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Preface Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

One of the last African countries to become independent (1975), Mozambique became the poorest country in Africa. Yet Mozambique has made a strong turnaround: privatizing a major part of the economy, attracting foreign investment, and growing rapidly with small-scale agriculture fueling the economic recovery. Nonetheless, there is a long way to go to achieve broad-based sustainable development.

Mozambique is a large country, twice the size of California, with over 1,700 miles of coastline. Arab traders plied the Indian Ocean waters along Mozambique’s coast for several centuries before the arrival of European explorers. The Portuguese established trading posts and forts, and ultimately colonized the country. However, the Portuguese did not pay attention to Mozambique, devoting its attention instead to trade with India and the colonization of Brazil.

With an increase in Portuguese emigration to Mozambique after World War II, a drive for Mozambican independence rose along with it. After 10 years of sporadic warfare and major political changes in Portugal, Mozambique gained its independence on June 25, 1975.

Civil war followed independence, finally ending after 16 long years with the signing of the Rome Peace Accord in 1992.

In early 2000, Mozambique suffered a major setback on its road to progress by experiencing devastating floods, which occurred in the southern and central regions of the country. Despite this disaster, Mozambique continues to make strides toward becoming a stable, democratic, self-sustaining, peaceful country.

Maputo, the capital, is beautiful. Yes, it may be a little ragged around the edges, but it sits overlooking the beautiful Delagoa Bay, Inhaca Island and the Indian Ocean beyond. It is easy to understand why this city was once the number one destination for honeymooners. New construction and major building renovations give hope to seeing Maputo once again regain its former glory as a premier destination. The city streets are wide, tree-lined boulevards where one encounters office buildings, old residences, shops, restaurants, and hotels.

The Baixa (the lower section of the city that is the main commercial area) is a mix of modern architecture and many of Maputo’s historic buildings. Along the water’s edge is the Marginal, a palm-lined street running the length of Maputo’s sea front. Here one can enjoy a meal, listen to music, cast your line for a fish, catch the sunset, spend the day on the beach, shop for local handicrafts, or enjoy a cold drink! The Embassy is in Sommerschield, a neighborhood that is also home to Mission personnel. Commuting to work generally involves a 5- to 10-minute walk with at least one glimpse of the Bay! The new 9-storey USAID building is a short drive to the Baixa.

The Host Country

Area, Geography, and Climate Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

The Republic of Mozambique, a little less than twice the size of California, covers 303,769 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Tanzania; on the west by Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, and the Kingdom of Swaziland; and on the south by South Africa. The 1,737-mile coastline stretches from the Rovuma River in the north, to Ponta de Ouro in the south.

The country is mostly coastal lowlands, with uplands in the center, high plateaus (rising to 800 to 2,000 feet) in the northwest, and mountains (6,000 to 8,000 feet) in the west. The northern part of Mozambique is rugged, where mountains may reach a height of more than 8,000 feet. Africa’s fourth longest river, the Zambezi, divides Mozambique in half.

The climate in the plains and along the coast is warm and humid; the mountainous areas are cooler, although at times, equally wet. A hot, rainy season lasts from October to April. The rest of the year has a more moderate climate, with the coolest months in June and July. Rainfall is uneven and unpredictable; periodic droughts and floods occur. Mozambique experienced devastating floods in February and March 2000, causing loss of life and much destruction.

Mozambique’s first inhabitants were Bushmanoid hunters and gatherers, ancestors of the Khoisani peoples. Between the first and fourth centuries A.D., waves of Bantu-speaking people migrated from the northern region through the Zambezi River Valley, and gradually, into the plateau and coastal areas. The Bantu were farmers and ironworkers.

When the Portuguese explorer, Vasco de Gama, reached Mozambique in 1498, Arab trading settlements had existed along the coast for several centuries. The country entered modern history when de Gama landed in what is now Inhambane Province, on his historic voyage to India.

The first Portuguese settlement, at Sofala, dates from 1505, but the administrative and commercial capital of the area was established on the fortress-Island of Mozambique, located in what is now Nampula Province. The Island of Mozambique was a source of gold, real as well as legendary. This island was also an important way-station en route to India, and Arab and Muslim influences have remained strong to this day. Trading posts, fortresses, and precarious settlements were established up the Zambezi River at Sena and Tete.

Maputo, formerly known as Louren‡o Marques, developed slowly as a minor trading post after the mid-1700s. In the mid-1800s, it attained economic and strategic importance as the rail outlet to the mining area of the Transvaal, in what is now the Republic of South Africa. After 1875, Maputo developed rapidly as a port, railhead, and commercial center.

In 1890, the Portuguese abandoned claims to the hinterland between Mozambique and Angola which, in effect, established the boundaries of present-day Mozambique. A series of military campaigns established effective Portuguese occupation of most of the country, which previously had been limited to a few costal ports and trading stations. During much of the early 20th century, the central and northern parts of the territory were administered by chartered companies. In 1897 the capital was moved to Lourenço Marques (renamed Maputo after independence in 1975) as the Portuguese sought to consolidate their claim on Mozambique against British and German imperial ambitions.

Mozambique’s pre-independence legal status varied. For many centuries, it was a dependency of the Portuguese viceroy in India and later, under the Salazar regime, it was considered an integral part of Portugal. In 1964 the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) launched a guerilla campaign aimed at forcing the Portuguese Government to grant independence to Mozambique. From 1964 to 1974, FRELIMO guerillas carried out military operations in the provinces of Cabo Delgado, Niassa, Tete, and Manica. FRELIMO was supported politically and materially by several neighboring independent African states and the Organization of African Unity.

Shortly after the April 1974 coup in Lisbon, the Portuguese Government initiated negotiations with FRELIMO to end the fighting and pave the way for independence for Mozambique. The Lusaka Accords were signed by the two sides in September 1974 and a transitional government with FRELIMO at its head, was installed soon after in Maputo. Mozambique became an independent country on June 25, 1975, and was officially called the People’s Republic of Mozambique.

The last 25 years of Mozambique’s history have encapsulated the political developments of the entire 20th century. Portuguese colonialism collapsed in 1974 after a decade of armed struggle, initially led by American-educated Eduardo Mondlane, who was assassinated in 1969. When independence was proclaimed in 1975, the leaders of FRELIMO’s military campaign rapidly established a one-party state allied to the Soviet bloc, eliminating political pluralism, religious educational institutions, and the role of traditional hierarchies.

