|Preface Last Updated: 1/31/2002
One of the last African countries to become independent (1975),
Mozambique became the poorest country in Africa. Yet Mozambique has
made a strong turnaround: privatizing a major part of the economy,
attracting foreign investment, and growing rapidly with small-scale
agriculture fueling the economic recovery. Nonetheless, there is a
long way to go to achieve broad-based sustainable development.
Mozambique is a large country, twice the size of California, with
over 1,700 miles of coastline. Arab traders plied the Indian Ocean
waters along Mozambique’s coast for several centuries before the
arrival of European explorers. The Portuguese established trading
posts and forts, and ultimately colonized the country. However, the
Portuguese did not pay attention to Mozambique, devoting its
attention instead to trade with India and the colonization of
With an increase in Portuguese emigration to Mozambique after
World War II, a drive for Mozambican independence rose along with
it. After 10 years of sporadic warfare and major political changes
in Portugal, Mozambique gained its independence on June 25, 1975.
Civil war followed independence, finally ending after 16 long
years with the signing of the Rome Peace Accord in 1992.
In early 2000, Mozambique suffered a major setback on its road to
progress by experiencing devastating floods, which occurred in the
southern and central regions of the country. Despite this disaster,
Mozambique continues to make strides toward becoming a stable,
democratic, self-sustaining, peaceful country.
Maputo, the capital, is beautiful. Yes, it may be a little ragged
around the edges, but it sits overlooking the beautiful Delagoa Bay,
Inhaca Island and the Indian Ocean beyond. It is easy to understand
why this city was once the number one destination for honeymooners.
New construction and major building renovations give hope to seeing
Maputo once again regain its former glory as a premier destination.
The city streets are wide, tree-lined boulevards where one
encounters office buildings, old residences, shops, restaurants, and
The Baixa (the lower section of the city that is the main
commercial area) is a mix of modern architecture and many of
Maputo’s historic buildings. Along the water’s edge is the Marginal,
a palm-lined street running the length of Maputo’s sea front. Here
one can enjoy a meal, listen to music, cast your line for a fish,
catch the sunset, spend the day on the beach, shop for local
handicrafts, or enjoy a cold drink! The Embassy is in Sommerschield,
a neighborhood that is also home to Mission personnel. Commuting to
work generally involves a 5- to 10-minute walk with at least one
glimpse of the Bay! The new 9-storey USAID building is a short drive
to the Baixa.
The Host Country
Area, Geography, and Climate Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The Republic of Mozambique, a little less than twice the size of
California, covers 303,769 square miles. It is bounded on the north
by Tanzania; on the west by Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa,
and the Kingdom of Swaziland; and on the south by South Africa. The
1,737-mile coastline stretches from the Rovuma River in the north,
to Ponta de Ouro in the south.
The country is mostly coastal lowlands, with uplands in the
center, high plateaus (rising to 800 to 2,000 feet) in the
northwest, and mountains (6,000 to 8,000 feet) in the west. The
northern part of Mozambique is rugged, where mountains may reach a
height of more than 8,000 feet. Africa’s fourth longest river, the
Zambezi, divides Mozambique in half.
The climate in the plains and along the coast is warm and humid;
the mountainous areas are cooler, although at times, equally wet. A
hot, rainy season lasts from October to April. The rest of the year
has a more moderate climate, with the coolest months in June and
July. Rainfall is uneven and unpredictable; periodic droughts and
floods occur. Mozambique experienced devastating floods in February
and March 2000, causing loss of life and much destruction.
Mozambique’s first inhabitants were Bushmanoid hunters and
gatherers, ancestors of the Khoisani peoples. Between the first and
fourth centuries A.D., waves of Bantu-speaking people migrated from
the northern region through the Zambezi River Valley, and gradually,
into the plateau and coastal areas. The Bantu were farmers and
When the Portuguese explorer, Vasco de Gama, reached Mozambique
in 1498, Arab trading settlements had existed along the coast for
several centuries. The country entered modern history when de Gama
landed in what is now Inhambane Province, on his historic voyage to
The first Portuguese settlement, at Sofala, dates from 1505, but
the administrative and commercial capital of the area was
established on the fortress-Island of Mozambique, located in what is
now Nampula Province. The Island of Mozambique was a source of gold,
real as well as legendary. This island was also an important
way-station en route to India, and Arab and Muslim influences have
remained strong to this day. Trading posts, fortresses, and
precarious settlements were established up the Zambezi River at Sena
Maputo, formerly known as Louren‡o Marques, developed slowly as a
minor trading post after the mid-1700s. In the mid-1800s, it
attained economic and strategic importance as the rail outlet to the
mining area of the Transvaal, in what is now the Republic of South
Africa. After 1875, Maputo developed rapidly as a port, railhead,
and commercial center.
