Preface Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
After 7 years of civil war, a tentative peace returned to Liberia
in 1996. Presidential elections were held in 1997. Former faction
leader Charles Taylor, one of 13 candidates, won the presidency by
an overwhelming majority in elections judged free and transparent by
international observers. He promised to give high priority to
national reconciliation, human rights, the rule of law, ensuring a
stable environment for economic development, and eliminating
corruption. In most of these areas, he has failed to achieve real
progress. In 1998 and 1999, there was factional fighting in Monrovia
and the northern Lofa County. A partial evacuation of the U.S.
Embassy took place in September 1998 as a result of unrest following
Taylor rival Roosevelt Johnson's asylum demand at the Embassy. The
country now faces many problems: reintegration of former fighters,
resettlement of displaced persons and refugees, and reconstruction
of the country's destroyed infrastructure. A tour in Monrovia
promises to be one of the most challenging and rewarding in a
Foreign Service career.
The Host Country
Area, Geography, and Climate Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Liberia, the oldest independent republic in Africa, lies on the
West African coast just 300 miles north of the Equator. It has a
relatively long coastline of 350 miles. From the lagoons and
mangrove swamps of the coastal plains, the land rises evenly along
its length in belts parallel to the coast, from rolling hills,
through a broader region of plateaus and low mountain ranges, into
the foothills of the Guinea Highlands. Just beyond these 4,500-foot
peaks originate the headwaters of the Niger. Half of the country is
covered by tropical rain forest.
Liberia is so situated in the Tropics as to be directly in the
path of the seasonal winds. From May through November, the
prevailing monsoon winds drop most of the nearly 200 inches of rain
received annually in the capital city of Monrovia. From December
through April, the red, dust-laden harmattan winds originating over
the Sahara Desert prevail. The transition periods between the
seasons are punctuated by violent thunderstorms and sudden
Temperatures average 81°F; humidity averages 82%. There is little
variation over the course of the year. Precautions must be taken
against mildew and rust caused by the heat, constant humidity, and
the corrosive salt air of the coast.
Population Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
More than 95% of Liberia's 2.8 million people are of indigenous
African origin. The civil war caused approximately 750,000 Liberians
to take refuge in neighboring countries and displaced more than one
Before the war, the majority of the population farmed in the
interior. As the country's infrastructure is rebuilt, it is expected
that the majority of Liberians displaced by the war will gradually
return to their towns and villages.
There are 16 recognized ethnic groups. Although Islam is gaining
adherents, as much as 80% of the population profess to be Christian.
A significant portion of the population follows traditional animist
beliefs or blends traditional religions with Christianity or Islam.
Although the law prohibits religious discrimination, Islamic leaders
complain that Muslims, especially Mandingos, are discriminated
Five percent of the population is descended from freed slaves,
many of whom came from the U.S. after 1822 under the sponsorship of
various religious and philanthropic societies; they were joined by
others who were rescued from slave ships intercepted by the British
and American navies. Dominating political and economic life, the
settlers instituted the social customs and cultural attitudes of the
antebellum American South. Their attire, architecture, place names,
flag, and government were patterned on the U.S. model. Liberians
feel strong ties to the U.S.
With no European colonial domination and only a very small number
of settlements along the coast, much of the interior remained
isolated from Western influence. Roads in the interior were not
built until the 1930s. The civil war dramatically affected rural
cultural life by dispersing many communities. Nearly half the
population still lives in and around the capital of Monrovia. With
one of the highest growth rates in the world, more than half of
Liberia's population is under 15 years of age. Rapid population
growth, 85% unemployment, 15% literacy, and the almost total absence
of infrastructure place powerful stresses on the country.
Public Institutions Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
In 1847, Liberia became the first African republic when it
declared its independence, from the founding American societies and
adopted a constitution based on the U.S. model. The dominant True
Whig Party comprised of Americo-Liberians ruled virtually
uncontested until, 1980, when the government was overthrown by a
group of noncommissioned officers led by Master Sergeant Samuel K.
Doe, an indigenous Krahn.
Prior to the coup, increasing political and economic tensions,
long in the making, resulted in rioting that severely damaged the
capital. The disturbances were put down violently by government
forces. Repressive measures met with growing opposition culminating
in the 1980 coup, which placed members of the indigenous tribal
majority in power for the first time. Suspending the Constitution
and imposing martial law, the ruling People's Redemption Council
promised a return to civilian government within 5 years. In 1984, a
new constitution guaranteeing personal and political freedoms was
ratified by referendum, an Interim National Assembly was appointed,
and a ban on political activities was lifted.
Multiparty elections were held in 1985 and, amidst much
controversy, Samuel K. Doe was declared the winner. One month later,
an aborted coup provoked considerable violence, much of it along
ethnic lines. Following the coup attempt, the Doe regime became much
more repressive. In 1989, former director of the government's
General Services Agency, Charles Taylor, invaded Nimba County with
Gio and Mano fighters to free Liberia from Doe's oppression.
Initially, most Liberians welcomed the arrival of Taylor's National
Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL), but the "war of liberation"
turned into a 7-year civil war, spawning seven warring factions
whose 40-60,000 fighters rampaged through the countryside, attacking
civilians more than other combatants, looting and burning villages.
It is estimated 200,000 died as a result of the fighting; the
country's infrastructure was devastated. After 14 failed peace
accords, the Abuja Accord, signed in 1996 in Nigeria, led to
disarmament and demobilization, creating the conditions for
democratic elections in 1997. Cross-border incursions and
instability within the country's security forces continue to plague
the Liberian people. The Taylor regime is rapidly becoming very
Liberia traditionally has had a dual system of judicial
administration, dividing authority between the central and local
governments, though their respective jurisdictions have not always
been clear. The extension of central government authority back to
the countryside—in the form of competent police presence and the
opening of courts—may take a number of years to establish.
The central government is divided into executive, legislative,
and judicial branches, similar to that of the U.S. The
Superintendents of Liberia's 15 counties, appointed by the
president, have regional responsibilities. Local government is
administered through a system of paramount, clan, and town chiefs,
under the direction of the Superintendents and the Ministry of the
Arts, Science, and Education Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
The isolation of the interior until the 1930s left much of
traditional culture intact. Although the civil war dispersed the
country people, many of their traditions have been kept alive by
elders. The main socializing forces have been the age grades of
Eastern Liberia, and the "secret" initiation societies, such as the
men's Poro and women's Sande societies of the western and central
portions of the country.