Civil war, sabotage from neighboring states, and economic collapse, first from the mass exodus of Portuguese nationals and the weak infrastructure left by them, together with the unwieldy structures designed by communist planners, characterized the first decade of Mozambican independence. During most of the civil war the government was unable to exercise effective control outside of urban areas. An estimated one million Mozambicans perished during the civil war, 1.5 million took refuge in neighboring states, and several million more were internally displaced. President Samora Machel had already conceded the need for political and economic reforms before his death, along with several key advisers, in a suspicious plane crash in 1986.

His successor, Joaquim Chissano, continued the reforms. The new constitution enacted in 1990 provided for a multiparty political system, a market-based economy, and free elections. Religious institutions resumed full activity in 1986 and spearheaded the peace movement from 1990–92. Accompanied by the worst drought on record in southern Africa, the civil war ended in October 1992 with the Rome Peace Accords.

By mid-1995 the over 1.7 million refugees who had sought asylum in neighboring countries as a result of the war and drought had returned to Mozambique, as part of the largest repatriation witnessed in sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, a further estimated 4 million internally displaced had largely returned to their areas of origin.

Under supervision of a UN peacekeeping force, stability and structure returned; in 1994 the country held its first democratic elections. Chissano was re-elected President by 53% of the vote. A 250-member National Assembly was formed in December 1994, composed of 129 FRELIMO deputies, 112 RENAMO (Mozambican National Resistance Movement) deputies, and 9 representatives of three smaller parties that formed the Democratic Union (UD). After some delays, in 1998 the country held its first local elections to decentralize power and some budgetary authority at the municipal level. The principal opposition parties boycotted these local elections, citing flaws in the registration process; some independent slates contested the elections and won seats on municipal counsels. Turnout was very low.

The second general elections were held December 3–5, 1999. Observers agreed that the voting process was well organized and went smoothly. Both the opposition and observers subsequently cited irregularities in the tabulation process, however, which marred the exercise. The opposition coalition did not accept the National Elections Commission’s results and sent their complaints to the Supreme Court. One month after the voting, the court dismissed the opposition’s challenge and validated the election results. President Chissano won with a margin of less than 4% over the RENAMO-Electoral Union coalition candidate, Afonso Dhlakama, and began his 5-year term in January 2000. FRELIMO retained its majority in the National Assembly with 133 out of 250 seats; the RENAMO-UE coalition has 117 seats; there are no third parties represented.

Population Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Mozambique’s population of 17.3 million (from the 1997 census) is mainly Bantu speaking and is divided into 10 major ethnic groups. The Ronga, Shangaan, and Chopie tribes inhabit the south. The numerous and widespread Shonas are in the center, and the Macuas dominate Zambezi and Nampula provinces. The Macondes are in the northeast along the Tanzanian border, and Ajaua (Yao) and Nyanja live along Lake Niassa. About 15,000–20,000 Portuguese citizens still reside in the country, as well as smaller numbers of descendants of immigrants from other European countries and the subcontinent of Asia.

The capital, Maputo, has an approximate population of 1,100,000. Other major cities in Mozambique are Beira, Quelimane, Tete, Nampula, Matola, and Nacala.

Portuguese is the official language and the language of instruction and information. Most Mozambicans have mastered several indigenous languages and many have learned English while working in Zimbabwe and South Africa or in exile with FRELIMO in Tanzania and Zambia. In the northern coastal area, which experienced the greatest Arab influence, some Swahili is spoken.

Although many Mozambicans continue to practice traditional religions, Moslems (about 20%, mainly in the north) and Christians (both Catholic and Protestant, about 35%) make up just over one-half of the population. Catholic and Protestant missionaries were active throughout the country before independence; many of the latter affiliated with English and American churches. Many missionaries left Mozambique after FRELIMO took power due to the new, more restrictive controls imposed. However, those controls have been lifted and the government has allowed greater religious freedom and an air of tolerance now prevails.

Public Institutions Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

The President is the head of state and of government. The Council of Ministers is the chief administrative organization. Mozambique is divided into 11 provinces, each with an appointed governor. Provinces are divided into districts and villages, each with a similar administrative organization.

The National Assembly meets thrice yearly to ratify proposed laws and to review the operation of the government. Until December 1990, FRELIMO was the sole legal political party. Several nascent opposition parties have organized since then, including the former guerilla movement, RENAMO, which constitutes one of the largest opposition parties in sub-Saharan Africa. The Political Committee and the Central Committee are the chief executive organizations of FRELIMO. The party is organized at the national, provincial, district, and village levels. The distinction between party and government is blurred and many officials occupy positions in both. However, FRELIMO has committed itself to maintaining a multi-party democracy based on free elections and has slowly begun the process of separating party and state.

Arts, Science, and Education Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Mozambique has a low literacy rate; estimates range from 37% to 46%. Schools were theoretically open to all under the Portuguese administration but, in practice, it was difficult for Africans to gain more than a rudimentary education. This was particularly true outside the cities where few secondary educational facilities existed.

After independence, the Mozambican Government nationalized all schools and banned private tutors. The educational structure remains basically Portuguese: 5 years of primary education, followed by 5 years of secondary and 2 years of pre-university level instruction. Students who pass pre-university exams (12th class) are eligible for admission to a five-year, first degree program offered by some Mozambican universities. One of the country’s priorities is a nationwide campaign against illiteracy. Increasing numbers of students have been seeking an education in the West, but the cost is prohibitive for all but the well-to-do. A limited number of scholarships are available from Western governments, including the U.S., where many of Mozambique’s young academic elite and technocrats receive university training. This is in sharp contrast to previous years, when the vast majority of Mozambicans studied at universities in East Germany, Cuba, and the former Soviet Union and was actively discouraged from seeking educational opportunities in the U.S.

Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM), established in 1976, is the oldest and largest university in Mozambique, offering a larger range of courses than any other institution. By 1999, more than 6,800 students had attended from all regions of the country, although graduation rates remain low. UEM has improved the quality of its instruction in a number of high priority areas, in part through donor country interaction and support, especially from the World Bank, the Ford Foundation and the Australian Agency for International Development.

Mozambique has established two other public university-level institutions—the Pedagogic University (UP) and the Higher Institute of International Relations (ISRI). Three private institutions of higher learning are in the Higher Polytechnic Institute/University (ISPU) and the Catholic Universities in Beira and Nampula, both set up in 1995, and the Mozambican Institute of Science and Technology (ISCTEM), established in 1996. The Mussa Bin Bik University (UMB) is currently being created in Nampula by the Islamic Center of Mozambique. A new Ministry for Higher Education, Science, and Technology was created in 2000, which recently put forth a strategic plan covering the period 2000–2010.