In 1890, the Portuguese abandoned claims to the hinterland
between Mozambique and Angola which, in effect, established the
boundaries of present-day Mozambique. A series of military campaigns
established effective Portuguese occupation of most of the country,
which previously had been limited to a few costal ports and trading
stations. During much of the early 20th century, the central and
northern parts of the territory were administered by chartered
companies. In 1897 the capital was moved to Lourenço Marques
(renamed Maputo after independence in 1975) as the Portuguese sought
to consolidate their claim on Mozambique against British and German
Mozambique’s pre-independence legal status varied. For many
centuries, it was a dependency of the Portuguese viceroy in India
and later, under the Salazar regime, it was considered an integral
part of Portugal. In 1964 the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique
(FRELIMO) launched a guerilla campaign aimed at forcing the
Portuguese Government to grant independence to Mozambique. From 1964
to 1974, FRELIMO guerillas carried out military operations in the
provinces of Cabo Delgado, Niassa, Tete, and Manica. FRELIMO was
supported politically and materially by several neighboring
independent African states and the Organization of African Unity.
Shortly after the April 1974 coup in Lisbon, the Portuguese
Government initiated negotiations with FRELIMO to end the fighting
and pave the way for independence for Mozambique. The Lusaka Accords
were signed by the two sides in September 1974 and a transitional
government with FRELIMO at its head, was installed soon after in
Maputo. Mozambique became an independent country on June 25, 1975,
and was officially called the People’s Republic of Mozambique.
The last 25 years of Mozambique’s history have encapsulated the
political developments of the entire 20th century. Portuguese
colonialism collapsed in 1974 after a decade of armed struggle,
initially led by American-educated Eduardo Mondlane, who was
assassinated in 1969. When independence was proclaimed in 1975, the
leaders of FRELIMO’s military campaign rapidly established a
one-party state allied to the Soviet bloc, eliminating political
pluralism, religious educational institutions, and the role of
Civil war, sabotage from neighboring states, and economic
collapse, first from the mass exodus of Portuguese nationals and the
weak infrastructure left by them, together with the unwieldy
structures designed by communist planners, characterized the first
decade of Mozambican independence. During most of the civil war the
government was unable to exercise effective control outside of urban
areas. An estimated one million Mozambicans perished during the
civil war, 1.5 million took refuge in neighboring states, and
several million more were internally displaced. President Samora
Machel had already conceded the need for political and economic
reforms before his death, along with several key advisers, in a
suspicious plane crash in 1986.
His successor, Joaquim Chissano, continued the reforms. The new
constitution enacted in 1990 provided for a multiparty political
system, a market-based economy, and free elections. Religious
institutions resumed full activity in 1986 and spearheaded the peace
movement from 1990–92. Accompanied by the worst drought on record in
southern Africa, the civil war ended in October 1992 with the Rome
By mid-1995 the over 1.7 million refugees who had sought asylum
in neighboring countries as a result of the war and drought had
returned to Mozambique, as part of the largest repatriation
witnessed in sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, a further estimated 4
million internally displaced had largely returned to their areas of
Under supervision of a UN peacekeeping force, stability and
structure returned; in 1994 the country held its first democratic
elections. Chissano was re-elected President by 53% of the vote. A
250-member National Assembly was formed in December 1994, composed
of 129 FRELIMO deputies, 112 RENAMO (Mozambican National Resistance
Movement) deputies, and 9 representatives of three smaller parties
that formed the Democratic Union (UD). After some delays, in 1998
the country held its first local elections to decentralize power and
some budgetary authority at the municipal level. The principal
opposition parties boycotted these local elections, citing flaws in
the registration process; some independent slates contested the
elections and won seats on municipal counsels. Turnout was very low.
The second general elections were held December 3–5, 1999.
Observers agreed that the voting process was well organized and went
smoothly. Both the opposition and observers subsequently cited
irregularities in the tabulation process, however, which marred the
exercise. The opposition coalition did not accept the National
Elections Commission’s results and sent their complaints to the
Supreme Court. One month after the voting, the court dismissed the
opposition’s challenge and validated the election results. President
Chissano won with a margin of less than 4% over the RENAMO-Electoral
Union coalition candidate, Afonso Dhlakama, and began his 5-year
term in January 2000. FRELIMO retained its majority in the National
Assembly with 133 out of 250 seats; the RENAMO-UE coalition has 117
seats; there are no third parties represented.
Population Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Mozambique’s population of 17.3 million (from the 1997 census) is
mainly Bantu speaking and is divided into 10 major ethnic groups.
The Ronga, Shangaan, and Chopie tribes inhabit the south. The
numerous and widespread Shonas are in the center, and the Macuas
dominate Zambezi and Nampula provinces. The Macondes are in the
northeast along the Tanzanian border, and Ajaua (Yao) and Nyanja
live along Lake Niassa. About 15,000–20,000 Portuguese citizens
still reside in the country, as well as smaller numbers of
descendants of immigrants from other European countries and the
subcontinent of Asia.
The capital, Maputo, has an approximate population of 1,100,000.
Other major cities in Mozambique are Beira, Quelimane, Tete, Nampula,
Matola, and Nacala.
