styles and
competing historical influences. The splendid natural setting of the
bay, flanked by Mount Vesuvius, the Sorrento Peninsula, and the
islands of Capri and Ischia, continues to attract a heavy stream of
visitors from all over the world.
Although Naples is a major seaport and an industrial and
distribution center for southern Italy, the city's economy is still
dominated by small artisans and entrepreneurs. The official
population for the city proper is approximately 1.5 million. Many
foreigners live in Naples, with Americans forming the largest group.
A small American business community and about 10,000 American
military personnel and their dependents live in the area.
The U.S. military presence in Naples is an important one and
includes commands such as the Naval Support Activity (NSA), the
Naval Air Facility, and Fleet Air Mediterranean (COMFAIRMED). Other
American military personnel are stationed at the NATO Southern
Regional Headquarters (RHQ AFSOUTH), which houses the
Commander-in-Chief of Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH).
Security Last Updated: 9/1/2003 8:16 AM
In spite of its shady reputation, Naples is a fairly safe city.
Serious violence against foreigners is rare. Feuds between organized
crime factions account for most of the city’s murders. On the other
hand, such crimes as robbery, car theft, and counterfeiting are very
common. You should not wear expensive jewelry while touring the
streets of Naples. Neapolitan thieves are famous for their ability
to grab jewelry, watches, and purses while flying by on motorcycles.
If you have to carry a purse or briefcase, always carry it on the
"building side" of the sidewalk. Keep car doors locked when you
drive and don’t hang your arm out of the car window. Robbery occurs
frequently on the highways—beware of the seeming Good Samaritans who
point to your car and seem to see a flat tire or mechanical problem.
Do not stop when this happens, go directly to a service station to
investigate any possible problems.
If you do get robbed, contact the Polizia or the Carabinieri to
secure a denuncia accounting for the crime. Cancel all credit cards
immediately (Italian credit card companies will hold you fully
responsible for charges incurred before cancellation). You should
keep a list of your credit card information and emergency numbers on
hand for this exigency.
The Post and Its Administration Last Updated: 9/1/2003 8:42 AM
The jurisdiction of the Consulate General encompasses all of
Southern Italy: the regions of Campania, Puglia, Basilicata, Molise,
Calabria, and the island of Sicily. The Consulate General in Naples
is a multiple agency post with a total complement of 50+ persons and
is responsible for the full range of Foreign Service work— consular,
public diplomacy, political, economic, commercial, and
administrative. The Consulate General in Naples also oversees the
activities of the Consular Agency and Public Affairs Office in
Palermo, Sicily. The consul general is the senior official U.S.
representative in southern Italy.
The Consulate General is also responsible for providing guidance
to and liaison with U.S. Military Commands in the Consular District
and with the NATO Commander-in-Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe.
The Consulate General building is in Piazza della Repubblica, a
square situated opposite a large communal park. The building is on
the waterfront, giving many offices an attractive view of the bay
and Mount Vesuvius. The telephone number is (081) 583–8111. Working
hours are from 8:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. and from 2:00 p.m. to 5:00
p.m., Monday through Friday.
New personnel will be met on arrival during regular workdays if
the Consulate General is informed in advance of the time and place
If arriving by rail from Rome, take a train that stops at
Mergellina Station, which is near the Consulate General and the
hotels that it uses most. It is easier to meet and assist arrivals
at Mergellina Station, as the Central Station of Naples is located
in the heart of the business district and parking can be
problematic. Many trains from Rome stop at Mergellina, but travelers
from Rome should verify that tickets include the Mergellina stop.
If arriving by air, a representative of the Consulate General
will assist new arrivals with customs formalities at Capodichino
Airport. Should security reasons prevent the representative from
entering the baggage claim area, personnel should show their
passports to customs officials. Usually, they will not experience
any difficulties in clearing their baggage.
Housing Last Updated: 11/8/2003 6:21 AM
Post provides STL housing to fit position and family size.
Most STL housing is located in the Posillipo area, considered by
"Beverly Hills" of Naples. Some housing is located near the
Temporary Quarters Last Updated: 9/1/2003 8:18 AM
Every effort is made to have permanent quarters available when
you arrive. If this is not possible, new arrivals are usually lodged
at the Hotel Royal. It is within walking distance of the Consulate
General. This hotel will accommodate small pets only; other hotels
and pensiones do not accept pets. Please be sure the Consulate
General is advised in advance if you are traveling with pets.