Traditionally, village children attended a "bush school" for 6-12
months, while those attending modern schools participated only for
shorter periods between semesters. In the bush school, children were
taught the skills and traditions needed for life, forged the bonds
of society membership, and passed together into adulthood. In
addition, much traditional knowledge reposed in special societies
that incorporate, or have developed around, particular skills and
needs, such as the use of herbal medicines, blacksmithing, and
bridge building. The practice of female genital mutilation was
promoted by the secret societies, affecting about half the women in
All Liberian children were seriously victimized by the war. An
estimated 50,000 were killed; of those wounded, orphaned or
abandoned, many witnessed terrible atrocities, or committed
atrocities themselves. Twenty-one percent (4,036) of the combatants
who disarmed under the provisions of the Abuja Peace Accord were
child soldiers under the age of 17. Many children still suffer
post-traumatic stress disorder and some are still addicted to drugs.
It is estimated that 1.4 million children experienced violence,
hunger, and homelessness during the war. The number of street
children in Monrovia remains high. NGOs and UNICEF continue
retraining and rehabilitation programs for former child fighters.
The education and nurturing of Liberia's children is one of the
major tasks of citizens and government in post-war Liberia.
Although much reduced, traditional arts still exist in Liberia:
dancing, storytelling, and carving. The masked and costumed "country
devils" serve not only to enforce traditional values, but in some
instances to entertain; some are viewed as the embodiment of forest
spirits and are powerful agents of social control. Statues, masks,
and other carvings are not only aesthetic works, but they also serve
as links to the spiritual world. The carvings of one group in
particular, the Dan (Mano and Gio) of northeast Liberia, are highly
prized by collectors. Now that the war is over, these arts are being
revived as vital components of public occasions, such as at the
Kendeja National Cultural Center. Dancing and storytelling are being
used to help in rehabilitation efforts. The University of Liberia is
encouraging efforts to record the oral histories, knowledge of plant
medicines, and the manufacture of items characteristic of
traditional life. The National Museum in the capital, which once
played a leadership role in this effort, was largely destroyed by
the civil war.
The University of Liberia in Monrovia, and Cuttington College in
the interior, were founded in the mid- and late 1800s. Both of
Liberia's institutions of higher learning were destroyed during the
war and are presently struggling to rebuild their libraries,
classrooms and laboratories. Many of Liberia's trained
professionals, including the universities' faculties, left the
country during the war, and have not returned.
Prior to the war, the formation of technical institutes and
public foundations—such as the Tubman Institute of Technology and
the Society for the Conservation of Nature in Liberia—resulted in a
growing awareness of the benefits of technology, as well as its
possible threat to traditional culture and the environment.
Commerce and Industry Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Liberia's economy was divided along traditional and modern
sectors prior to 1989. Seventy percent of the laborforce worked in
subsistence agriculture based on rice farming, yet contributed less
than 20% of the country's gross domestic product. The development of
Liberia's modern industrial sector began with the opening of the
Firestone Rubber Plantation in 1926. World War II brought an
increased demand for rubber and heightened U.S. interest in the
region, resulting in the construction by the U.S. Government of the
Port of Monrovia and Roberts International Airport. The Open Door
Policy of President William V.S. Tubman in the late 1940s led to the
opening of high-grade iron ore mines. The U.S. Government, grateful
for Liberian support during World War II, helped create a Liberian
flag of convenience, which made Liberia the world's largest open
maritime registry for more than 30 years. Tubman's policy also
encouraged an increase in other foreign investments and attracted
merchants of many different nationalities to Liberia. Exports of
diamonds, timber, gold, coffee, and cocoa added to export revenues.
The major rubber and iron ore concessions played central roles in
the development of the national economy, both in providing
government revenues (amounting to 40% of the national budget in the
1950s), and generating wage employment. However, the concessions
were often enclaves and their benefits did not reach much of the
economy. This led some historians to characterize this as a period
of "growth without development."
In the late 1970s, rising oil prices and the world recession
reduced demand for Liberia's exports. The government borrowed
heavily at high interest rates with unfavorable repayment terms in
order to maintain consumption levels, and to finance the costly
construction of facilities for the 1979 OAU Summit Conference.
The subsequent "rice riots" of 1979 and the 1980 coup
precipitated capital flight and a brain drain of many of the best
educated, while persistent budget deficits financed with offshore
revenues perpetuated foreign exchange shortages. Starting in 1982,
this situation was further complicated by the issuance of almost 100
million dollars in $5 coins and the emergence of an unofficial
"parallel market," which offered Liberian coins at a discount
against the U.S. dollar. In 1997, the Taylor administration
inherited two separate Liberian currencies in use in different parts
of the country in addition to the U.S. dollar negotiable in the
capital and along the major trade routes. In the year 2000, the new
Liberian dollar unified both currencies. The rate of exchange
approximates 40 Liberian dollars to one U.S. dollar.
The economic outlook for Liberia is heavily dependent on the
government tackling the problem of a destroyed infrastructure,
creating an environment that encourages foreign investment, and
finding world markets for its exports. The Liberian iron ore sector,
which had already depleted the high-grade ore deposits before 1989,
will probably never be rebuilt. Because of Liberia's arrears on
foreign debt, financial assistance from the World Bank, the IMF, and
other multilateral donors was curtailed. Imports of essential items
do continue unabated and consumer goods, though expensive, are still
Lebanese and Indian merchants dominate the commercial sector.
Ravaged by the war, Liberia's economy remains in severe disarray.
The Taylor administration inherited more than 3 billion dollars in
foreign debt. No reliable information on the gross domestic product
has been available since the war began in 1989. One thousand U.S.
dollars is an estimate of the per capita GDP. Liberia ranks among
Africa's highest per capita recipients of U.S. aid. Recently, aid to
the Liberian people has been jeopardized by the belief held by most
western powers that President Taylor is providing assistance to
Sierra Leone rebels through arms and diamond trading.
Liberia is a founding member of both the regional economic
trading blocs: the Mano River Union (with neighboring Sierra Leone
and Guinea), and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS),
which contributed over 10,000 soldiers from 10 member countries
through its military arm, ECOMOG, to help provide security in
Liberia during the civil war.