Portuguese is the official language and the language of
instruction and information. Most Mozambicans have mastered several
indigenous languages and many have learned English while working in
Zimbabwe and South Africa or in exile with FRELIMO in Tanzania and
Zambia. In the northern coastal area, which experienced the greatest
Arab influence, some Swahili is spoken.
Although many Mozambicans continue to practice traditional
religions, Moslems (about 20%, mainly in the north) and Christians
(both Catholic and Protestant, about 35%) make up just over one-half
of the population. Catholic and Protestant missionaries were active
throughout the country before independence; many of the latter
affiliated with English and American churches. Many missionaries
left Mozambique after FRELIMO took power due to the new, more
restrictive controls imposed. However, those controls have been
lifted and the government has allowed greater religious freedom and
an air of tolerance now prevails.
Public Institutions Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The President is the head of state and of government. The Council
of Ministers is the chief administrative organization. Mozambique is
divided into 11 provinces, each with an appointed governor.
Provinces are divided into districts and villages, each with a
similar administrative organization.
The National Assembly meets thrice yearly to ratify proposed laws
and to review the operation of the government. Until December 1990,
FRELIMO was the sole legal political party. Several nascent
opposition parties have organized since then, including the former
guerilla movement, RENAMO, which constitutes one of the largest
opposition parties in sub-Saharan Africa. The Political Committee
and the Central Committee are the chief executive organizations of
FRELIMO. The party is organized at the national, provincial,
district, and village levels. The distinction between party and
government is blurred and many officials occupy positions in both.
However, FRELIMO has committed itself to maintaining a multi-party
democracy based on free elections and has slowly begun the process
of separating party and state.
Arts, Science, and Education Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Mozambique has a low literacy rate; estimates range from 37% to
46%. Schools were theoretically open to all under the Portuguese
administration but, in practice, it was difficult for Africans to
gain more than a rudimentary education. This was particularly true
outside the cities where few secondary educational facilities
After independence, the Mozambican Government nationalized all
schools and banned private tutors. The educational structure remains
basically Portuguese: 5 years of primary education, followed by 5
years of secondary and 2 years of pre-university level instruction.
Students who pass pre-university exams (12th class) are eligible for
admission to a five-year, first degree program offered by some
Mozambican universities. One of the country’s priorities is a
nationwide campaign against illiteracy. Increasing numbers of
students have been seeking an education in the West, but the cost is
prohibitive for all but the well-to-do. A limited number of
scholarships are available from Western governments, including the
U.S., where many of Mozambique’s young academic elite and
technocrats receive university training. This is in sharp contrast
to previous years, when the vast majority of Mozambicans studied at
universities in East Germany, Cuba, and the former Soviet Union and
was actively discouraged from seeking educational opportunities in
Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM), established in 1976, is the
oldest and largest university in Mozambique, offering a larger range
of courses than any other institution. By 1999, more than 6,800
students had attended from all regions of the country, although
graduation rates remain low. UEM has improved the quality of its
instruction in a number of high priority areas, in part through
donor country interaction and support, especially from the World
Bank, the Ford Foundation and the Australian Agency for
Mozambique has established two other public university-level
institutions—the Pedagogic University (UP) and the Higher Institute
of International Relations (ISRI). Three private institutions of
higher learning are in the Higher Polytechnic Institute/University (ISPU)
and the Catholic Universities in Beira and Nampula, both set up in
1995, and the Mozambican Institute of Science and Technology (ISCTEM),
established in 1996. The Mussa Bin Bik University (UMB) is currently
being created in Nampula by the Islamic Center of Mozambique. A new
Ministry for Higher Education, Science, and Technology was created
in 2000, which recently put forth a strategic plan covering the
Talented writers, artists, sculptors, and musicians are in
Mozambique. Many of their works depict political themes. Art objects
are available from artists who sell door-to-door, at public markets,
and in several established art galleries. There are many venues for
late-night live music. Both the Mozambican Government and the French
and Portuguese Cultural Centers frequently sponsor exhibitions of
local artists and host concerts by local musicians.
Principal museums in Maputo include the Museum of Natural
History, the National Museum of Art, the Numanistic Museum, the
Museum of the Revolution, the Geology Museum, and the privately
owned Chissano Museum, which features the works of sculptor Alberto
Chissano and other Mozambican artists. The National Library in
Maputo is open and houses an extensive collection, although funding
for book acquisition and conservation is limited. Mozambique has a
school of photography that holds occasional exhibits, a National
Institute of Cinema, and the National Song and Dance Company (which
toured the U.S. in 2000) that gives regular, highly recommended
Commerce and Industry Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The Mozambican economy is under-developed, but has tremendous
potential. Historically, a major source of income was derived from
Mozambique’s ports and railroads. Maputo, a large regional port, is
a natural transit point for the South African industrial heartland
and Swaziland. In 2000, the Witbank-Maputo Toll Road was opened,
allowing rapid road transportation from Maputo to Johannesburg and
decreasing the driving time to the South African border from Maputo
to 1 hour down from 2 1/2. Beira is an important outlet for
Zimbabwe. The port of Nacala in the north is suited to serve Malawi
and Zambia. Mozambique also boasts the huge Cahora Bassa
hydroelectric dam, the sixth most powerful in the world and the
largest in sub-Saharan Africa.