Talented writers, artists, sculptors, and musicians are in Mozambique. Many of their works depict political themes. Art objects are available from artists who sell door-to-door, at public markets, and in several established art galleries. There are many venues for late-night live music. Both the Mozambican Government and the French and Portuguese Cultural Centers frequently sponsor exhibitions of local artists and host concerts by local musicians.

Principal museums in Maputo include the Museum of Natural History, the National Museum of Art, the Numanistic Museum, the Museum of the Revolution, the Geology Museum, and the privately owned Chissano Museum, which features the works of sculptor Alberto Chissano and other Mozambican artists. The National Library in Maputo is open and houses an extensive collection, although funding for book acquisition and conservation is limited. Mozambique has a school of photography that holds occasional exhibits, a National Institute of Cinema, and the National Song and Dance Company (which toured the U.S. in 2000) that gives regular, highly recommended performances.

Commerce and Industry Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

The Mozambican economy is under-developed, but has tremendous potential. Historically, a major source of income was derived from Mozambique’s ports and railroads. Maputo, a large regional port, is a natural transit point for the South African industrial heartland and Swaziland. In 2000, the Witbank-Maputo Toll Road was opened, allowing rapid road transportation from Maputo to Johannesburg and decreasing the driving time to the South African border from Maputo to 1 hour down from 2 1/2. Beira is an important outlet for Zimbabwe. The port of Nacala in the north is suited to serve Malawi and Zambia. Mozambique also boasts the huge Cahora Bassa hydroelectric dam, the sixth most powerful in the world and the largest in sub-Saharan Africa.

The country faces major economic problems. About one-third of Mozambique’s land is suitable for agriculture, but only about 10% is under cultivation. Most of the rural population engages in subsistence farming, with corn and manioc as the principal crops. Livestock is found primarily in the south and far north where the tsetse fly is not prevalent. Mozambique traditionally has been a major producer of cashews, copra, cotton, sugar, tea, fruits and vegetables, sisal, and timber.

Although the national fishing industry remains small and underdeveloped, Mozambique is famed for its prawns, which is now the leading export.

In late 2000, one of the world’s most modern aluminum smelters, MOZAL (Mozambique Aluminum Company) went on-line. MOZAL, a 1.3 billion dollar investment by a British, Japanese, and South African consortium, is the largest industrial project ever constructed in Mozambique, employing over 800 people. Within the next few years, MOZAL will put aluminum ingots at the top of Mozambique’s export list.

Other local industrial production centers on the processing of agricultural products. Manufacturing industries include: aluminum; paper goods; assembly plants for railroad cars, trucks and buses; steel and metal products; furniture; plastic goods; shoes; soap; cigarettes; beer; tires; cement; and textiles. Most factories shut down periodically due to the lack of raw materials and spare parts.

Mozambique has large mineral deposits, but production is limited. Coal is mined in Tete; other minerals produced include graphite, titanium ore, tantalite, copper, bentonite, marble, bauxite, and precious and semi-precious stones. Several international firms have carried out petroleum exploration. Natural gas fields were discovered in Inhambane and Sofala Provinces, and the Government is seeking potential investors for commercial exploitation.


Automobiles Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

The number of vehicles on the streets of Maputo has steadily increased within the last few years. A number of Japanese makes and some Europeans models are available for purchase locally, although expensive. You will need a personally owned vehicle. All direct-hire Mission employees assigned to Maputo may import two vehicles duty free; contract personnel may import one vehicle duty free.

As traffic moves on the left (as in Britain) throughout southern Africa, right-hand-drive vehicles are used; however, left-hand-drive vehicles (as in the U.S.) may be imported. It should be noted that spare parts for American-made vehicles are not available locally, but some parts may be available in South Africa. A limited range of tire sizes are manufactured in Mozambique but can be expensive. Tire stores are found in South Africa. Leaded petrol (92% octane gasoline) and diesel is widely available, costing less than $2 a gallon (diesel is less). Unleaded petrol is available at very limited locations in Mozambique, but is found throughout South Africa and Swaziland.

The Embassy general services officer (GSO) or the USAID Executive Officer (EXO) is responsible for registering your vehicle when imported into Mozambique. Registration is inexpensive and does not require renewal. To facilitate the process, carry with you to post your car manufacturer’s booklet containing the make and model of the car, maintenance records, and vehicle specifications. Local registration requires information on cylinder capacities, horsepower, and other technical data for the vehicle.

Mission personnel may drive using a valid U.S. or foreign driver’s license. Third-party insurance is required and available locally at a moderate cost. Your vehicle may be sold at the end of your tour, subject to Embassy and Government of Mozambique regulations.

Local Transportation Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Public bus transportation in Maputo is over-crowded and can be dangerous. Taxis are available and somewhat reliable, but are costly. Car rental services are available, but the daily rate for a sedan can be as high as $120.

Roads and railroads in Mozambique have historically linked the coastline with neighboring countries such as Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. The major rail connections extend East to West from Maputo to Swaziland and South Africa, from Beira to Zimbabwe, and from Nacala to Malawi and Zambia.

Mozambique has about 5,300 kms. of paved roads and 23,000 kms. of dirt and gravel roads; several hundred kilometers of these roads were damaged or destroyed by the floods in 2000, but are in the process of being restored under the Government’s reconstruction program, partially financed by USAID. Local bus service provides links to all of the major cities in Mozambique.

Regional Transportation Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Air transportation within Mozambique is provided by the Government airline Linhas Aereas de Mocambique (LAM). Besides servicing most provincial capitals, LAM also provides service to Johannesburg, Harare, Lisbon, Dubai, and the Comoros Islands. South African Airways flies daily from Maputo to Johannesburg. A direct flight to Lisbon is provided by the Portuguese national airline, TAP.


Telephones and Telecommunications Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Maputo’s direct-dial telephone system is reliable. Local rates for service and calls are fair, as are calls to nearby countries. Other international calls, especially to the U.S., are very expensive. Telephones are provided in all U.S. Government-owned and -leased residences.

Wireless Service Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Cellular telephone service is available.

Internet Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Internet service is available in your home.

Mail and Pouch Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

International airmail service is available, although it can be unreliable and slow.