There is a severe housing shortage, which was worsened by the
disastrous earthquake in November 1980. The influx of homeless from
surrounding areas has made suitable housing extremely difficult to
find. Employees and their families should therefore be prepared to
spend up to 2 or 3 months in a hotel until permanent housing is
found and made suitable, unless a new arrival is assigned in advance
to occupy an apartment vacated by a departed U.S. Government
Permanent Housing Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
The principal officer's quarters, on the fifth and sixth floors
of the Consulate General, are government-owned. All other American
personnel occupy government short-term leased modern apartments. The
apartments are generally a short drive or 30-minute walk from the
A stove, refrigerator, washer and dryer, light fixtures, some
ceiling fans, and kitchen and bathroom accessories are provided. The
tenant provides furniture, rugs, and draperies. With the exception
of the principal officer, all employees are authorized full
shipments. Most apartments have balconies, but none have yards, and
parks and green spaces are not abundant in Naples. There is a park
with a nice playground across from the Consulate General, which many
Furnishings Last Updated: 9/1/2003 8:44 AM
Listed below are items supplied to residences by the Consulate:
Kitchen cabinetry, sink, stove, oven, and refrigerator Washing
machine and dryer Bathroom cabinetry, towel racks Two transformers
Lighting fixtures One ladder Two split air conditioners, ceiling
fans, and two stand alone fans Smoke detectors and fire
extinguishers Wardrobe cabinets (one per bedroom) You can also
receive a "curtain allowance" for purchasing window treatments up to
$1000. The Embassy will reimburse your account after you have
completed your project and turned in receipts to the Admin officer.
But check first with the Admin officer to confirm that there are
Utilities and Equipment Last Updated: 9/1/2003 8:22 AM
The Consulate pays all residential expenses for utilities,
including gas, electricity, water, and initial installation for
Most homes in Naples have 220 volt electricity. There are still a
few places that have not been converted to all 220 volt, and
have a combination 125/220 colt wiring system. Check with
your landlord or the housing unit to be sure what volt electrical
system you have before plugging in appliances.
Regardless of whether you have 125 or 220 volt electricity, the
HZ (cycles) in Italy is 50. US appliances are made to operate on
60HZ. With some appliances, this will not make a difference; others,
however, will have to be converted, as they will run too slowly on
50HZ (i.e., record players). Transformers change the voltage, but do
not change the cycles.
Also be aware that Italian apartments are not supplied with as
many kilowatts as American houses so you will not be able to have as
many appliances in use at once as you are used to. For instance, you
may trip the fuse switch when you try to make toast with the dryer
running! Experience will be your guide. But first know where the
breaker box is and how to reset the switches.
One of the first things you will notice is that Italian outlets
don’t look like ours! You’ll need a whole collection of adapters for
your electrical appliances. (CAUTION: 110v. appliances will also
need a transformer. See below.) Even appliances that are 220v. often
are not fitted with plugs that match the outlet where you want to
You can also find them at your local "elettrodomestici", where
household appliances are sold. An electrical supply store, usually
labeled "elettricitá", will have them as well. There should be one
or the other in your neighborhood. Ask your sponsor, neighbors or
portiere, or look in the Telecom or English yellow pages. The
Country Store at the Naval Support Activity in Naples also carries a
supply of adapters and transformers.
These useful devices need to be handled with special caution.
Make sure the transformer is the proper size for the appliance you
intend to use. Also remember that transformer location and
installation demand precaution against electrical shock.
Always isolate transformer location out of the reach of children.
Transformers get hot! Do not place on combustible surfaces. Keep
transformers and wiring from any contact with water. Unplug
transformers when not in use. They pull a lot of electricity. Label
appliances that need transformers and don't let the un-informed use
them. Plug transformer in the wall outlet first; then plug in
appliance. Don’t connect both at the same time. DO NOT OVERLOAD
Food Last Updated: 9/1/2003 8:47 AM
Open markets in Naples are fun and often full of great bargains.
These take place on different days throughout the city. As the
shopping ritual varies from market to market, it may be best to have
someone to show you the ropes the first time you go. Some markets
sell only food; others sell only clothing and household items.
Prices tend to be fixed at the booths but one may negotiate prices
with the informal vendors who usually sell their wares in the
perimeters of the markets. These latter vendors see African and
Asian goods as well as their counterfeit designer products. You may
find the local markets described in Eyewitness Guide to Naples.
NOTE: Take care to carry plenty of smaller bills with you.
Counterfeit money is prevalent and often given as change
Local food shopping
In Naples, neighborhood markets and delis will usually deliver
groceries to your home at no charge beyond the tip you give the
deliverer. This service can be particularly helpful while you are
waiting for your car to arrive.
Now we get to the kind of shopping everyone loves—especially in
Italy! Food is an art and Italians take it as seriously as they do
their fashion. There are all kinds of food shops and every
neighborhood has its collection of small (usually family-owned)
specialty stores. Sometimes specialties overlap one another and you
will find bread at the salumeria and pastries at the local bar.
Food shops are generally open from 8:30-1:30, closed for a long
lunch, then open in the afternoons from 5:00-7:30. They are usually
closed Thursday afternoons and all day Sunday. From June to
September they close Saturday afternoons as well.
Remember when you shop—especially in the smaller
establishments—to greet the shopkeepers upon entering. They will
keep track of your turn to be served. Or if the store is very
crowded, try to ascertain where you are in "line" (there won’t be an
obvious one) and remind the person behind you that "io sono la/il
prossima/o" when it’s your turn. A few places have numbers to take,
so check to see if customers have them in their hand.