The country faces major economic problems. About one-third of
Mozambique’s land is suitable for agriculture, but only about 10% is
under cultivation. Most of the rural population engages in
subsistence farming, with corn and manioc as the principal crops.
Livestock is found primarily in the south and far north where the
tsetse fly is not prevalent. Mozambique traditionally has been a
major producer of cashews, copra, cotton, sugar, tea, fruits and
vegetables, sisal, and timber.
Although the national fishing industry remains small and
underdeveloped, Mozambique is famed for its prawns, which is now the
In late 2000, one of the world’s most modern aluminum smelters,
MOZAL (Mozambique Aluminum Company) went on-line. MOZAL, a 1.3
billion dollar investment by a British, Japanese, and South African
consortium, is the largest industrial project ever constructed in
Mozambique, employing over 800 people. Within the next few years,
MOZAL will put aluminum ingots at the top of Mozambique’s export
Other local industrial production centers on the processing of
agricultural products. Manufacturing industries include: aluminum;
paper goods; assembly plants for railroad cars, trucks and buses;
steel and metal products; furniture; plastic goods; shoes; soap;
cigarettes; beer; tires; cement; and textiles. Most factories shut
down periodically due to the lack of raw materials and spare parts.
Mozambique has large mineral deposits, but production is limited.
Coal is mined in Tete; other minerals produced include graphite,
titanium ore, tantalite, copper, bentonite, marble, bauxite, and
precious and semi-precious stones. Several international firms have
carried out petroleum exploration. Natural gas fields were
discovered in Inhambane and Sofala Provinces, and the Government is
seeking potential investors for commercial exploitation.
Automobiles Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The number of vehicles on the streets of Maputo has steadily
increased within the last few years. A number of Japanese makes and
some Europeans models are available for purchase locally, although
expensive. You will need a personally owned vehicle. All direct-hire
Mission employees assigned to Maputo may import two vehicles duty
free; contract personnel may import one vehicle duty free.
As traffic moves on the left (as in Britain) throughout southern
Africa, right-hand-drive vehicles are used; however, left-hand-drive
vehicles (as in the U.S.) may be imported. It should be noted that
spare parts for American-made vehicles are not available locally,
but some parts may be available in South Africa. A limited range of
tire sizes are manufactured in Mozambique but can be expensive. Tire
stores are found in South Africa. Leaded petrol (92% octane
gasoline) and diesel is widely available, costing less than $2 a
gallon (diesel is less). Unleaded petrol is available at very
limited locations in Mozambique, but is found throughout South
Africa and Swaziland.
The Embassy general services officer (GSO) or the USAID Executive
Officer (EXO) is responsible for registering your vehicle when
imported into Mozambique. Registration is inexpensive and does not
require renewal. To facilitate the process, carry with you to post
your car manufacturer’s booklet containing the make and model of the
car, maintenance records, and vehicle specifications. Local
registration requires information on cylinder capacities,
horsepower, and other technical data for the vehicle.
Mission personnel may drive using a valid U.S. or foreign
driver’s license. Third-party insurance is required and available
locally at a moderate cost. Your vehicle may be sold at the end of
your tour, subject to Embassy and Government of Mozambique
Local Transportation Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Public bus transportation in Maputo is over-crowded and can be
dangerous. Taxis are available and somewhat reliable, but are
costly. Car rental services are available, but the daily rate for a
sedan can be as high as $120.
Roads and railroads in Mozambique have historically linked the
coastline with neighboring countries such as Malawi, South Africa,
Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. The major rail connections extend East to
West from Maputo to Swaziland and South Africa, from Beira to
Zimbabwe, and from Nacala to Malawi and Zambia.
Mozambique has about 5,300 kms. of paved roads and 23,000 kms. of
dirt and gravel roads; several hundred kilometers of these roads
were damaged or destroyed by the floods in 2000, but are in the
process of being restored under the Government’s reconstruction
program, partially financed by USAID. Local bus service provides
links to all of the major cities in Mozambique.
Regional Transportation Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Air transportation within Mozambique is provided by the
Government airline Linhas Aereas de Mocambique (LAM). Besides
servicing most provincial capitals, LAM also provides service to
Johannesburg, Harare, Lisbon, Dubai, and the Comoros Islands. South
African Airways flies daily from Maputo to Johannesburg. A direct
flight to Lisbon is provided by the Portuguese national airline,
Telephones and Telecommunications Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Maputo’s direct-dial telephone system is reliable. Local rates
for service and calls are fair, as are calls to nearby countries.
Other international calls, especially to the U.S., are very
expensive. Telephones are provided in all U.S. Government-owned and
Wireless Service Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Cellular telephone service is available.
Internet Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Internet service is available in your home.
Mail and Pouch Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
International airmail service is available, although it can be
unreliable and slow.