The Embassy does not have APO service, but direct-hire and some contract personnel and their family members on orders are authorized use of Department of State Diplomatic Pouch for in-bound first-class mail and packages (subject to size and weight restrictions) and out-bound first-class mail. U.S. postage stamps should be brought to post or purchased on-line at

First-class letters via the pouch are usually received within 2 to 3 weeks from the mailing date. Packages and periodicals are generally received within 3 to 4 weeks from the mailing date. Personal, package, and fourth-class mail addressed to personnel at the Mission through the pouch should have the correct U.S. postage for delivery to Washington, D.C., and be addressed as follows:

Department of State or USAID
2330 Maputo Place,
Washington, D.C., 20521-2330

Radio and TV Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Radio Mozambique (RM), which celebrated its 26th anniversary in 2001, remains the most popular form of communication, broadcasting in a total of 19 African languages as well as Portuguese, to every province. RM also operates a station called “Maputo Corridor Radio,” which broadcasts in English. Mozambican television is more limited in its reach and only airs approximately 12 hours each day. Independent radio stations, operated by religious organizations or media cooperatives, do exist. A personally owned television station has operated in the capital since 1992.

Direct Satellite Television from South Africa is available to subscribers and cable television is available in some sections of Maputo (including Sommerschield, home to most Mission families).

Newspapers, Magazines, and Technical Journals Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Maputo has one daily and three weekly newspapers. The daily newspaper of Beira, the second largest city, is also sold in Maputo. There are now six distinct news-by-fax publications in Mozambique: five dailies based in Maputo, and one daily based in Beira. Two news-by-fax, “Media FAX” and “Impartial,” are also available via the Internet, as is Mozambique’s national news service, AIM, produced in both English and Portuguese. The Embassy subscribes to news-by-fax and distributes copies internally.

Health and Medicine

Medical Facilities Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Shortly after assuming power in 1975, the FRELIMO government nationalized all medical practices, facilities, and services. This action led to a serious deterioration of the country’s limited medical care and facilities, including the exodus of most of its qualified medical personnel.

Over the last few years many private clinics have opened in Maputo, and there is now a charge for medical services in the public sector.

During the mid-1990s, with the near collapse of central government capacity, most rural services were provided by donor-funded NGOs. More recently, these donors have directly supported the Ministry of Health through institutional strengthening, and the burden for health care provision is shifting back to government with an increasing reliance, as well, on private practitioners. Mozambique currently has about 550 doctors, of which about two-thirds are foreigners.

Government hospitals in urban areas, primarily Maputo and Beira, are overcrowded. All doctors are required to work some part of each working day in the government hospitals. Most doctors work in the hospitals in the morning and in private practice in the afternoons and evenings. The standard of care varies but the U.S. Embassy Health Unit maintains a list of qualified practitioners who can provide excellent care for our patients when necessary. Many of the doctors speak English.

The government-run General Hospital has a Clinica Especial with specialist care available for a fee. If an in-patient stay is necessary a deposit of US$1,000 is required. A simple office visit usually costs $30. In government facilities emergency cases frequently do not receive prompt attention, and sanitary conditions are substandard. Beyond the two major urban centers, medical facilities and care decrease in quality or are nonexistent.

Hospital equipment may be inoperative due to lack of maintenance or spare parts. Electricity failures are also a problem. Pharmaceutical supplies and drugs are often unavailable in the public sector, but most can be found at a private pharmacy. There are two reputable private laboratories in Maputo. Not all lab tests can be completed in Maputo but the labs work closely with parent companies in South Africa, with samples being sent there. An acceptable private ambulance is available in Maputo.

There is an ophthalmologist in Maputo, but supplies of spectacles are limited and expensive. Many people choose to have eye tests in South Africa. This is also true for dental care, although now there are two South African dentists in Maputo.

The Embassy Health Unit is currently staffed by a Foreign Service health practitioner (physician assistant or nurse practitioner), two part-time contract nurses, and a secretary. The Health Unit is small but well equipped and includes a small pharmacy. The staff provides health consultations, immunizations, health education, and treatment of various illnesses/minor injuries. More complicated cases are referred to local consultants or doctors in South Africa. Regional support is provided out of Pretoria, one hour by plane. Pretoria is the MEDEVAC center for Africa. Maputo receives visits from the regional medical officer (RMO) physicians and RMO/psychiatrist on a regular basis.

Two private clinics in Maputo, the Sommerschield Clinic and the Swedish Clinic, provide better-than-adequate in-patient care/general surgery/intensive care. Care facilities in nearby Nelspruit, South Africa are similar to care facilities found in a small, American city. Johannesburg and Pretoria have a full range of high-quality medical services and facilities.

Community Health Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

A variety of infectious diseases are endemic to Mozambique, including malaria, amoebic dysentery, filariasis, typhoid fever, bilharzia, tick fever, hepatitis, meningitis, and HIV. It is essential that all persons living in Maputo take malaria prophylaxis year round, keep immunizations up to date, and pay particular attention to food and water sanitation.

Flies, ticks, mosquitoes, ants, cockroaches, and parasitic worms are present. The post occupational safety and health officer keeps a list of acceptable insecticides for use.

Tap water in Maputo is unsafe to drink and personnel are advised to take bottled water with them when out and about. Most buildings in the city center are connected to a central sewage system, but many residences have septic tanks that require regular cleaning.

Garbage is collected regularly in residential areas.

Bilharzia is widespread throughout the country. It is dangerous to wade, swim, and wash in fresh lakes, ponds, puddles, or streams.

Cholera is endemic in most areas of Mozambique, including Maputo. It remains a yearly threat. Visiting Americans should take the following precautions: drink only bottled or boiled and filtered water; treat locally purchased fruit and vegetables (including purchases from South Africa and Swaziland) in a chlorine solution before consumption; and observe the strictest sanitary practices.

Preventive Measures Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Persons with hay fever, asthma, rheumatism, and arthritis may find the climate uncomfortable and should bring any special medicines they need. Respiratory ailments such as colds, bronchitis, and influenza are common. Infections of all kinds take longer to heal in the damp climate. Inoculations for typhoid, meningitis, polio, and hepatitis are essential. Booster shots may be obtained from the Embassy Health Unit. All personnel and eligible family members should obtain and take anti-malaria tablets before coming to post. Mozambique has chloroquine-resistant malaria. The current Centers for Disease Control recommendation for prophylaxis is Mefloquine. In patients (over the age of 8) who cannot take Mefloquine, Doxycycline is an option. Pets should be inoculated against rabies.

Bring routine over-the-counter medications and prescription drugs. Fluoride for children is provided by the Health Unit. Most medications can be purchased in South Africa.

Employment for Spouses and Dependents Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Employment opportunities for Eligible Family Members (EFMs) and Members of Household (MOHs) of direct-hire USG employees, exist within the Mission. EFMs and MOHs have found employment at USAID, DAO, and the Embassy. The American International School of Mozambique has employed spouses from time to time. In addition, spouses are working in NGOs and international organizations within Maputo. A bilateral work agreement exists between the U.S. and Mozambique, allowing EFMs to receive authorization to work in Mozambique on the local economy. Returning Mission high school and college students find work in the Youth Summer Employment Program administered by the Community Liaison Office.