Automobiles Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
U.S. Mission personnel in Monrovia may ship private cars. U.S.
Government personnel and USAID contract employees are restricted to
the importation of one duty-free vehicle per tour. Exceptions can be
obtained when vehicles are wrecked or stolen, or where maintenance
costs become prohibitive. Vehicles may be imported or purchased from
Liberia has only about 400 miles of paved roads, including those
in Monrovia. The remainder is constructed of lateritic soils. These
roads are often rough, and in poorly drained areas become impassable
quagmires during the 6-month rainy season. In addition, the coastal
salt air attacks car finishes, radiators, air-conditioning systems,
and the chassis. For these reasons, simple, rugged automobiles, rust
proofed and undercoated, and with good ground clearance are
Heavy-duty springs and shock absorbers are mandatory for
up-country travel, as is air-conditioning to provide relief from
heat, humidity, and dust. Four-wheel-drive vehicles are recommended.
Unleaded gas is not available in Liberia. Catalytic converters must
be removed before shipment or after arrival at post.
Diplomatic Corps plates are issued to official vehicles and POVs.
A Liberian drivers license is required and can be obtained through
the General Services Office. A photocopy of a valid U.S. drivers
license, three color photographs, and a small fee are required for
processing. A vision test, obtainable at the Embassy Health Unit, is
also required. Locally obtained third-party liability insurance for
cars is mandatory, at approximately U.S. $100 per year. Full
coverage for personal liability and collision insurance may cost
from $800 to $1,200 per year.
General vehicle repair is not available, as many dealers closed
or curtailed their services due to the war and have not reopened.
Japanese and Korean cars predominate and should be considered if
shipping a new car to Liberia. A factory manual and basic spare
parts should be brought to post; mechanics with experience in
American cars can be found, but parts and materials should be made
available to them. Fuel injection engines should be avoided due to a
lack of spare parts and repair facilities. Batteries are available
locally. Filters, spark plugs, tune-up kits, and fan belts should be
brought to post. Taxis in Monrovia are yellow, and as all yellow
vehicles are thus hailed by pedestrians, this color choice for
personal cars should be avoided.
Local public transportation in Monrovia consists mostly of taxis
and a few buses. Americans avoid both because of overcrowding,
random schedules, and breakdowns. Their use is not recommended.
Taxis are inexpensive, but these small cars are operated like buses;
passengers enter and leave frequently, and numerous stops usually
occur before an individual's destination is reached. The taxi
drivers are often hazards on the roadways.
Local Transportation Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Liberia is a relatively small country. Fifteen river basins
perpendicular to the coast make the maintenance of a coastal highway
difficult. Years of neglect and a civil war have cut off the
southeastern part of the country. All roads to the southeastern
counties currently run to the interior, where river valleys are
narrower, before turning back toward other coastal areas.
Taxis or buses from central "parking stations" serve the country
from the capital along three major axes: Monrovia-Sierra Leone
border; Monrovia-Ivory Coast border; Monrovia-Cestos River.
Overcrowding and a high rate of accidents discourage most Americans
from using this system.
Regional Transportation Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Roberts International Airport (RIA), reopened in December 1997.
All flights originating and departing Monrovia are from RIA, which
is located approximately 27 miles from the Embassy. One European
carrier, SN Brussels Airline, provides direct service to Monrovia
from Europe via Conakry 2 days a week. Many local travelers arrive
in Monrovia via Abidjan. The small local carrier Weasua Air
Transport offers reliable daily flights between Abidjan and
Monrovia, but reservations and tickets must be obtained by Embassy
Monrovia or Embassy Abidjan. Ghana Airways also serves Monrovia from
Accra 5 days a week, but its service is unrealiable.
Telephones and Telecommunications Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
All U.S. Government residences on or near the Embassy compound
are served through the Embassy switchboard.
Telephone service throughout Monrovia is limited and unreliable.
The Embassy does have IVG, so long distance calls may be placed by
credit card and the charge will originate from Washington, D.C. When
calling from the U.S., the direct-dial country code for Liberia is
231. The Embassy switchboard number is (231) 226-370 through
226-380. The Embassy fax number is (231) 226-148.
Internet Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
There are at least two commercial Internet service providers in
Monrovia and a number of Internet cafes. A number of
Internet-connected personal computers are available for employee use
on the Embassy compound. Internet e-mail is also available through
the Department of State system (via MS Exchange).
Mail and Pouch Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
The Liberian postal system, destroyed during the civil war, is
largely nonfunctional. Embassy personnel ordinarily receive mail by
State Department pouch. Outgoing pouch service from Monrovia is
restricted to letter-size mail, legal-size flats and small packages
not exceeding the size of a videocassette. One exception is
merchandise received via pouch which may be returned to sender if it
is the wrong size, item, etc. Incoming package mail may not exceed
24 inches maximum length or 62 inches length and girth combined.
Weight of packages may not exceed 40 pounds. Liquid and aerosol
items are strictly prohibited. Commercial package service is
available from DHL but is extremely expensive: $70 for the first
half kilogram and $17 per half kilogram thereafter. Pouch mail
leaves post once a week, and generally takes 5 days to reach its
destination. Incoming mail by pouch is still erratic and can take up
to 2 months.
Mail should be addressed in the following manner:
Name 8800 Monrovia Place U.S. Department of State Washington,
Radio and TV Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
The best-developed electronic medium in Liberia is radio, with
five stations in Monrovia. The Catholic station, Radio Veritas, has
good local news programs along with other features and news
commentaries. The Liberian Communications Network (LCN) is owned by
President Charles Taylor. It broadcasts on FM (KISS-FM) from
Monrovia and Short Wave (Radio Liberia) from central Liberia. LCN
also has a television station. Ducor 101.1 is an independent
broadcasting institution, which broadcasts on FM, and has a
television station that currently operates erratically in the
evening hours. Star Radio, run by the Swiss NGO Foundation
Hirondelle, and funded by USAID, broadcasted news in English and
various Liberian languages, 3 hours in the morning and 4 hours in
the evening until it was forcibly closed by government security
forces in March 2000. ELWA-FM broadcasts largely Christian
Many Americans bring VCRs to post. The VHS format and the
standard American system (NTSC), are popular, although multisystem
TVs and VCRs are recommended, allowing the use of any tape no matter
what system it was recorded on, as long as the cassette format (VHS)
fits the machine. Residences receive the following channels via
satellite: TV5 (Paris), CNN-International, Saudi II, local
television, the Embassy movie channel and three AFRTS channels. The
CTNA service, which is a part of USRA, charges a monthly fee of $15
for the cable line. Multisystem televisions and VCRs in limited
quantities are available for rent from USRA.