The Embassy does not have APO service, but direct-hire and some
contract personnel and their family members on orders are authorized
use of Department of State Diplomatic Pouch for in-bound first-class
mail and packages (subject to size and weight restrictions) and
out-bound first-class mail. U.S. postage stamps should be brought to
post or purchased on-line at www.usps.gov.
First-class letters via the pouch are usually received within 2
to 3 weeks from the mailing date. Packages and periodicals are
generally received within 3 to 4 weeks from the mailing date.
Personal, package, and fourth-class mail addressed to personnel at
the Mission through the pouch should have the correct U.S. postage
for delivery to Washington, D.C., and be addressed as follows:
Department of State or USAID
2330 Maputo Place,
Washington, D.C., 20521-2330
Radio and TV Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Radio Mozambique (RM), which celebrated its 26th anniversary in
2001, remains the most popular form of communication, broadcasting
in a total of 19 African languages as well as Portuguese, to every
province. RM also operates a station called “Maputo Corridor Radio,”
which broadcasts in English. Mozambican television is more limited
in its reach and only airs approximately 12 hours each day.
Independent radio stations, operated by religious organizations or
media cooperatives, do exist. A personally owned television station
has operated in the capital since 1992.
Direct Satellite Television from South Africa is available to
subscribers and cable television is available in some sections of
Maputo (including Sommerschield, home to most Mission families).
Newspapers, Magazines, and Technical Journals Last Updated:
1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Maputo has one daily and three weekly newspapers. The daily
newspaper of Beira, the second largest city, is also sold in Maputo.
There are now six distinct news-by-fax publications in Mozambique:
five dailies based in Maputo, and one daily based in Beira. Two
news-by-fax, “Media FAX” and “Impartial,” are also available via the
Internet, as is Mozambique’s national news service, AIM, produced in
both English and Portuguese. The Embassy subscribes to news-by-fax
and distributes copies internally.
Health and Medicine
Medical Facilities Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Shortly after assuming power in 1975, the FRELIMO government
nationalized all medical practices, facilities, and services. This
action led to a serious deterioration of the country’s limited
medical care and facilities, including the exodus of most of its
qualified medical personnel.
Over the last few years many private clinics have opened in
Maputo, and there is now a charge for medical services in the public
During the mid-1990s, with the near collapse of central
government capacity, most rural services were provided by
donor-funded NGOs. More recently, these donors have directly
supported the Ministry of Health through institutional
strengthening, and the burden for health care provision is shifting
back to government with an increasing reliance, as well, on private
practitioners. Mozambique currently has about 550 doctors, of which
about two-thirds are foreigners.
Government hospitals in urban areas, primarily Maputo and Beira,
are overcrowded. All doctors are required to work some part of each
working day in the government hospitals. Most doctors work in the
hospitals in the morning and in private practice in the afternoons
and evenings. The standard of care varies but the U.S. Embassy
Health Unit maintains a list of qualified practitioners who can
provide excellent care for our patients when necessary. Many of the
doctors speak English.
The government-run General Hospital has a Clinica Especial with
specialist care available for a fee. If an in-patient stay is
necessary a deposit of US$1,000 is required. A simple office visit
usually costs $30. In government facilities emergency cases
frequently do not receive prompt attention, and sanitary conditions
are substandard. Beyond the two major urban centers, medical
facilities and care decrease in quality or are nonexistent.
Hospital equipment may be inoperative due to lack of maintenance
or spare parts. Electricity failures are also a problem.
Pharmaceutical supplies and drugs are often unavailable in the
public sector, but most can be found at a private pharmacy. There
are two reputable private laboratories in Maputo. Not all lab tests
can be completed in Maputo but the labs work closely with parent
companies in South Africa, with samples being sent there. An
acceptable private ambulance is available in Maputo.
There is an ophthalmologist in Maputo, but supplies of spectacles
are limited and expensive. Many people choose to have eye tests in
South Africa. This is also true for dental care, although now there
are two South African dentists in Maputo.
The Embassy Health Unit is currently staffed by a Foreign Service
health practitioner (physician assistant or nurse practitioner), two
part-time contract nurses, and a secretary. The Health Unit is small
but well equipped and includes a small pharmacy. The staff provides
health consultations, immunizations, health education, and treatment
of various illnesses/minor injuries. More complicated cases are
referred to local consultants or doctors in South Africa. Regional
support is provided out of Pretoria, one hour by plane. Pretoria is
the MEDEVAC center for Africa. Maputo receives visits from the
regional medical officer (RMO) physicians and RMO/psychiatrist on a
Two private clinics in Maputo, the Sommerschield Clinic and the
Swedish Clinic, provide better-than-adequate in-patient care/general
surgery/intensive care. Care facilities in nearby Nelspruit, South
Africa are similar to care facilities found in a small, American
city. Johannesburg and Pretoria have a full range of high-quality
medical services and facilities.