American Embassy - Maputo

Post City Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Maputo is an attractive city sitting on the western shore of Delagoa Bay, a large body of water formed by the confluence of five rivers and the Indian Ocean, in the southern part of Mozambique. The population of greater Maputo is over one million. The climate is subtropical with an average annual rainfall of 31 inches during summer, from October to April. During summer, the average humidity is about 80% with daytime temperatures often reaching over 90°F. During the rainy season, mildew can be a serious problem. The winter season, from May through September, is dry with moderate temperatures.

The Post and Its Administration Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

The U.S. Government Mission in Mozambique, established in Maputo, includes the U.S. Embassy and Consular Offices, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the Peace Corps, Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Defense Attach‚ Office (DAO).

The Chancery, a converted house, less than a half-mile from the bay and close to other embassies, is located at 193 Avenida Kenneth Kaunda, telephone (258 1) 492797, 491215, 490071; fax (258 1) 490114. The Chief of Mission and Deputy Chief of Mission offices, as well as Consular Services, Marine Security Guard Detachment Office and Post One, DAO, Information Program Unit, the Economic/Political Section, and the Regional Security Office are housed in the Chancery.

The Administrative Annex occupies a refurbished home behind the main Chancery building. In addition to the administrative officer, the Annex houses the Budget and Fiscal office, the Embassy Cashier, Mail Room, Motor Pool, the Human Resources Office, Travel and the Community Liaison Office.

The Public Affairs Office and the Martin Luther King, Jr. Library, is at 525 Av. Mao Tse Tung; the telephone numbers are (258 1) 491916, 491116, and fax 491918.

USAID. Official U.S. development assistance to Mozambique is administered by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), which works closely with the U.S. Embassy as part of the U.S. presence in Mozambique. Since 1984, USAID’s humanitarian and economic development assistance to Mozambique has exceeded US$1.6 billion. USAID Mozambique program has been one of USAID’s two or three largest programs in Africa in recent years. Resource levels are expected to remain stable over the near term. USAID’s programs are national in scope and focus on agriculture, governance, health, and private sector development. Important new initiatives have been launched in HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation, and trade expansion. Following the devastating floods in 2000 the U.S. Government provided $136 million for a program of reconstruction. USAID works in close collaboration with both public sector and private sector Mozambican entities.

Current USAID programs are part of a 1996–2003 strategic plan which was developed in consultation with the Government of Mozambique, other international partners and representatives of the private sector, and non-governmental organizations. The plan focuses on four objectives:

Increasing rural household incomes through increased agricultural production for food security and sales, improved trunk and farm marketing roads, and development of production and financial systems of rural enterprises.
Promoting effective democratic governance through support for multiparty elections, technical support for the National Assembly, strengthening Maputo’s judicial system, and building capacity of civil society organizations.
Improving health through improved access to and delivery of maternal and child health care services, prevention of HIV/AIDS, and institutional and capacity development of the Ministry of Health.
Improving the environment for trade and investment through capacity building of the government and private sector, improved tax administration and contract dispute mechanisms, access to international trade protocols including the World Trade Organization and the Southern Africa Development Community, and Internet connectivity. A new strategy will cover the 2004–2010 period.
USAID also supports handicapped war victims through the Congressional War Victims Fund.

USAID will complete its move into a new 9-storey office building in May 2002. Until then, USAID’s telephone numbers are (258 1) 490726, 493563, 491689, fax 492098. USAID Maputo’s website is

DAO. The Defense Attaché‚ Office was established in March 1986. It is a three-person post, consisting of the defense and army attaché‚ the operations coordinator/assistant, and the NCO operations coordinator. The DAO serves as the military adviser to the Chief of Mission and also represents the Department of Defense (DOD) as the senior U.S. military representative in Mozambique. DOD supports humanitarian assistance, humanitarian demining, joint training and military schooling, and exchange programs with Mozambique.

The DAO is housed within the Chancery; the direct telephone number is (258 1) 490714.

Peace Corps. Forty-one Peace Corps volunteers are currently teaching science and English in secondary and technical schools in five provinces—Manica, Sofala, Inhambane, Gaza, and Maputo. Peace Corps volunteers have been teaching in Mozambique since January 1999.

The Peace Corps office is in the same residential neighborhood as the Embassy; the address is 103 Rua do Alfonso Henriques; the telephone numbers are (258 1) 499082, 496586, fax 492098.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC-HIV/AIDS Project (LIFE Initiative)—The LIFE Initiative was launched by the U.S. Government with the goal of intensifying and expanding the response to the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Various agencies, including USAID, CDC, and others implement this initiative. The CDC HIV/AIDS Project began operating in Mozambique in November 2000. In consultation with the Government of Mozambique as well as other international donors, three major areas were chosen as focus of the program:

Surveillance of HIV/AIDS and related illnesses, primary prevention with emphasis on voluntary counseling and testing, and strategies for providing care to HIV-infected persons at the clinical, community, and home levels.
Program activities include technical as well as financial assistance.
Budget for these activities during 2001 to 2003 will exceed US$6 million.


Temporary Quarters Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

In almost all cases, newly arrived personnel will move directly into their permanent housing. However, Maputo continues to offer limited housing, therefore, a short stay in a hotel upon arrival may be required from time to time.

Permanent Housing Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

The U.S. Government holds short- and long-term leases on Mission houses. Newly assigned personnel are assigned housing by the Inter-Agency Housing Board, which meets regularly, making house assignments within 2–3 months before arrival of personnel.

Most houses have three-to-four bedrooms, two-to-three baths, living and dining rooms, and kitchens. Some houses may have separate quarters for domestic staff (although most domestic employees do not live-in). Many houses are multistory, duplex, or townhouse in style. All houses are air-conditioned. It is rare to have a house with a large yard; in fact most houses have very small yards with a parking space (usually covered).

In addition to leased houses, USAID’s housing compound, Miramar, is home to 12 families. The one-level, detached houses have three-to-four bedrooms, living/dining area, screened porches, garage or carport, and backyard. The compound has a large, open grassy area popular with children.

The Ambassador’s residence is located in an attractive residential area popular with other diplomats. The residence, overlooking the bay, is a lovely, moderate-sized, two-story house with swimming pool. The ground floor has two living rooms, dining room, kitchen, pantry, study/-breakfast room, and bath. The second floor has three bedrooms, two bathrooms with showers and tubs (one with a Jacuzzi), a dressing room/study, and a covered porch. All rooms have high ceilings and large windows.