Newspapers, Magazines, and Technical Journals Last Updated:
7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Largely as a result of national elections and the candidates'
desire to influence public opinion, the press grew from six
newspapers, in January 1997, to 15 by July. Eight of these papers
were independent. By late 1998, only 10 newspapers publish
regularly, six of which are considered independent and capable of
serious, critical reporting.
The international editions of Time and Newsweek are available a
few days after publication in the grocery stores, but at a high
cost; African magazines appear sporadically.
The small Public Affairs Information Resource Center (IRC),
across from the Embassy on Mamba Point, subscribes to the
International Herald Tribune, and a range of U.S. technical,
literary, and foreign affairs magazines. None of its books and
periodicals may be removed from the library. The IRC's small
collection focuses on books concerning U.S. history and American
Selection in bookstores in Monrovia is poor. Book club and
periodical subscriptions, therefore, should be continued.
Health and Medicine
Medical Facilities Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
The Embassy Health Unit serves all participants in the Department
of State medical program. Non-direct hire personnel and their adult
dependents must meet certain requirements to qualify for limited
Health Unit privileges. The Health Unit is staffed with a full-time
American Primary Care Health Practitioner, a full-time Liberian
nurse, and a part-time laboratory technician. The unit also has
access to the services of a regional psychiatrist and physician,
presently assigned in Abidjan.
The Health Unit is equipped with a laboratory, an EKG machine,
and an emergency oxygen supply, providing routine medical and minor
surgical care. Major medical and surgical cases are evacuated,
either to Abidjan or London.
Dental services are not readily available in Monrovia. All
Embassy employees are urged to take care of any dental or ophthalmic
work in the U.S. before arriving at post and to bring extra contact
lenses and eyeglasses.
The post is hazardous for those requiring continuous monitoring
or medical supervision, special medications, or those with recurring
or easily aggravated illnesses.
Community Health Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Community health and sanitation services in Monrovia are
basically non-existent. Garbage collection is infrequent, but a
contractor regularly collects garbage from the Embassy compound and
the Greystone residential compound. For most of Monrovia there is no
piped drinking water. Embassy personnel drink distilled water.
Embassy housing comes with distiller/filter units in place.
Food inspection is inadequate. Locally butchered meat must be
thoroughly cooked. Fruits and vegetables should be soaked in a
suitable disinfecting preparation.
Preventive Measures Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Due to the heat and humidity, a greater number of illnesses
prevail in the Tropics than in temperate climates. Awareness and
sensible precautions will greatly reduce the following local health
Chloroquine-resistant malaria is endemic to Liberia, so
prophylaxis should begin 2 weeks before arrival and be taken
regularly throughout the tour of duty. Diarrhea and general fatigue
are the most common ailments reported by Americans. Boiling all
drinking water for 10 minutes and filtering it, and allowing a
suitable amount of time to adjust to the climate and highly seasoned
local foods, should keep incidences of these ailments to a minimum.
Schistosomiasis is endemic in the interior, so fresh water sources
should be avoided when traveling up-country. Filariasis and viral
hepatitis are also present in Liberia. Locally butchered meat and
vegetables bought on the street should be thoroughly cleaned and
well cooked. Vaccinations, including yellow fever, typhoid, and
tetanus should be kept current. Hepatitis A and B vaccinations are
recommended, as are antirabies injections. AIDS is a risk in
Liberia. Taking part in sports and recreational activities will help
to reduce stress and help to keep you in shape (see Sports).
Employment for Spouses and Dependents Last Updated: 7/31/2002
Embassy Monrovia is currently an unaccompanied post.
American Embassy - Monrovia
Post City Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Monrovia is situated on a long narrow cape, with one side facing
a vast expanse of mangrove swamps drained by the Mesurado River and
the other facing the Atlantic Ocean.
Founded in 1822 with the arrival of the first settlers, many
localities are still identified by the names of original villages,
settler communities, and the ethnic districts that grew up around
them, all becoming incorporated into the city of Monrovia as it
expanded. Originally named Christopolis, it was renamed after one of
the settlement's most prominent sponsors, U.S. President James
Downtown Monrovia occupies the tip of Cape Mesurado, rising to
the hill of Mamba Point, where the U.S. Embassy compound is located.
The narrow body of the Cape is taken up by the mostly residential
Sinkor area. Beyond Sinkor, a number of suburbs extend toward the
base of the Cape, and along fingers of land jutting out into the
mangroves. Between the downtown and Sinkor areas is Capitol Hill,
where the Executive Mansion, City Hall, and the University of
Liberia campus are located. The capital was severely damaged in
fighting, which broke out in Monrovia in April/May 1996; to date,
only some office, government and residential buildings have been
Two bridges cross the Mesurado River from the downtown area to
Bushrod Island, the industrial section of the city with the Freeport
of Monrovia. There are many damaged, overcrowded buildings. Another
bridge at the western end of Bushrod Island crosses the wide St.
Monrovia's population, estimated at 350,000 in 1989, is now
estimated at 750,000. People displaced by the civil war account for
the influx into the Monrovia area and exert great stresses on the
city's health, sanitation, and transport services. There had been no
electricity in the capital since the war began; repairs to the
system are costly and slow in coming. Some isolated areas are now
being provided electricity.
The Post and Its Administration Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
The 18-acre Embassy compound on Mamba Point encloses the
Chancery, the Marine Security Guard residence, and other residences.
There are three other residential areas, the largest of which is a
19-acre walled compound a block from the Chancery called Greystone.
All U.S. Government agencies represented in Liberia are supported by
the Embassy's Administrative Section.
All offices and homes may be reached through the Embassy
switchboard, at: 226-370, by requesting the appropriate office,
between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. A Marine Security Guard
is on duty 24 hours daily and is able to connect emergency calls and
communicate with the Embassy's Duty Officer.