Some bakeries have only breads (panetteria or panificio); some
only sweets (pasticceria) while others have all sorts of pastas as
well. If you are entertaining and need larger than usual quantities
of rolls or special cakes, order a day or two in advance.
Bars are a great all-purpose shopping resource. They are open
early and cose late and are good sources for last minute gifts as
many carry wines and chocolates. At most, you can buy dairy
products—milk, cream, ice cream and even whipped cream! For the
latter request panna montata (sold by the kilo) and your elegant
dessert is ready in no time. Some even sell cakes and tortas (pies)
to take home.
Delicatessens don’t have an exact equivalent
here although salumerias come close. Tavola caldas
are also related in that they have prepared dishes of
all kinds that can be purchased to go. Your
neighborhood salumeria will have a variety of
cheeses, cold cuts, ham (cooked and cured), pastas, anti-pasti,
wines, and many other foodstuffs.
Grocery stores tend to be smaller (the closer you
get to the centro) and are usually quite cramped, but they have
everything. Several of the Stand and UPIM department stores also had
food markets attached. Large supermarkets are found farther out and
generally are open non-stop from 8:30-7:00 weekdays and Saturdays.
Most are closed Sundays.
Clothing Last Updated: 9/1/2003 8:32 AM
Suitable professional attire is suggested for all incoming
officers and family members. Even during the hot season a light
jacket is often worn. The business/government/diplomatic community
in Naples tends to dress up.
Supplies and Services Last Updated: 11/8/2003 6:22 AM
Naples offers many supplies. It is just a matter of knowing where
to look and what you are looking for. Many supplies are available at
Capodichino Naval Base and Agnano Naval Base. Other items, such as
interior lamps, are best purchased on the local market.
Supplies and Services
Basic Services Last Updated: 9/1/2003 8:50 AM
Repairs and Maintenance
The GSO office has limited resources. You will be expected to do
the same ordinary maintenance tasks here that you do at home and the
U.S. Embassy Rome provides the following list showing examples of
things you should do for yourself:
Change the lightbulbs Hang pictures and mirrors Find and set up
bookshelves Hang drapes and curtains Know where your fuse box is and
how to use it Change gaskets in leaky faucets
Supplies and Services
Domestic Help Last Updated: 9/1/2003 8:51 AM
It is best to ask other Americans for references.
Housekeepers charge approximately 6-7€ per hour for part-time or
full-time work. Each December, the employer is expected to pay a
full month’s wages—the so-called "13th month". Also expected is 2
weeks paid vacation, usually in August. One does not pay for
holidays or days when the housekeeper fails to come in as scheduled.
At the time of your departure, you will be expected to provide 3
months severance pay for the time spent unemployed. Regardless of
hours works, you are expected to contribute to INPS on your
Babysitters charge approximately 7€ an hour. Italian babysitters
are usually older women. Immigrant babysitters (often Poles) tend to
be younger and will often clean house while sitting. One does not
usually pay babysitters vacation, 13th month, or severance pay.
Nannies in Naples are usually non-Italians. They will live in or
out of the house. Average pay is $800. If they live in, food and
board is provided on top of regular pay. Work is usually 45-50 hours
per week with Sundays off. 13th month and 2 weeks paid vacation is
expected. Severance pay is negotiable depending on whether they have
a job waiting or not.
Doormen (Portieri) for your building are paid salaries by the
‘housing committee’ of your building. However, you may be expected
to pay a Christmas bonus (approx. 50-100€) to the regular portieri,
and a bonus (approx. 100-200€) to the extra night-time who works at
some apartments during the August vacation period. It is best to ask
neighbors what a proper tip would be.
Religious Activities Last Updated: 9/1/2003 8:53 AM
There are numerous Catholic churches throughout the city, with a
weekly English-language Mass sponsored by the Filipino community at
Gesu' Nuovo on Sunday afternoon.
Other churches with services in English are:
AFSOUTH Chapel. Catholic services at the NATO Base. Armed Forces
Nondenominational Protestant services, Sunday school, and
Catholic Masses are held at the Naval Support Activity, Capodichino
Church services are held at the Support Site.
Christ Church. (Anglican/Episcopalian) at Via San Pasquale,
Christian Science. Chapel behind Christ Church.
Church of Christ. Viale Augusto 164. Latter-day Saints. Piazza
A Jewish military chaplain visits Naples at regular intervals.
There is an Italian synagogue in Naples that holds Sabbath services
provided by a lay person and services at major holidays. In
addition, the U.S. military forces sponsor services on the last
Friday of each month and on certain high holy days.
Education Last Updated: 1/17/2004 7:53 AM
The schools in Naples vary so it is best to ask other families
which school they prefer. Following is a list of the schools
currently used by Consulate families:
Montessori School (3-14 years old)
International School of Naples (pre-school-12th) Currently
undergoing the accreditation. (January 2004)
Naples Elementary School (K-6th grade)
Naples American High School (7-12 grade) Yearly NCA
Other options for pre-school and Kindergarten are local Italian
schools. Check those close to your apartment or near the Consulate.