The Deputy Chief of Mission’s house is adjacent to the Chancery. The residence offers a spacious living and dining area, large kitchen with pantry, study, and powder room on the first floor. The second floor has five bedrooms (the master bedroom is en suite), a sitting/family area, and two additional bathrooms. A two-car carport is attached to the house. The garden features a swimming pool.

Both the Ambassador’s and DCM’s residences are furnished with television, VCR, satellite TV service, and stereo.

Furnishings Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

All personnel must bring their own bed and bath linens, table settings (glasses, dishes, and silverware), pots and pans, and small specialty appliances (the Ambassador and DCM’s residences have bed and bath linens, representational china, silver, glassware, and kitchen equipment). You will want to bring your own decorations, paintings, and personal items to make your house a home.

Utilities and Equipment Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Mission houses have air-conditioning in living areas (not in the kitchen) and bedrooms, modern bath facilities, and electric generators (blackouts can be frequent during the rainy season). The electric current is 220v, 50 Hz. Houses are equipped with a washer and dryer, a limited number of transformers, refrigerator and freezer, microwave oven, water distiller, and electric range.

Food Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Personnel assigned to Maputo may elect to use the full consumables allowance (shipped at USG expense) of up to 2,500 pounds for a 2-year tour.

There are several grocery stores in Maputo, generally offering a wide variety of items, but at a higher cost than in the U.S. Many in the Mission shop for groceries, wine, beer, and liquors, in South Africa. Fresh fruits (including many tropical varieties) and vegetables (sold at sidewalk stalls, grocery stores, or in the central market) are available in Maputo year round.

Clothing Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

A limited selection of clothing and shoes, both for men and women, may be purchased in Maputo, but can be very expensive. South Africa offers a larger selection of apparel at less cost. Many Mission members order apparel over the Internet.

Lightweight, natural-fiber, washable clothes are best for the summer; while medium-weight items, including cotton sweaters or a light jacket, are suitable for the cool, dry winter.

Maputo has a few drycleaning establishments, offering only adequate cleaning at very expensive rates.

Men Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Men’s clothing for business and evening wear tends to be conservative. Staff members usually wear a shirt and tie, although it is not required. Officers calling on the ministries or government officials will wear a coat and tie. Cotton blend, wash-and-wear, and lightweight, wool-blend suits are appropriate for the summer season; medium-weight wool suits may be worn in winter. Shorts and sport shirts are worn at home and for informal occasions. Formal wear may be worn for the Marine Ball, but a dark suit will suffice.

Women Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Again, cottons, linens, and other natural fibers are best for summer clothing for women. Winter days may require a shawl, jacket, or light sweater in the mornings or evenings. A raincoat or jacket will be useful. Dresses, pantsuits, and suits are all worn in the office.

Cocktail dresses or a dressier dress are worn for official evening functions; and evening gowns may be worn to a limited number of gala events (the Marine Ball, for one).

Shorts, sleeveless blouses, and sundresses may be worn around town; bikinis may be worn on the beach (due to poor security, some beaches in Maputo are not recommended for foreigners).

Children Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Children dress much the same as they do in the U.S. Informal, casual clothing is worn to the American International School of Mozambique; school uniforms are worn at the Christian Academy. Younger children tend to live in shorts and T-shirts in the summer; and jeans and T-shirts in the winter. Girls enjoy wearing washable dresses in the summer. Lightweight jackets, sweaters, and long pants are useful in the winter or on trips to game reserves or nearby mountains.

Supplies and Services Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

The American Mission does not have a recreation association.

Supplies Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Many familiar name-brand American products (Revlon, Ponds, Gillette, Estee Lauder, Skippy, Kellogg’s) may be purchased in Maputo and in South Africa. Most of these goods are manufactured in South Africa, and while similar to their American counterparts, may not be exactly what you are used to. Nevertheless, they are available, and cost about the same as in the U.S. if purchased in South Africa, higher if purchased in Maputo.

Toys, sporting goods, camping supplies, fishing equipment, and more may be found in South Africa.

Basic Services Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Laundry and drycleaning services may be found in Maputo, but are generally of inferior quality and at a higher cost than in the U.S.

Gasoline (including limited-availability unleaded fuel) and diesel are readily available in Maputo, selling for less than $2 per gallon. There are reasonably priced, competent mechanics in town. However, most people have their vehicles serviced in South Africa.

Maputo offers a number of beauty and barbershops, some doing acceptable work. Hair coloring, frosting, and perms may be done in Maputo, but you will pay more than you do at your local salon. Massage, manicures, pedicures, etc. are available.

Domestic Help Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Domestic employees generally work 40–50 hours per week and live out. The average monthly salary for a full-time “empregada” who may do some cooking, all of the house cleaning, laundry, and some shopping, is $130. Many Mission families provide extra money to their domestic employees for transportation, either pay a food allowance or provide one meal a day, and purchase uniforms. Full-time nannies earn on average $150 per month; gardeners earn approximately $30 per month. Most domestic employees do not speak English, but do speak Portuguese. In many cases, newly arrived personnel will hire the domestic employee of the officer’s predecessor.

In addition to a monthly salary, many Mission families pay their domestic employees a “13-month bonus” (or pro rata share) at the end of the year.

Religious Activities Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Church services and Sunday school are conducted in English at the Anglican, International Evangelical, Lutheran, Catholic, and Seventh-day Adventist churches. Maputo has several Protestant and Catholic churches, a Jewish synagogue, a Buddhist temple, Hindu temple, and Muslim mosques.


Dependent Education

At Post Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The American International School of Mozambique (AISM), formally opened in September 1990, is an independent, coeducational day school offering an American-style educational program from pre-kindergarten (pre-kindergarten is not covered by the educational allowance) through grade 8 (grade 9 is being offered as a distance learning course through the University of Nebraska) for students of all nationalities. Instruction is in English. The school year of 180 days is divided into 3 trimesters, beginning in August and ending in June.

AISM offers a high-quality education similar to that found in private schools in the U.S. Portuguese, music, art, library, computers, and physical education enrich the curriculum. English fluency is required. AISM is fully accredited by the Middle States Association of College Schools.

At the beginning of the 2001-2002 school year the enrollment at AISM was 141 students. The school employs 15 full-time and 8 part-time faculty members.