The telephone number of the U.S. Defense Attaché to Liberia is
226-370 at the Embassy Chancery.
The Public Affairs Office (PAO) has its offices across from the
Chancery compound. The PAO facility includes a small Information
Resource Center (IRC) and a 50-seat auditorium, and can be reached
through Embassy extension 1390. The section is headed by a public
The U.S. Agency for International Development, USAID, headed by a
Mission Director, administers U.S. relief and development assistance
programs. Telephone number for USAID is (231) 226-370, fax number is
The Community Liaison Office (CLO) has been vacated, as this is
an unaccompanied post.
Permanent Housing Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Every effort is made to place newly arrived personnel into
permanent government housing upon arrival. When that is not
possible, temporary quarters are made available. TDY personnel and
official U.S. Government visitors are provided with temporary
quarters. Due to the security situation, TDY personnel are not
permitted to stay in hotels.
U.S. Government personnel are provided with government-owned or
-leased housing. Assignments are made by the Mission's Interagency
Housing Board for all Embassy employees.
In addition to the Ambassador's residence, the Embassy compound
has houses for seven officers and two apartment buildings. The
Marine House is also located here. The compound contains a
recreation hall, snack bar, swimming pool, commissary, two tennis
courts, and an outdoor basketball half-court.
The Embassy rents a building directly across from the main
compound with 14 apartments. Most are three-bedroom units; however,
two are four-bedroom units. The Greystone compound, crowning Mamba
Point, was originally built by Harvey Firestone and is now leased by
the U.S. Government. There are seven houses and a tennis court on
Furnishings Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
All residences are provided with living room, dining room, and
bedroom furniture, as well as a kitchen set and, except for
microwave ovens, all major appliances (washer, dryer, refrigerator,
freezer, oven/stove, water purifier, dehumidifiers and
air-conditioners). Primarily Drexel and Ethan Allen furnishings are
used. Living and dining rooms generally have full-sized rugs
although some units have wall-to-wall carpeting. Either draperies or
vertical blinds are furnished in all main rooms. USAID furnishings
and allowances are provided under separate policies and procedures.
Utilities and Equipment Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
With the exception of the Ambassador's residences and the DCM's
home, kitchen utensils, china, glassware, and linens are not
provided, nor are microwave ovens, mixers, toasters and other
Upon arrival, everyone is provided with a Welcome Kit for use
until airfreight arrives. The kit contains dishes, pots, pans, etc.
Airfreight generally takes about 1 month to 6 weeks to reach post.
It should include an initial supply of basic necessities to last the
4 or 5 months it will normally take for sea freight to arrive. Most
household supplies are expensive in Monrovia, so the full weight
allowance plus the consumable allowance should be used to ship as
many supplies and replacement articles as possible. Paper products,
plastic wrap, and cleaning supplies are particularly expensive, even
when available from the commissary.
Coolers and other beach and picnic equipment are useful. Bring an
iron and ironing board, a vacuum cleaner, or rug sweeper. Favorite
sports equipment, books, card table and chairs,
gender-and-age-neutral simple presents, and gift-wrap should also be
brought to post.
All standard stateside appliances can be used on the available
current, which is 110 volts at 60 cycles. Heavy-duty outlets for
air-conditioners, dryers, and stoves are 220 volts. Spike arrestors
and voltage regulators should be brought to protect VCRs, stereo
equipment, etc. It is a good idea to bring a small battery-powered
Food Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
There are several reasonably well-stocked supermarkets in
Monrovia, with items generally priced well above those in the U.S.
Butter, milk (long-life or powdered), canned cream, and cheeses are
practically always available. Sour cream, however, is not available,
and can be brought along as dry mix. Danish meat products are
available along with locally produced pork, and chicken. Fruits and
vegetables are seasonal: papaya, mango, oranges, pineapple,
eggplant, cucumbers, avocados, grapefruit, plantains, bananas,
potato greens, cassava leaves. Onions, garlic, and potatoes are
Local chickens are tougher and not as plump as the American
variety. Eggs are readily available. A variety of fresh seafood,
including grouper, snapper, barracuda, shrimp, and lobsters are
The U.S. Recreation Association operates a full service
commissary. It carries a full range of American products, including
frozen foods, meat, snacks, beverages, and household and toiletry
items. Because items are imported from the U.S., they are not
inexpensive. Take full advantage of air- and seafreight allowances,
to include particular items or brands you prefer. U.S. Government
employees can ship consumable goods through U.S.-based catalog
The Recreation Hall has a good snackbar, serving a variety of
items for breakfast, luncheon and supper, and is particularly
popular during lunch hours.
Clothing Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Lightweight wash-and-wear cotton blends are best suited to the
year-round high temperatures and humidity. Although synthetic
fabrics wash easily and pack well, some people find polyester and
lightweight knits uncomfortable. Constant use and frequent
laundering dictate that an adequate supply of clothing be brought to
post. Many Americans supplement initial wardrobes with U.S. store
and catalog purchases. It is helpful to establish credit card
accounts with clothing and household stores before departing the
U.S. Ordered items may take 6-8 weeks to arrive. Some winter
clothing should be brought along in case of transfer, R&R, or
unexpected travel to colder climates. Sweaters or jackets may be
appropriate in air-conditioned rooms or offices.
Local stores offer a limited supply of low quality and plain
clothing at high prices. Many Embassy personnel take advantage of
the large number of fabric shops in town and tailors to have clothes
made. Patterned cotton ("lappa") cloth, tie-dyed material, and
reasonably priced imported material are available. Tailors make
loose fitting dresses in local styles, and can copy most catalog
styles or favorite garments. Styles are not influenced by the latest
fashions to the degree that they are in Europe or the U.S. The dress
code is relaxed.
Moisture and dust shorten the life of shoes, and local repair is
mediocre, so bring enough footwear to last through a tour. Swimsuits
and beachwear are difficult to find. At least two swimsuits should
be brought as well as a sun hat, and polarized sunglasses (suitable
for daily wear) for the very bright dry season days, and for the
The rainy season is a fact of life and adequate preparation will
make it much more bearable. Large size "golfer" type umbrellas are
recommended for each member of the family. Although raincoats are
not often worn due to the heat, one should be kept handy. Light
Gortex outerwear that repels water, yet breathes, is worth the extra
expense for the added comfort. Rubberized rain shoes are helpful for
casual wear and are a necessity for trips upcountry.