Dependent Education Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
DOD. The Department of Defense operates two schools: an
elementary/middle school (which includes kindergarten), and a high
school, both located at the new Gricignano facility that is nearly
an hour outside of Naples. The schools are staffed with trained,
experienced American teachers. These schools have special
educational facilities for mildly developmentally delayed children
and those with hearing and speech problems. They are accredited by
the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools.
There is an active after school athletic program that includes
volleyball, basketball, football, soccer, gymnastics, track, and
tennis. There is a school newspaper and other extracurricular
activities such as choir, band, drama, and science club. Tuition is
charged to Consulate General personnel to attend the DOD schools,
but it is normally covered by the post educational allowance. Bus
transportation is provided at no extra charge if you are on an
established route. The DOD buses will not go to neighborhoods where
military dependent children do not reside. Unfortunately, the DOD
buses do not generally service the areas where Consulate General
families reside. The school cafeterias serve soup, sandwiches, and
milk at fair prices. The schools have no boarding facilities.
The Allied Nursery and Kindergarten School. A cooperative
endeavor, it is run by wives of NATO personnel. Located in one of
the buildings at NATO Headquarters at Bagnoli, it provides
instruction five mornings a week. Transportation to and from school
costs extra. It is well patronized by Consulate General personnel
with preschool-aged children. There is usually a waiting period for
The International School of Naples. Also located on the NATO
base, this private, coeducational day school of about 150 students
offers instruction in English from kindergarten through grade 12.
The non-graded method of class assignment is used from grade 5 on.
It is accredited by the European Council of International Schools.
Teachers are American and British citizens, except for the
Italian-language instructor. Emphasis is placed on a classical
college preparatory curriculum. Bus transportation is provided from
most areas of Naples.
The Italian-American Montessori School. Also located on the NATO
base, this school of about 300 students offers an English-language,
American curriculum to children in kindergarten through grade 8,
based on the teaching philosophy of Marie Montessori. Teachers are
American or British. American textbooks are used in all classes. Bus
transportation is available from most areas of Naples.
Higher Education Opportunities Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
The University of Naples. The main campus is in the downtown
section of the city. This school enjoys an excellent reputation and
provides courses in agriculture, architecture, economics and
commerce, engineering, law, letters and philosophy, medicine and
surgery, naval affairs, oriental languages, pharmacy, science,
mathematics and physics, and veterinary medicine. It is not too
difficult for a foreigner to enroll in the university; however,
instruction is in Italian.
Naples boasts an Academy of Fine Art and a Conservatory of Music
that Americans sometimes attend. At the NATO complex, the
Universities of Maryland and Oklahoma offer courses leading to
master's degrees in education, business administration, and human
relations, and the University of Maryland and other schools offer
undergraduate classes in various subjects. The University of
Maryland and a growing number of other institutions also offer
undergraduate and advanced degree courses via the Internet. (There
are several Internet service providers available in Naples.) The
French Institute gives French-language instruction to children and
adults. Upon successful completion of various levels at the
Institute, University of Grenoble certificates of accomplishment are
awarded. Local schools offer typing, stenography, and related
business subjects in English.
Language Program. Language instruction is available for employees
who arrive at post without having achieved the language level
designated for their position. Language instruction is also
available in the Consulate General for adult family members. NATO
also offers Italian classes to Americans stationed in Naples.
Private tutoring is available for persons wishing to study the
language independently at a cost of approximately $25 an hour.
Recreation and Social Life Last Updated: 9/1/2003 8:54 AM
Naples offers ample opportunity for sports and outdoor recreation
during the long summer season. The Bay of Naples is ideal for
sailing and the NATO Yacht Club has moorings and dinghies. Several
beaches suitable for swimming are within an hour's drive. NATO
operates a beach with picnic and water sports facilities. Tennis,
bowling, and a fitness center are also available.
The Naval Support Activity provides a large recreational facility
for military personnel known as Carney Park. The park is located
about 12 miles from Naples and includes an Olympic-size swimming
pool, a nine-hole golf course, tennis courts, baseball and soccer
fields, picnic areas, camping sites, and overnight cabins. There is
also a mini-mart, a restaurant, snackbar, and sports equipment
store. The new military facility at Capodichino offers a
state-of-the-art fitness center and movie theater. Consulate General
personnel are authorized to use all of these facilities.
In the winter, Roccaraso, a mountain ski resort about 2-1/2 hours
from Naples, offers trails for beginners as well as experienced
skiers. Skis and other equipment can be rented locally or at the
resort at reasonable prices. The Naples area has many interesting
places for hiking, sightseeing, and picnicking, including the
islands of Capri and Ischia and the beautiful towns along the Amalfi
Coast-Sorrento, Positano, Amalfi, and Ravello.