AISM moved into a 150-pupil new campus during the 1996-97 school year. A 10,000-volume elementary library and audio-visual collection have been developed. The completely networked technology center, with 16 workstations, introduced new computers in 2000-2001. Internet access supports student research projects. A fully equipped science lab was added in 1999 for hands-on science experiments. Sports facilities include a hard-court and swimming pool.

For application materials for AISM, email

The Christian Academy, attended by one Mission child in the 2001-2002 school year, offers U.S. Christian curriculum (A Beka) from kindergarten through 12th grade. The total enrollment is 33 students taught by 15 full- and part-time teachers. The Academy prepares the student for U.S. and Canadian universities. Portuguese, French, computers, and choir are offered along with basic core classes. Bible classes are required. The Christian Academy is at 3005 24 de Julho, Maputo; the telephone number is (258 1) 400657; email is Contact Dr. Claude Meyers, Director, for application information or further questions.

A number of preschools are found in Maputo, as are informal playgroups within the Mission family.

Away From Post Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
An away-from-post educational allowance covers the cost of boarding school tuition for grade 9 and above. Families may elect to send their child to boarding schools in other countries, in addition to the U.S.

Recreation and Social Life

Sports Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

A variety of water sports are easily available within minutes of the Embassy. Windsurfing, parasailing, kayaking, jet skiing, sailing, Hobie cats, and power boats are all enjoyed, with rentals available in Maputo. Inhaca Island, a 15-minute plane flight, or a 45-minute speedboat ride away, offers clear water ideal for snorkeling and scuba diving, deep-sea fishing, and comfortable accommodations.

A nine-hole golf course offers a chance to practice your skills. Although the facility is minimal, it is enjoyed by a number of Mission families. For a weekend away, golfers head to South Africa or Swaziland, where professional courses await.

Clube Navale offers a swimming pool, modest tennis court, billiard room, dining and bar facilities, and a place to park and/or launch your boat. Clube des Desportivos Maritimo has boat storage and launching facilities, dining, and bar. There are a number of health and fitness clubs, as well as membership to the facilities found at the more luxurious hotels in town, including the Hotel Polana. And of course, Maputo has an active chapter of the Hash House Harriers, a running club.

Horse riding, instruction, and boarding facilities are available.

Touring and Outdoor Activities Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Mozambique and the region offer limitless possibilities for touring and adventuring. Within Mozambique, the 1737-mile coast offers long, deserted beaches; the islands offer deep-sea fishing, diving, and snorkeling. Add to this all that neighboring South Africa and Swaziland have to offer, and it is easy to see why it is hard to make a dent on your list of things-to-see-and-do while in southern Africa. Game safaris, mountain biking, white-water rafting, history treks, mountaineering, craft purchases, birding, whale-watching, casino visits, camping, and the shopping malls of South Africa all are within as little as a 3-hour drive from Maputo.

Entertainment Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Entertaining at home, be it a sit-down dinner, casual barbecue, swim party, or buffet, is a popular form of enjoyment for many Americans within the Mission. The Marines offer the occasional movie night and happy hour, and will often host seasonal events for the children in the community. Maputo has an International Women’s Club which meets once a month. The American International School hosts a number of annual community events, as do the Hash House Harriers.

As South Africa and Swaziland are so close to Maputo, many Mission families travel on weekends to these countries to enjoy tourism, grocery shopping, or all that American-style malls have to offer.

Maputo has a number of cinemas, theaters offering drama, music and dance performances, lively late-night jazz clubs, and sidewalk cafes offering a chance to relax and people-watch.

The television broadcasting system for Maputo is compatible with PAL southern Africa, not NTSC, as in the U.S. If you want to view broadcast/cable television, you will need a multi-system TV. South African cable television is available in your home at a reasonable rate of around $60 per month. The service offers CNN, two movie channels, two South African network channels, ESPN, MTV, Discovery, National Geographic, Kids Channel, and more. DSTV, a South African satellite service, offers even more programming. AFRTS (U.S. military broadcasting) is also available for those who are authorized to purchase decoders.

Reliable Internet service is available to your home.

Social Activities

Among Americans Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The American Embassy community sponsors the Fourth of July Community Picnic, and children’s Halloween, Christmas, and Easter parties. The Marine Ball, the highlight of Mission social events, is held each November.

Official Functions

Nature of Functions Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Embassy staff members assist the Chief of Mission in entertaining guests at official or semiofficial functions, serving in essence as co-hosts, thus ensuring host-country guests a pleasant and rewarding experience.

Standards of Social Conduct Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

The number of calling cards varies according to type and amount of social activity. Bring at least 100 personal cards (cards may also be purchased in Maputo). Married officers may wish to include a small supply of “Mr. and Mrs.” cards.

Special Information Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Post Orientation Program

New arrivals, including adult family members and other members of the household, receive a number of pertinent briefings regarding living in Mozambique. These briefings will touch on health matters, security issues, administrative procedures, and how to best enjoy life in Mozambique. All new arrivals are given a welcome packet of information, offering basic survival skills and orientation to Maputo.

Post-language classes are offered to officers and, when space is available, to family members.

Notes For Travelers

Getting to the Post Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Travelers may arrive to Maputo from New York or Atlanta via Delta Airlines/South African Airlines code-share through Johannesburg, South Africa. Travelers may also travel on various American-carrier code-share airlines through Europe (example: United/-Lufthansa, Northwest/KLM), on to Johannesburg. Flights connect to Maputo in Johannesburg on South African Airlines.

The Mozambican Government’s Embassy in Washington, D.C., issues visas. For U.S. direct-hire personnel, visas will be obtained for you and your family members through your agency. Allow 2 weeks to secure a visa. Tourist visas obtained through the Mozambican Embassy can take 2 weeks or more but may be obtained in less time for an extra fee.

Customs, Duties, and Passage

Customs and Duties Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Maputo has no distinction between diplomatic and non-diplomatic official personnel for purposes of customs, importation privileges, etc. Your agency will arrange all import and customs formalities with the Government of Mozambique for incoming household effects (HHE), airfreight, vehicles, etc.

There are no restrictions on types or quantities of permitted articles imported for personal use, with the exception of firearms and ammunition. HHE and other personal-use articles may be imported at any time during your tour. Contract personnel should contact their contracting agency for importation rules and regulations.

The bill of lading or airway bill, and packing list are required to clear all shipments, and should be received by post well in advance of shipment. Include the following information: name of ship or flight number, expected date of arrival, and gross weight.