For those who sew, bring along patterns, trim, elastic, zippers,
and thread. Sewing machine needles, belts and bulbs may also be
difficult to replace here.
Men Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Clothing and accessories suitable for summer in Washington, D.C.,
are acceptable and practical in Monrovia. Wardrobes should include
several wash-and-wear suits, a good supply of shirts that may be
worn with or without tie, sport shirts, and slacks. A tuxedo is not
required at any time unless one desires to wear it for the annual
Women Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Wardrobes should consist mostly of washable fabrics. A good
supply of cotton blend lingerie should be included. Casual clothes
are popular for sports and leisure, but shorts and halter-tops
should never be worn on the streets.
Most women find that locally made African dresses add
attractively to their wardrobes. Local tailors are good and
relatively inexpensive. A long, formal dress may be also useful.
Office Attire Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Shirts and tropical-style collarless short-sleeved suits are made
well and are popular as office wear. In the office, suits are
generally worn by those with diplomatic responsibilities. Dark suits
are suitable for diplomatic functions, while dress for parties is
Women usually find slacks, dresses, blouses, and skirts
appropriate for most activities. Since all Mission offices are
air-conditioned, many women find stockings and a light sweater
comfortable to wear at work.
Supplies and Services
Supplies Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
A do-it-yourself kit with household tools, nails, extension
cords, glues, epoxies, and tapes is useful. An artificial Christmas
tree and other holiday decorations may also be brought along.
Household appliances like blenders, microwave ovens, and
coffeemakers should be brought if used at home. The Embassy does
have a limited supply of microwaves and coffee pots.
Basic Services Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Drycleaning services are available but expensive; shoe repair is
poor. There are only a few beauty shops in town. Haircuts run from
$8-$25 for men and women.
Automobile and electrical repairs are of uneven quality; advice
should be sought from persons with experience in these matters as to
availability and quality of service.
Domestic Help Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Households in Liberia traditionally employ domestic help of some
kind. Most Americans in Monrovia hire domestic workers; the number
and type depend on individual preference and requirements. Most
Mission personnel hire housekeepers, at least on a part-time basis.
Others also hire cooks. Senior officers with representational
responsibilities may re-quire a cook and/or steward. Extra help
hired for an evening dinner party or reception are paid $7-$10 plus
Wages for good full-time cooks average $30-$40 a week, and for
stewards (or housekeepers) the same rate applies for a 50-hour
workweek. Domestics require supervision to ensure personal
cleanliness and suitable performance. Many are not literate.
Religious Activities Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Assembly of God, Baha'i, Baptist, Christian Science, Episcopal,
Lutheran, Methodist, Pentecostal, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, and
Seventh-day Adventist services are held in Monrovia. There are four
Mosques for the city's Islamic population. Jewish laymen
occasionally hold services in their homes.
At Post Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM Dependents are not
permitted at post, and no adequate schools are available. A small
international school has opened in Monrovia in recent years, but
does not meet adequate standards for any but the lowest elementary
Away From Post Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM Most employees
with school-aged dependents have their families on separate
maintenance allowances in the U.S. attending local schools. Check
with your employment agency regarding the conditions and allowances
for the education and travel of secondary schoolchildren.
Higher Education Opportunities Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
None available at post or in Monrovia, although Internet
correspondence is possible.
Recreation and Social Life
Sports Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
The national sport in Liberia is soccer, the leading teams having
large and enthusiastic followings. Matches are played either at the
Antoinett Tubman Stadium in Monrovia, or at the sports complex about
5 miles beyond the Sinkor area. Soccer enthusiasts have praised the
performance of West Africa teams. Basketball is a growing sport, and
a national team has been formed.
In the aftermath of the civil war, there are limited
opportunities for participation in sporting activities in Liberia.
The Hotel Africa offers a large swimming pool, a private beach with
a restaurant and a lagoon. The UN complex has a tennis court,
swimming pool and restaurant. The Embassy compound and its
residential area have swimming pools and tennis courts. In addition,
the Embassy compound has a basketball half-court and a volleyball
sand court. There is a small but well-equipped gymnasium in the
Chancery. There is a privately owned squash court and a small
gymnasium, which offers aerobics classes, both in the Sinkor area.
Golf is popular among expatriates. There are two functional
courses: at Firestone in Harbel, Margibi County, 45 minutes' drive
from the Embassy and a par-3 course at the Mobil Compound on the
outskirts of Monrovia.
All sports equipment should be brought to post.
Touring and Outdoor Activities Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Outdoor activities are still restricted in Liberia. Water sports
are the most accessible. A number of beautiful local beaches have
their own distinct attractions, depending upon the mixture of those
who frequent them, the facilities, and relative isolation. One beach
may have a popular restaurant and bar, another may have nothing but
isolated beaches and beautiful lagoons. Care must be exercised when
swimming because of strong currents and undertow. Snorkeling and
spear fishing are practicable, but you must bring your own
equipment. A small number of boats owned by the Embassy and Marines
or members of the expatriate communities are used for deep-sea,
surf, and river fishing.
In contrast to the areas around Monrovia, Liberia's interior
offers a vastly different and rich experience. Liberia has the
largest remaining areas of intact tropical rain forests in West
Africa, with an incredible diversity of birds, plants, and wildlife.
Over 500 species of birds are found in Sapo National Park in the
Southeast. Elephants, leopards, chimpanzees, and pygmy hippos still
live in the largely inaccessible interior regions. Trips outside
Monrovia require careful planning, as there are few hotels or
restaurants upcountry and road conditions can be poor. Trips outside
the greater Monrovia area must be coordinated with the Regional
Gardening (there are many local species of orchids) and
birdwatching are enjoyed near Monrovia.
A number of Embassy employees make a point of visiting other
parts of Africa while serving in Monrovia. The Sahel zone of Africa
to the north holds the escarpment dwellings of Mali, while along the
coast of West Africa are the European-influenced cities of Banjul,
Dakar, and Abidjan. South Africa, Morocco, and the Canary Islands
are also popular destinations for those seeking a change of scenery
and culture. At the current time airline connections are
time-consuming and expensive, however.