Community Health Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
A variety of infectious diseases are endemic to Mozambique,
including malaria, amoebic dysentery, filariasis, typhoid fever,
bilharzia, tick fever, hepatitis, meningitis, and HIV. It is
essential that all persons living in Maputo take malaria prophylaxis
year round, keep immunizations up to date, and pay particular
attention to food and water sanitation.
Flies, ticks, mosquitoes, ants, cockroaches, and parasitic worms
are present. The post occupational safety and health officer keeps a
list of acceptable insecticides for use.
Tap water in Maputo is unsafe to drink and personnel are advised
to take bottled water with them when out and about. Most buildings
in the city center are connected to a central sewage system, but
many residences have septic tanks that require regular cleaning.
Garbage is collected regularly in residential areas.
Bilharzia is widespread throughout the country. It is dangerous
to wade, swim, and wash in fresh lakes, ponds, puddles, or streams.
Cholera is endemic in most areas of Mozambique, including Maputo.
It remains a yearly threat. Visiting Americans should take the
following precautions: drink only bottled or boiled and filtered
water; treat locally purchased fruit and vegetables (including
purchases from South Africa and Swaziland) in a chlorine solution
before consumption; and observe the strictest sanitary practices.
Preventive Measures Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Persons with hay fever, asthma, rheumatism, and arthritis may
find the climate uncomfortable and should bring any special
medicines they need. Respiratory ailments such as colds, bronchitis,
and influenza are common. Infections of all kinds take longer to
heal in the damp climate. Inoculations for typhoid, meningitis,
polio, and hepatitis are essential. Booster shots may be obtained
from the Embassy Health Unit. All personnel and eligible family
members should obtain and take anti-malaria tablets before coming to
post. Mozambique has chloroquine-resistant malaria. The current
Centers for Disease Control recommendation for prophylaxis is
Mefloquine. In patients (over the age of 8) who cannot take
Mefloquine, Doxycycline is an option. Pets should be inoculated
Bring routine over-the-counter medications and prescription
drugs. Fluoride for children is provided by the Health Unit. Most
medications can be purchased in South Africa.
Employment for Spouses and Dependents Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00
Employment opportunities for Eligible Family Members (EFMs) and
Members of Household (MOHs) of direct-hire USG employees, exist
within the Mission. EFMs and MOHs have found employment at USAID,
DAO, and the Embassy. The American International School of
Mozambique has employed spouses from time to time. In addition,
spouses are working in NGOs and international organizations within
Maputo. A bilateral work agreement exists between the U.S. and
Mozambique, allowing EFMs to receive authorization to work in
Mozambique on the local economy. Returning Mission high school and
college students find work in the Youth Summer Employment Program
administered by the Community Liaison Office.
American Embassy - Maputo
Post City Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Maputo is an attractive city sitting on the western shore of
Delagoa Bay, a large body of water formed by the confluence of five
rivers and the Indian Ocean, in the southern part of Mozambique. The
population of greater Maputo is over one million. The climate is
subtropical with an average annual rainfall of 31 inches during
summer, from October to April. During summer, the average humidity
is about 80% with daytime temperatures often reaching over 90°F.
During the rainy season, mildew can be a serious problem. The winter
season, from May through September, is dry with moderate
The Post and Its Administration Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The U.S. Government Mission in Mozambique, established in Maputo,
includes the U.S. Embassy and Consular Offices, the U.S. Agency for
International Development (USAID), the Peace Corps, Center for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Defense Attach‚ Office
The Chancery, a converted house, less than a half-mile from the
bay and close to other embassies, is located at 193 Avenida Kenneth
Kaunda, telephone (258 1) 492797, 491215, 490071; fax (258 1)
490114. The Chief of Mission and Deputy Chief of Mission offices, as
well as Consular Services, Marine Security Guard Detachment Office
and Post One, DAO, Information Program Unit, the Economic/Political
Section, and the Regional Security Office are housed in the
The Administrative Annex occupies a refurbished home behind the
main Chancery building. In addition to the administrative officer,
the Annex houses the Budget and Fiscal office, the Embassy Cashier,
Mail Room, Motor Pool, the Human Resources Office, Travel and the
Community Liaison Office.
The Public Affairs Office and the Martin Luther King, Jr.
Library, is at 525 Av. Mao Tse Tung; the telephone numbers are (258
1) 491916, 491116, and fax 491918.
USAID. Official U.S. development assistance to Mozambique is
administered by the United States Agency for International
Development (USAID), which works closely with the U.S. Embassy as
part of the U.S. presence in Mozambique. Since 1984, USAID’s
humanitarian and economic development assistance to Mozambique has
exceeded US$1.6 billion. USAID Mozambique program has been one of
USAID’s two or three largest programs in Africa in recent years.
Resource levels are expected to remain stable over the near term.
USAID’s programs are national in scope and focus on agriculture,
governance, health, and private sector development. Important new
initiatives have been launched in HIV/AIDS prevention and
mitigation, and trade expansion. Following the devastating floods in
2000 the U.S. Government provided $136 million for a program of
reconstruction. USAID works in close collaboration with both public
sector and private sector Mozambican entities.