The USO at NSA Agnano offers free and paid tours, both within
Italy and to other European cities. Their schedule is extensive and
tours are reasonably priced.
For artists, historians, and interested amateurs, Naples and the
surrounding regions are rich in possibilities. The Palazzo di
Capodimonte, with its large collections of paintings, tapestries,
arms, and furniture, is one of the most impressive museums in Italy.
The National Museum houses the world's finest collection of Roman
antiquities, many of them recovered from Pompeii. Countless numbers
of small churches, museums, and castles within the city reflect the
many periods and styles of Neapolitan history.
Excursions outside the city to places such as Paestum, Pompeii,
and Herculaneum (to name only the most famous) offer unparalleled
opportunities for exploring the remains of earlier civilizations.
Many other sites in southern Italy can be visited in the course of
weekend outings by car. Campi Flegri is one of the most popular.
Sports attire commonly seen in the U.S. is acceptable in this
Recreation and Social Life
Entertainment Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
The season at the world-famous San Carlo Opera begins in January
and runs until December (as opposed to the norm of September to
June). The 18 first-run Naples cinemas only occasionally offer films
in English. However, Consulate General personnel may go to the two
American theaters run by the U.S. military. In addition to plays and
variety shows presented in five theaters in Naples, some spectator
sports events are available.
American media programming is provided by the Armed Forces Radio
and Television Service (AFRTS), which broadcasts one channel of TV
and two FM radio stations. Additional channels are available for
owners of satellite dishes with the rental of an AFRTS converter box
from the Navy Base. There is a video rental store at NSA Agnano.
Official Functions Last Updated: 9/1/2003 8:55 AM
The principal officer's social obligations are heavy. Official
invitations are often limited to the principal officer, although
they sometimes include other senior officers. Junior officers and
other staff members are under no obligation to do a great deal of
representational entertaining. Although Naples is not a formal post,
Neapolitans do put heavy emphasis on doing things "properly." For
example, calling cards are copiously exchanged and otherwise
employed. Principal officers assigned to this Consulate General use
about 200 calling cards a year. Officers with substantial contact
responsibilities, such as the political-economic and public affairs
officers will also need a large number of cards. For most other
officers, 150 to 200 will suffice for a 2- or 3-year tour. Calling
cards can be obtained locally, but quality varies.
Special Information Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Services Available to Americans. Members of the Consulate General
staff and their dependents are authorized to use the U.S. Navy
Hospital at Naples for medical treatment, including childbirth.
However, the individual through his or her medical insurance plan
must pay for these services. For patients requiring extensive
examinations and treatment not available at the Naval Hospital,
medical evacuation is arranged through the Embassy health officer in
Rome, either to facilities in Germany or the U.S.
At present, the dental clinic at the U.S. Navy Hospital is
available to the Consulate General staff and their families for
emergency treatment only. Persons at the Consulate General have
found Italian dentists satisfactory for routine work. Whenever
possible, complete major dental work before arriving in Naples.
Other facilities to which Consulate General personnel are granted
access include the Navy Commissary and Exchange, the Fleet Post
Office, and the numerous small shops located at AFSOUTH, NSA and
Capodichino. A range of American products, including food, clothing
and furniture, as well as banking facilities, is available to the
Consulate General staff and their families.
Job opportunities in Naples for dependents are limited.
Occasional PIT positions are available at the Consulate General, but
they normally are seasonal or limited in nature. Other U.S.
Government agencies in Naples have hired dependents, but the
military tends to give preference to their own dependents.
Employment in the local economy is now possible with the
implementation of a reciprocal work agreement between Italy and the
U.S. There are few U.S. and other multinationals in Naples. However,
because of the lack of employment opportunities and the need for
fluent Italian-language skills, finding employment in the economy
Notes For Travelers
Getting to the Post Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Present regulations require that all official travel between the
U.S. and Italy be on American carriers, with limited exceptions.
Present schedules do not allow stopovers in Europe en route to Italy
by American carrier. Excellent rail or air connections exist to all
posts from Rome or Milan airports. Always check the latest travel
regulations and flight/train schedules. Regular U.S. passenger ship
service to Europe is no longer available. It is possible (although
difficult) to make reservations on cargo ships, which carry about 12
Airfreight may take from 2 to 4 weeks (during the peak season)
between the U.S. and Italy, while household effects (HHE) in surface
shipments require at least 2 months. The Italian Government
processes clearance for duty-free importation of HHE immediately
after notification of the new employee's assignment to the Italian
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Such notification is routinely
performed by the Personnel Office when it receives the TMFOUR cable.
(Notification of personnel belonging to agencies other than State
follows a different process.)