Air and surface shipments for Maputo should be addressed as follows:

American Ambassador (your initials)
American Embassy
Republic of Mozambique

Pets Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

Mozambique does not require quarantine for your pet. However, the following documents must be in the hands of the administrative officer or executive officer at least 3 weeks before your pet’s arrival:

A valid rabies certificate dated at least 1 month before arrival.
A recent (within 2 weeks) certificate of good health from your vet.
Name, age, and breed of pet; owner’s name and current address; and expected date of arrival and flight number.
In the likely event you will be transiting Johannesburg on your way to Maputo, be prepared to have your animal quarantined as you transit the airport. South African animal forwarding agencies will obtain the necessary transit permit from the South African Department of Agriculture in advance of your arrival. Contact: Pet Travel, fax 0027 11 708 3074, or Animal Travel, fax 0027 11 460 1436. Please note that your pet will have to travel to South Africa as manifest cargo, NOT as excess baggage—this is a Government of South Africa rule (and yes, it will cost you more). If your pets do land as excess baggage, there is a strong possibility that South African authorities will send them back to the country from which they came! Diplomats do not have to pay the transit permit fee.

Firearms and Ammunition Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

The importation of firearms requires prior approval of the Ambassador. For the stringent Mozambican regulations regarding the importation for firearms and ammunition, contact your agency’s administrative officer.

Currency, Banking, and Weights and Measures Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

The Mozambican unit of currency is the metical. Notes are available in the following meticais denominations: 5,000; 10,000; 20,000; 50,000 and 100,000. The exchange rate floats against the U.S. dollar. The exchange rate in November 2001 was approximately 23,000 meticais to the dollar.

Within Maputo (and some tourist towns in Mozambique), the South African rand and the American dollar are accepted. Credit cards may be used in Maputo at hotels, restaurants, some shops, and at travel and car rental agencies.

The metric system is used for all measurements.

Taxes, Exchange, and Sale of Property Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

U.S. Government employees in Mozambique are exempt from local Mozambican income taxes. Diplomats do pay a Value Added Tax (VAT) on locally purchased items and goods. In addition, diplomats must pay an airport departure tax of $10 when flying out of the country, $5 within the country.

On departure, official personnel may obtain permission from their agency’s administrative officer for a reverse accommodation exchange, exchanging a limited amount of meticais to dollars. In the case of the sale of a POV, funds will be processed through electronic fund transfer.

At the end of your tour, you may sell personal property in accordance with Embassy and Government of Mozambique regulations. In general, no items may be sold until the end of your tour. Your vehicle will be valued by the Mozambican Government, and, most often, a high percentage of tax, based on the official valuation, will be applied to the sale of your vehicle (unless sold to another diplomat).

Recommended Reading Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

The following titles are provided as a general indication of the material published on this country. The Department of State does not endorse unofficial publications.

Abrahamsson, Hans and Anders Milsson. Mozambique the Troubled Transition from Socialist Construction to Free Market Capitalism. New Jersey: Zed Books, 1995.

Aldan, Chris. Mozambique and the Construction of the New African State: From Negotiations to Nation Building. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.

Andersson, Hilary. Mozambique: A War Against the People. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992.

Birmingham, David. Frontline Nationalism in Angola and Mozambique. Trenton: Africa World Press Inc., 1992.

Bowen, Merle L. The State Against the Peasantry: Rural Struggles in Colonial and Post Colonial Mozambique. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

Cabrita, Joäo. Mozambique: The Tortuous Road to Democracy. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.

Chan, Stephen and Moisés Venâncio. War and Peace in Mozambique. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.

Chingano, Mark F. The State, Violence and Development: The Political Economy of the War in Mozambique 1975–1992. Brookfield: Avebury, 1996.

Chissano, Joaquim Alberto. Peace and Reconstruction. Harare: Africa Publications Group Southern African Research and Documentation Center, 1997.

Ciment, James. Angola and Mozambique: Post Colonial Wars in Southern Africa. New York: Facts on File, 1997.

Davidson, Basil. Joe Slovo and Anthony R. Wilkinson. Southern Africa: The New Politics of Revolution. Harmandsworth: Penguin, 1976.

Davidson, Basil. Southern Africa: Progress or Disaster. London: British Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa, 1984.

Finnegan, William. A Complicated War: The Harrowing of Mozambique. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

FRELIMO. Department of Ideological Work. A History of FRELIMO. Harare: Longman, 1982.

Hall, Margaret and Tom Young. Confronting Leviathan: Mozambique Since Independence. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1997.

Hanlon, Joseph. Mozambique: Who Calls the Shots? Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.

Hanlon, Joseph. Mozambique: The Revolution Under Fire. New Jersey: Zed Books, 1984.

Harrison, Graham. The Politics of Democratization in Rural Mozambique: Grassroots Government in Mecufi. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen, 2000.

Humbaraci, Arslan. Portugal’s African Wars: Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique. New York: Third Press, 1974.

Kitchen, Helen, ed. Angola, Mozambique and the West. New York: Praeger, 1987.

Machel, Samora. Mozambique: Sowing the Seeds of Revolution. London: Committee for Freedom in Mozambique, Angola and Guin‚, 1975.

Machel, Samora and Barry Munslow. Samora Machel: An African Revolutionary Selected Speeches and Writings. London: Zed Books, 1985.

Magaia, Lina. Dumba Nengue: Run for Your Life Peasant Tales of Tragedy in Mozambique. Trenton: Africa World Press Inc., 1988.

Minter, William. Apartheid’s Contras: An Inquiry into the Roots of War in Angola and Mozambique. New Jersey: Zed Books, 1994.

Minter, William. Portuguese Africa and the West. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972.

Minter, William. King Solomon’s Mines Revisited: Western Interests and the Burdened History of Southern Africa. New York: Basic Books, 1986.

Mondlane, Eduardo. The Struggle for Mozambique. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1969.

Newitt, M.D.D. A History of Mozambique. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

Saul, John, ed. A Difficult Road: The Transition to Socialism in Mozambique. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1985.

Slater, Mike. Guide to Mozambique. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 1994.

Synge, Richard. Mozambique: UN Peacekeeping in Action 1992–94. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1997.

Urdang, Stephanie. And Still They Dance: Women, War and the Struggle for Change in Mozambique. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1989.

Vines, Alex. RENAMO: Terrorism in Mozambique. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.

Local Holidays Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM

The following local holidays are observed in Mozambique.

New Year’s Day January 1
Mozambican Heroes Day February 3
Woman’s Day April 7
Worker’s Day May 1
Independence Day June 25
Lusaka Agreement Day September 7
Revolution Day September 25
Maputo City Day November 10
Family Day December 25

Adapted from material published by the U.S. Department of State. While some of the information is specific to U.S. missions abroad, the post report provides a good overview of general living conditions in the host country for diplomats from all nations.
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