Entertainment Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Monrovia has a number of restaurants in various price ranges
offering European, Oriental, Lebanese and traditional Liberian
cuisine. Prices are generally higher than those in major U.S.
cities. There are a number of nightclubs in town frequented by
expatriates. The Embassy Recreation Association hosts a monthly
dinner buffet and a monthly Sunday brunch. The Marine Security Guard
detachment shows recently run movies on a regular basis.
Among Americans Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM The home is the
center of evening activities: barbecues, parties, and televised
sports events. Beach picnics are popular during the dry season.
The Embassy Recreation Hall periodically features dart matches
and other activities.
International Contacts Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM There are
few foreign embassies in Monrovia, but a large number of
humanitarian and UN organizations, which host parties from time to
Paris is the authorized R&R point, with New York as the
Nature of Functions Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Mission personnel are often included in official representation
functions, especially senior officers. Functions include National
Days, receptions for visiting officials, dedications, and religious
services. Some of these occasions require a dark business suit for
men and suitable attire (not a pants suit) for women. Most functions
within the Mission are less formal.
The Embassy includes a memorandum on protocol in the information
package presented to new arrivals. Business cards are very commonly
exchanged and are helpful in establishing contacts. A greeting
precedes all conversation in all circumstances, even in asking
directions from strangers, or upon entering a taxicab. This is
usually followed by the finger-snapping handshake unique to Liberia.
Standards of Social Conduct Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
All newly arrived Mission officers and staff members will meet
with the Ambassador and DCM shortly after arrival. No other formal
calls on other Mission officers are expected. Calls on counterparts
in other embassies and with host government officials can be
discussed after arrival at post. Guidelines on local customs and
employee responsibilities are provided to newcomers in their Welcome
A supply of business cards and informals is useful. Business
cards and invitations can be produced locally, but engraving is not
Special Information Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Personnel assigned to DAO/Liberia will receive uniform
requirements prior to departure for Liberia. Only diplomatically
accredited officers (Defense, Army, and Air Attach‚s) routinely
require a full set of uniforms. Occasionally, enlisted personnel
require service dress uniforms and utility/dungaree uniforms with
safety-toe shoes. Uniforms in the Defense Attach‚ Office are
optional. A mess dress formal uniform is required for the Marine
Ball. For Army personnel, dress whites and white mess dress are
Joint security forces operate checkpoints on many main roads in
Liberia. Embassy I.D.s should be presented when crossing checkpoints
if required, and occupants should comply with all reasonable
requests. Ordinarily, however, vehicles with diplomatic plates are
not subject to being stopped.
Liberians can be sensitive about picture taking, and permission
should be requested before snapping any photos. Government and
military buildings and personnel should not be photographed.
Generally speaking, Liberians are very friendly and open people.
Patience, courtesy and a sense of humor are necessary traits,
however. In Monrovia, firmness and courtesy will usually suffice in
placating insistent merchants, marketers and beggars.
Post Orientation Program
Newcomers are met on arrival in Monrovia. Each agency assists its
new arrivals to settle in and to meet the official community. All
newcomers should check in with the Personnel Office within a few
days of their arrival. The Embassy Personnel Office provides a
newcomers' information packet and a detailed check-in sheet and
forms for processing into post.
The Family Liaison Office (FLO) in the Department of State is an
excellent contact for employees before departure for Monrovia. The
FLO offers information and referral services on all aspects of
Foreign Service living.
The Overseas Briefing Center has an information package on
Monrovia, as well as a video presentation, recent slides, and other
materials. Employees assigned to Monrovia are encouraged to study
Notes For Travelers
Getting to the Post Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Official travel to Monrovia is either via Brussels (SN Brussels
Airlines, twice a week) or via Abidjan. There is also limited
service from Accra, Ghana and Freetown, and Sierra Leone, but they
are not recommended. Travelers coming to post via Abidjan normally
arrive there on KLM or Air France. Travel to Monrovia from Abidjan
is with small local carrier Weasua Air Transport, which offers daily
service. Reservations and tickets for Weasua must be obtained by
Embassy Monrovia or Embassy Freetown.
The post should be advised by telegram well in advance of travel
with fiscal data so that a ticket can be purchased for Weasua by the
Embassy and sent to Embassy Abidjan. Embassy Abidjan will arrange
for an expediter to meet incoming passengers. Embassy Monrovia
expediter will meet incoming passengers upon arrival at Monrovia's
Roberts International Airport.
Customs, Duties, and Passage
Customs and Duties Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Persons entering Liberia must have a valid passport or travel
document and a valid visa. Airport visas are not available.
All personnel with diplomatic status and those covered by USAID
and Military Assistance Agreements have duty-free entry privileges
for household and personal effects, and for one car.
Other employees are covered by an arrangement for bulk imports in
the Ambassador's name.
Airfreight should be steel banded, but there are no other special
requirements for packing and shipping effects to Liberia. Airfreight
should bear the following address:
American Ambassador (Name of employee) American Embassy,
Monrovia, Liberia For First Available Onward Flight
Passage Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Regardless of type of passport, all Americans must have visas to
enter Liberia. This requirement cannot be overemphasized. Both
official and nonofficial persons risk detention if they arrive
The Embassy Personnel Office will obtain exit permits for U.S.
Mission personnel. The Department of State Passport Office, in
Washington, D.C., and the USAID Personnel Office will help personnel
in the U.S. to obtain Liberian and other visas. U.S. missions abroad
will attempt to provide the same assistance. Visas are not required
for Cöte d'lvoire, but are required for Guinea and Sierra Leone.
All personnel entering Monrovia must have a current shot record
with valid proof of a yellow fever inoculation.
You will need photographs of yourself immediately on arrival and
during your tour. Bring at least 24 passport photos for each person.
Pets Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Pets must be fully immunized before travel and accompanied by a
veterinarian's certificate of good health. The certificate must
contain the date of rabies inoculation, given not more than 120 days
or less than 10 days before anticipated arrival at post. The origin
of the certificate, name and address, including country of the
veterinarian, must be plainly identifiable. The certificate must be
authenticated by the Department of Agriculture and then approved by
the Liberian Embassy for a fee and stamped with the Liberian
Government seal. If the pet is being imported from a country that
does not have a Liberian Embassy and the seal cannot be obtained,
advise the post. Employees should bring all drugs their pet might
need, including heartworm tablets, flea control, as well as other
supplies such as pet shampoo as these are not available in Liberia.