Prior to shipping HHE or airfreight, posts should check with the
GSO/Travel and Transportation Unit on availability of approved
customs-free entry permit and with the Housing Office on permanent
quarters. HHE shipments may be sent to the ELSO facility in Antwerp
pending delivery. Label all HHE with the employee's name and his or
her agency and post, e.g.:
John Smith (State) American Embassy Rome, Italy
Mary Smith (Public Affairs Section) American Consulate General
Customs, Duties, and Passage
Customs and Duties Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
No limit is placed on the dollar amount of currency you may
import. You may neither import nor export more than 10 million lira
per border crossing, however. Legally, all dollars brought into
Italy must be declared on entry. An equal amount may be exported
upon departure. Dollar currency is used only for commissary, PX, or
APO purchases. Exchange between dollars and lire is normally made
through the local bank, the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Branch
located at the Embassy, PX, or banking facilities. Consult the
Financial Management Office on any currency exchange questions.
Diplomatic and consular officers are accorded rationed free-entry
privileges on liquor and tobacco products. All personnel assigned to
the Consulates General have been able to obtain an adequate supply
through pooled orders. A rationed supply may also be obtained from
the military PXs. In Rome, these privileges are pooled, and the
Embassy commissary has been able to supply all American personnel
with adequate rations. Employees in Rome, therefore, may not import
any tobacco products or liquor.
Duties of over 50% are levied on radios, cameras, stereos, and
typewriters. If hand-carried or shipped separately from HHE, they
are subject to a deposit procedure. When these items are
hand-carried or in baggage, officials generally raise no questions.
When shipped separately, a person may face the choice of either
leaving the item at the customs house pending free-entry clearance
by the Embassy, or else providing a deposit varying between $25 and
$100. The deposit may be recovered afterwards with Embassy
assistance if free entry is granted or upon final departure with the
item. This problem may be avoided by shipping these items with HHE
or via APO.
Declare imports into Italy that might be considered national
treasures through the Embassy upon arrival. This avoids delays at
time of departure, payment of export tax, or even possible outright
prohibition of export. The exportation of antiques and objects of
art purchased in Italy is subject to approval of the Italian Fine
Arts Commission and payment of an export tax.
Customs, Duties, and Passage
Passage Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Visas. Diplomatic entry visas are required for all employees and
family members assigned to Italy. Without a visa, the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs (MFA) will not issue the employee or family member a
Foreign Ministry Identity Card. Diplomatic entry visas are issued by
Italian Embassies and/or Italian Consulates and must be obtained
before the date of arrival in Italy. State Department employees,
while in Washington for consultations or training, can also go to
the Employee Service Center, Room 1252 at Main State to apply for
their visa. Present a copy of your orders and two pictures of each
person applying for the visa. Allow 2 weeks for a visa to be
processed. Military personnel and other civilian agencies should
contact their passport office for a visa application.
Diplomatic/official passports. Employees are required to check
the validity of their diplomatic/official passports and those of
their family members well in advance of their transfer to Italy.
Diplomatic and official passports should be valid for at least one
year, and preferably longer, after arrival at post. The validity of
the identity card issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is
limited to the validity of the diplomatic/official passport. Should
the U.S. passport expire within 6 months from arrival at post, the
MFA will not issue an identity card.
In addition to your diplomatic passport and entry visa, to enter
Italy you need international certificates of vaccination for cholera
or yellow fever if you arrive from countries where those diseases
Upon arrival, all baggage must be cleared through customs and is
subject to inspection, although this is often waived for accompanied
baggage. All personnel are limited to two bottles of liquor (sealed
or unsealed) and two cartons of cigarettes. These must be declared.
If cigarettes or liquor in excess of this limit is found in the
baggage, the inspection is usually carried to completion and the
excess impounded for payment of duty. A box of 50 cigars may
substitute for, but not be added to, the two cartons of cigarettes.
Customs, Duties, and Passage
Pets Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Both dogs and cats must be accompanied by a health certificate
containing the following:
Identification of the animal Name and address of the owner
Statement that the animal has been examined on the date of issuance
of the certificate and found sound. Statement that the animal has
been vaccinated for rabies at least 20 days, but no more than 11
months, before the date of issuance. The certificate expires 30 days
after the date of issuance and must be signed by an official or
officially accredited veterinary doctor of the country of origin.
Importation of dogs is subject to payment of an import tax, which
is 19% of the dog's value, as determined by customs authorities, and
normally runs between $30-$60. If informed in advance of the arrival
of a dog, GSO/Transportation will request a free-entry authorization
through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs so that the employee will be
exempted from payment of this import tax. The authorization must be
received in the Embassy before the arrival of the employee. You are
therefore requested to inform GSO/Transportation without delay if
you plan to bring a dog into the country.
If the owner of the animal is in the U.S., a statement is
required from the Department of Agriculture certifying that the
veterinarian who examined the animal was authorized to do business
in the U.S. Current regulations provide that dogs and cats are
subject to examination by an Italian veterinarian at the border,
airport, or other port of entry into Italy. Pets may be sent
unaccompanied by air but not by ship. Importation of pets is a
personal item. However, the Embassy will assist as much as possible.