Current USAID programs are part of a 1996–2003 strategic plan
which was developed in consultation with the Government of
Mozambique, other international partners and representatives of the
private sector, and non-governmental organizations. The plan focuses
on four objectives:
Increasing rural household incomes through increased agricultural
production for food security and sales, improved trunk and farm
marketing roads, and development of production and financial systems
of rural enterprises.
Promoting effective democratic governance through support for
multiparty elections, technical support for the National Assembly,
strengthening Maputo’s judicial system, and building capacity of
civil society organizations.
Improving health through improved access to and delivery of maternal
and child health care services, prevention of HIV/AIDS, and
institutional and capacity development of the Ministry of Health.
Improving the environment for trade and investment through capacity
building of the government and private sector, improved tax
administration and contract dispute mechanisms, access to
international trade protocols including the World Trade Organization
and the Southern Africa Development Community, and Internet
connectivity. A new strategy will cover the 2004–2010 period.
USAID also supports handicapped war victims through the
Congressional War Victims Fund.
USAID will complete its move into a new 9-storey office building
in May 2002. Until then, USAID’s telephone numbers are (258 1)
490726, 493563, 491689, fax 492098. USAID Maputo’s website is
DAO. The Defense Attaché‚ Office was established in March 1986.
It is a three-person post, consisting of the defense and army
attaché‚ the operations coordinator/assistant, and the NCO
operations coordinator. The DAO serves as the military adviser to
the Chief of Mission and also represents the Department of Defense
(DOD) as the senior U.S. military representative in Mozambique. DOD
supports humanitarian assistance, humanitarian demining, joint
training and military schooling, and exchange programs with
The DAO is housed within the Chancery; the direct telephone
number is (258 1) 490714.
Peace Corps. Forty-one Peace Corps volunteers are currently
teaching science and English in secondary and technical schools in
five provinces—Manica, Sofala, Inhambane, Gaza, and Maputo. Peace
Corps volunteers have been teaching in Mozambique since January
The Peace Corps office is in the same residential neighborhood as
the Embassy; the address is 103 Rua do Alfonso Henriques; the
telephone numbers are (258 1) 499082, 496586, fax 492098.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC-HIV/AIDS Project
(LIFE Initiative)—The LIFE Initiative was launched by the U.S.
Government with the goal of intensifying and expanding the response
to the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Various agencies, including USAID,
CDC, and others implement this initiative. The CDC HIV/AIDS Project
began operating in Mozambique in November 2000. In consultation with
the Government of Mozambique as well as other international donors,
three major areas were chosen as focus of the program:
Surveillance of HIV/AIDS and related illnesses, primary
prevention with emphasis on voluntary counseling and testing, and
strategies for providing care to HIV-infected persons at the
clinical, community, and home levels.
Program activities include technical as well as financial
Budget for these activities during 2001 to 2003 will exceed US$6
Temporary Quarters Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
In almost all cases, newly arrived personnel will move directly
into their permanent housing. However, Maputo continues to offer
limited housing, therefore, a short stay in a hotel upon arrival may
be required from time to time.
Permanent Housing Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The U.S. Government holds short- and long-term leases on Mission
houses. Newly assigned personnel are assigned housing by the
Inter-Agency Housing Board, which meets regularly, making house
assignments within 2–3 months before arrival of personnel.
Most houses have three-to-four bedrooms, two-to-three baths,
living and dining rooms, and kitchens. Some houses may have separate
quarters for domestic staff (although most domestic employees do not
live-in). Many houses are multistory, duplex, or townhouse in style.
All houses are air-conditioned. It is rare to have a house with a
large yard; in fact most houses have very small yards with a parking
space (usually covered).
In addition to leased houses, USAID’s housing compound, Miramar,
is home to 12 families. The one-level, detached houses have
three-to-four bedrooms, living/dining area, screened porches, garage
or carport, and backyard. The compound has a large, open grassy area
popular with children.
The Ambassador’s residence is located in an attractive
residential area popular with other diplomats. The residence,
overlooking the bay, is a lovely, moderate-sized, two-story house
with swimming pool. The ground floor has two living rooms, dining
room, kitchen, pantry, study/-breakfast room, and bath. The second
floor has three bedrooms, two bathrooms with showers and tubs (one
with a Jacuzzi), a dressing room/study, and a covered porch. All
rooms have high ceilings and large windows.
The Deputy Chief of Mission’s house is adjacent to the Chancery.
The residence offers a spacious living and dining area, large
kitchen with pantry, study, and powder room on the first floor. The
second floor has five bedrooms (the master bedroom is en suite), a
sitting/family area, and two additional bathrooms. A two-car carport
is attached to the house. The garden features a swimming pool.
Both the Ambassador’s and DCM’s residences are furnished with
television, VCR, satellite TV service, and stereo.
Furnishings Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
All personnel must bring their own bed and bath linens, table
settings (glasses, dishes, and silverware), pots and pans, and small
specialty appliances (the Ambassador and DCM’s residences have bed
and bath linens, representational china, silver, glassware, and
kitchen equipment). You will want to bring your own decorations,
paintings, and personal items to make your house a home.