Veterinary service is also extremely limited.
The post should be informed in advance if you are bringing a pet.
All papers should travel with the pet. Failure to comply with these
instructions may require the pet to be quarantined in Liberia.
Some areas of Monrovia are infested with tsetse fly, and dogs in
these areas are subject to contracting canine sleeping sickness.
There is no risk to humans. Although this illness in dogs is readily
treatable by a veterinarian, there are recurrences, and some animals
Firearms and Ammunition Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Importation of individual firearms is prohibited.
Currency, Banking, and Weights and Measures Last Updated:
7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Liberia currently uses two currencies. The U.S. dollar is used in
Monrovia and along the major trade routes: Monrovia/Sierra Leone
border; Monrovia-Rivercess; Monrovia-Cöte d'lvoire border. Liberia
also uses the Liberian dollar. The exchange rate has fluctuated over
the past year at between 45 and 65 Liberian dollars per U.S. dollar
Personnel coming to Monrovia are advised to maintain checking
accounts in U.S. banks. The Embassy cashier will honor U.S. Treasury
checks in any amount, and personal checks between the amounts of $50
and $500, from permanently assigned and temporary duty official
American personnel. No third-party checks are accepted.
U.S. weights and measures are used in Liberia.
Taxes, Exchange, and Sale of Property Last Updated: 7/31/2002
All official American personnel are exempted from Liberian income
tax. All personnel are currently subject to the $25 airport
departure tax and a $15 airport development fee.
The Embassy exercises strict control over the sale of duty-free
personal property to those without such privileges. Those who sell
cars or other property to persons without duty-free privileges must
receive a copy of a document from the Government of Liberia Customs
Bureau indicating that import duty has been paid before the
purchaser may take possession.
Personnel assigned to the Mission and official visiting personnel
may cash personal checks for U.S. dollars at the Embassy cashier.
Credit cards are not accepted anywhere in Liberia, and virtually all
local transactions are in cash, either U.S. or Liberian dollars.
Recommended Reading Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
These titles are provided as a general indication of the material
published in this country. The Department of State does not endorse
History Berkeley, Bill. Liberia: A Promise Betrayed. Lawyers
Committee for Human Rights (New York, 1986).
Boahen, A. and J. B. Webster. Africa: The Revolutionary Years.
Dunn, Elwood. Liberia, World Bibliographical Series, Volume 157.
(ABL-CLIO Press: Oxford, 1995).
Dunn, Elwood and Holsoe, Svend. The Historical Dictionary of
Liberia. (1998 edition).
Dunn, D. and S. Byron Tarr. Liberia: A National Polity in
Transition. (Scarecrow Press: Metuchen, NJ, 1988).
Ellis, Stephen. The Mask of Anarchy. (New York University Press,
Washington Square, New York, 1999).
Fage, J.M.A. Introduction to the History of West Africa.
(Cambridge University Press: London, 1964).
Hopkins, H. E. An Economic History of West Africa. (Cambridge
University Press: New York, 1973).
Liebenow, J. Gus. Liberia: The Evolution of Privilege. (Cornell
University Press: Ithaca, New York, 1969).
Liebenow, J. Gus. Liberia: The Quest for Democracy. (Indiana
University Press: Bloomington, IN, 1987).
Moore, Bai T. Murder in the Cassava Patch.
Nelson, Harold D., ed. Liberia, A Country Study. (American
University: Foreign Area Studies Program, Washington, D.C., 1984).
Ruiz, Hiram A. Liberians: Casualties of a Brutal War. (United
States Commission for Refugees, Washington, D.C., 1992)
Sawyer, Amos. The Emergence of Autocracy in Liberia. (Institute
of Contemporary Issues Press: 1992).
Sullivan, Dr. Joe and Dr. Jane Martin, ed. Africa (Global Study
Series). (Dushkin Publishers: Guilford, Conn., 1986).
Tolbert, Victoria. Lifted Up: The Victoria Tolbert Story. (Macalaster
Park Publishing Co., Inc., Minneapolis, Minn., 1996).
For publications between 1994 and the present, you may refer to
the semiannual Liberian Studies Journal, continuously published
since 1969, and available from the Liberian Studies Association by
writing to Thomas Hendricks, 815 South Wisconsin Avenue, Oak Park,
Culture Gay, John. Red Dust on the Green Leaves. (Intercultural
Press: Thompson, Connecticut 1973).
Gay, John. The Brightening Shadow. (Intercultural Press: Chicago,
Greene, Graham. Journey Without Maps. (William Heinemann: London,
Moran, Mary. Civilized Women: Gender and Prestige in Southeastern
Liberia. (Cornell University Press, 1990).
Sankawulo, Wilton. The Rain and the Night. (Macmillan Publishers:
Schwab, G. and Harley, G.W. Tribes of the Liberian Hinterland,
Vol. XXXI. (The Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology, Harvard
University: Cambridge, Mass. 1947).
Warner, Esther. Seven Days to Loma Land. (Pyramid Books: New
Warner, Esther. The Crossing Fee — A Story of Life in Liberia.
(Victor Gollancz Ltd.: London, 1968).
Art Harley, G.W. Masks as Agents of Social Control in Northeast
Liberia, Vol. XXXII, No.2, Papers of The Peabody Museum. (Harvard
University: Cambridge, Mass., 1950).
Siegman, William. Rock of the Ancestors. (Cuttington University:
Suakoko, Liberia, 1977).
Willett, Frank. African Art.
Natural History Myers, Norman. The Primary Source. (Norton Press:
New York, 1985).
Richards, P.W. The Tropical Rainforest. (Cambridge University
Press: London, 1987).
Schulze, Wilhe. A New Geography of Liberia. (Longman Group:
West African Nature Handbooks Series. (Longman Publishers:
Web Sites The following Web sites are generally useful for news
items and articles recently published about Liberia:
Local Holidays Last Updated: 7/31/2002 6:00 PM
Liberia celebrates the following official holidays:
New Year's Day January 1 Armed Forces Day February 11 Decoration
Day Second Wednesday in March J.J. Robert's Birthday March 14 Day of
Fasting and Prayer Second Friday in April Unification Day May 15
Independence Day July 26 Flag Day August 24 Thanksgiving Day
November 5 W.V.S.Tubman's Birthday November 29 Christmas Day