All dogs on the streets must be muzzled and leashed. No
exceptions are granted, and the regulations, though not generally
enforced, are invoked in case of trouble. Remember that pets are a
privilege, not a right (6 FAM) and that you will be required to pay
for any damage caused by your pet to the U.S. Government-owned or
-leased property or furnishings.
Firearms and Ammunition Last Updated: 10/31/2001 6:00 PM
Up to a total of three pistols may be imported per year so long
as the weapon is of the type, make and caliber registered in the
"Catalogo Nazionale." A special permit may be requested from the
local Prefect if an authorization for the importation of more
weapons is necessary. The same applies for shotguns. Three shotguns
may be imported per year, so long as they are smooth bore. A shot
gun with a rifled bore must be registered in the "Catalogo
Nazionale" as mentioned above. Upon importation, the weapon would
have to be sent to Gardone Valtrompia, Brescia, to the Banco
Nazionale di Prova for balistic typing and marking.
The current fees for the Porto d'Armi are incorrect and should
read as follows:
Pistol and hunting permits for Diplomat: Free of charge except
for the medical examination (obligatory) for a fee of Lit. 50.000.
Pistol permit for technical/administrative staff pay the
government tax Lit. 170.000, three government stamps for a total of
Lit. 60.000, the medical visit Lit 50.000 and the local Questura tax
for approximately Lit.4.000.
Hunting permit for technical/administrative staff: government tax
Lit. 260.000, regional tax Lit. 129.000, medical visit Lit. 50.000,
plus a special authorization from the local Prefettura to be allowed
to hunt. Lit. 40,000 in administrative stamps may also be necessary.
Currency, Banking, and Weights and Measures Last Updated:
1/17/2004 7:57 AM
The official unit of currency in Italy is the Euro. Its value
versus the dollar fluctuates daily. You should keep a checking
account with a U.S. bank to maintain your U.S. dollar obligations
and salary deposit. It is also useful to maintain a Euro account in
Italy. This can be done through a local bank and with the help of
the Administration staff. This is very important if you are planning
on purchasing a car locally, as it will most likely be needed for
money transfers. Also, if you plan on taking advantage of the
Telepass system (an automatic toll payment) in Italy, you will need
a local bank account. As of January 2004 the exchange rate was as
Euro 1.00 = US$ 1.259
US$1.00 = Euro 0.794
Italy uses the metric system for weights and measures.
1 kilo equals 2.2 pounds (kilogram) 1 ounce equals 28.25 grams 1
gram equals .04 ounces 1 pound equals .45 kilograms
A common unit of measure (weight) used when buying cold cuts,
cheese, pasta, fruits and vegetables is the "etto" which equals 100
grams or about 4 ounces. If you ask for "due etti" of boiled ham,
you would get about 8 ounces (half a pound.)
1 quart equals .95 liter (almost a whole liter) 1 liter equals 1
quart, 2 ounces or 4 cups 10 liters equal 2.64 gallons
1 inch equals 2.54 centimeters 1 mile equals 1.61 kilometers 1
meter equals 39 inches 1 kilometer equals .62 miles
To convert kilometers to miles, divide the number of kilometers
by 8 and multiply the result by 5 or multiply the number of
kilometers by .6.
Temperatures are expressed in degrees Centigrade or Celsius.
Taxes, Exchange, and Sale of Property Last Updated: 1/17/2004
All Foreign Service employees, spouses and children (regardless
of age) must have an Italian identity card. For these, bring four
passport-size photos, black and white or color, 2" x 3". For
Uniformed Services Identification and Privilege Cards, employees,
spouses and children age 10 and over should bring one photo, 1" x
All personnel accredited to the Italian Foreign Ministry are
entitled to exemption from paying the IVA (value added tax) on
purchases over 500,000 lire. The exemption is obtained by means of a
certificate issued by the Foreign Ministry, which requires about 14
days from request to receipt, and which must be obtained before
purchase. Some vendors are not willing to accept the exemption forms
because they do not want to go through the troublesome process of
registering IVA exemptions. CLO keeps a list of shops that accept
the exemption, and the Foreign Ministry is informed of those that
refuse to honor IVA exemptions.
All personal property imported or purchased tax free must be for
personal use or bona fide gift, not for sale or barter. Other than
for vehicles, no specific restrictions are placed on sale of used
property, except that it should be offered for sale with preference
to others with duty-free import privileges.
Currency exchange facilities, which accept all convertible
currencies and travelers checks, are available at the international
airports and railroad stations, as well as at banks. They generally
give better exchange rates than hotels. Cashiers at some constituent
posts may cash dollar checks drawn on American banks for a limited
amount of dollars. In Naples you may write personal checks and have
them cashed at the Consulate from your US account. It may take up to
eight to ten weeks though for those checks to be deposited.
There are numerous ATM's around the city that accept US credit
and debit cards.
Recommended Reading Last Updated: 1/17/2004 7:59 AM
These titles are provided as a general indication of the material
published on this country. The Department of State does not endorse
Barzini, Luigi. The Italians: a Full-Length Portrait Featuring
Their Manners and Morals. Simon & Schuster: New York, 1996 (c1964).
Bassani, Giorgio. The Garden of the Finzi-Continis: A Novel.
William Weaver, translator. Fine Communications, 1997.
Burke, Greg. Parma: A Year in Serie A. Trafalgar Square, 1998.
Burnett, Stanton H. The Italian Guillotine: Operation Clean Hands
and the Overthrow of Italy's First Republic. Stanton H. Burnett and
Luca Mantovani. Lanham, MD, Rowman and Littlefield in conjunction
with the Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Calvino, Italo. Italian Folktales. George Martin, translator.
Harcourt Brace, 1992.
Calvino, Italo. If On a Winter's Night a Traveler. William
Weaver, translator. Harcourt Brace, 1982.
Claridge, Amanda. Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Oxford,
Oxford University Press, 1998.
Di Lampedusa, Giuseppe. The Leopard. Archibald Colquhoun,
translator. Pantheon Books: New York, 1988.
Frei, Matt. Italy: The Unfinished Revolution. London, Mandarin,
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. Italian Journey, 1786-1788. Translated
by W.H. Auden and Elizabeth Mayer. Penguin Books: London, 1962.
Guicciardini, Francesco. The History of Italy. Sidney Alexander,
translator. Princeton University Press, 1984.
Hay, Denys. The Italian Renaissance in Its Historical Background.
2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 1977.
Hearder, Harry. Italy: A Short History. Cambridge University
Hofmann, Paul. The Seasons of Rome: A Journal. Henry Holt and
Co.; New York, 1997.
Hutchinson, Robert J. When in Rome: A Journal of Life in Vatican
City. Doubleday: New York, 1998.
Lamb, Richard. War in Italy, 1943-1945: A Brutal Story. DaCapo
Levi, Carlo. Christ Stopped at Eboli: The Story of the Year.
Frances Frenaye, translator. Noonday Press, 1995.
Levi, Primo. If Not Now, When? William Weaver, translator.
Levi, Primo. If This is a Man; and, The Truce. Stuart Woolf,
translator. Penguin: New York, 1979.
Lintner, Valerio. A Traveller's History of Italy. 5th ed.
Interlink Pub. Group, 1998.
Masson, Georgina and Tim Jepson. The Companion Guide to Rome.
University of Rochester Press: Rochester, 1998.
Mayes, Frances. Bella Tuscany: The Sweet Life in Italy. Broadway
Books: New York, 1999.
Mayes, Frances. Under the Tuscan Sun: At Home in Italy. Broadway
Books: New York, 1996.
McCarthy, Mary. The Stones of Florence. Harcourt Brace: New York,
McCarthy, Mary. Venice Observed. Harcourt Brace: New York, 1963.
McCarthy, Patrick. The Crisis of the Italian State: From the
Origins of the Cold War to the Fall of Berlusconi and Beyond. New
York: St. Martin's Press, c1997.
Parks, Tim. Italian Neighbors or, A Lapsed Anglo-Saxon in Verona.
Fawcett Books: New York, 1993.
Parks, Tim. An Italian Education: The Further Adventures of an
Expatriate in Verona. Avon Books: New York, 1995.
Pirandello, Luigi. Six Characters in Search of an Author. Eric
Bentley, translator, Signet Classic, 1998.
Richards, Charles. The New Italians. Penguin Books: London, 1995.
Sciascia, Leonardo. Open Doors and Three Novellas. Sacha
Ravinovitch and Marie Evans, translators. Vintage Books, 1993.
Silone, Ignazio. Bread and Wine. New American Library, 1988.
Smith, Denis Mack. Modern Italy: A Political History. University
of Michigan Press, 1998.
Stile, Alexander. Benevolence and Betrayal: Five Italian Jewish
Families Under Fascism. Penguin, 1993.
Stile, Alexander. Excellent Cadavers: The Mafia and the Death of
the First Republic. Vintage Books, 1996.
Be sure to bring along travel guides for the areas you are
interested in visiting. Though available locally, they can be very
Local Holidays Last Updated: 1/17/2004 8:04 AM
The following Italian holidays are observed:
. New Year's Day Jan. 1
Epiphany Jan. 6 Martin Luther King's Birthday Jan. 20 President's
Day Feb. 17 Easter Monday varies Liberation Day Apr. 25 Labor Day
Memorial Day May 26 Foundation of the Italian Republic June 2
Independence Day July 4 Assumption Day Aug. 15
Labor Day Sept. 1 St. Gennaro's Day Sept. 19 Columbus Day Oct. 13
All Saints' Day Nov. 1
Veteran's Day Nov. 11 Thanksgiving Day Nov. 27 Feast of the
Immaculate Conception Dec. 8
Christmas Day Dec. 25 St. Stephen's Day Dec. 26 In addition, each
city observes the local patron saint's day, and most businesses
close for a week or two in August