Utilities and Equipment Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Mission houses have air-conditioning in living areas (not in the
kitchen) and bedrooms, modern bath facilities, and electric
generators (blackouts can be frequent during the rainy season). The
electric current is 220v, 50 Hz. Houses are equipped with a washer
and dryer, a limited number of transformers, refrigerator and
freezer, microwave oven, water distiller, and electric range.
Food Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Personnel assigned to Maputo may elect to use the full
consumables allowance (shipped at USG expense) of up to 2,500 pounds
for a 2-year tour.
There are several grocery stores in Maputo, generally offering a
wide variety of items, but at a higher cost than in the U.S. Many in
the Mission shop for groceries, wine, beer, and liquors, in South
Africa. Fresh fruits (including many tropical varieties) and
vegetables (sold at sidewalk stalls, grocery stores, or in the
central market) are available in Maputo year round.
Clothing Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
A limited selection of clothing and shoes, both for men and
women, may be purchased in Maputo, but can be very expensive. South
Africa offers a larger selection of apparel at less cost. Many
Mission members order apparel over the Internet.
Lightweight, natural-fiber, washable clothes are best for the
summer; while medium-weight items, including cotton sweaters or a
light jacket, are suitable for the cool, dry winter.
Maputo has a few drycleaning establishments, offering only
adequate cleaning at very expensive rates.
Men Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Men’s clothing for business and evening wear tends to be
conservative. Staff members usually wear a shirt and tie, although
it is not required. Officers calling on the ministries or government
officials will wear a coat and tie. Cotton blend, wash-and-wear, and
lightweight, wool-blend suits are appropriate for the summer season;
medium-weight wool suits may be worn in winter. Shorts and sport
shirts are worn at home and for informal occasions. Formal wear may
be worn for the Marine Ball, but a dark suit will suffice.
Women Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Again, cottons, linens, and other natural fibers are best for
summer clothing for women. Winter days may require a shawl, jacket,
or light sweater in the mornings or evenings. A raincoat or jacket
will be useful. Dresses, pantsuits, and suits are all worn in the
Cocktail dresses or a dressier dress are worn for official
evening functions; and evening gowns may be worn to a limited number
of gala events (the Marine Ball, for one).
Shorts, sleeveless blouses, and sundresses may be worn around
town; bikinis may be worn on the beach (due to poor security, some
beaches in Maputo are not recommended for foreigners).
Children Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Children dress much the same as they do in the U.S. Informal,
casual clothing is worn to the American International School of
Mozambique; school uniforms are worn at the Christian Academy.
Younger children tend to live in shorts and T-shirts in the summer;
and jeans and T-shirts in the winter. Girls enjoy wearing washable
dresses in the summer. Lightweight jackets, sweaters, and long pants
are useful in the winter or on trips to game reserves or nearby
Supplies and Services Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The American Mission does not have a recreation association.
Supplies Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Many familiar name-brand American products (Revlon, Ponds,
Gillette, Estee Lauder, Skippy, Kellogg’s) may be purchased in
Maputo and in South Africa. Most of these goods are manufactured in
South Africa, and while similar to their American counterparts, may
not be exactly what you are used to. Nevertheless, they are
available, and cost about the same as in the U.S. if purchased in
South Africa, higher if purchased in Maputo.
Toys, sporting goods, camping supplies, fishing equipment, and
more may be found in South Africa.
Basic Services Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Laundry and drycleaning services may be found in Maputo, but are
generally of inferior quality and at a higher cost than in the U.S.
Gasoline (including limited-availability unleaded fuel) and
diesel are readily available in Maputo, selling for less than $2 per
gallon. There are reasonably priced, competent mechanics in town.
However, most people have their vehicles serviced in South Africa.
Maputo offers a number of beauty and barbershops, some doing
acceptable work. Hair coloring, frosting, and perms may be done in
Maputo, but you will pay more than you do at your local salon.
Massage, manicures, pedicures, etc. are available.
Domestic Help Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Domestic employees generally work 40–50 hours per week and live
out. The average monthly salary for a full-time “empregada” who may
do some cooking, all of the house cleaning, laundry, and some
shopping, is $130. Many Mission families provide extra money to
their domestic employees for transportation, either pay a food
allowance or provide one meal a day, and purchase uniforms.
Full-time nannies earn on average $150 per month; gardeners earn
approximately $30 per month. Most domestic employees do not speak
English, but do speak Portuguese. In many cases, newly arrived
personnel will hire the domestic employee of the officer’s
In addition to a monthly salary, many Mission families pay their
domestic employees a “13-month bonus” (or pro rata share) at the end
of the year.
Religious Activities Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Church services and Sunday school are conducted in English at the
Anglican, International Evangelical, Lutheran, Catholic, and
Seventh-day Adventist churches. Maputo has several Protestant and
Catholic churches, a Jewish synagogue, a Buddhist temple, Hindu
temple, and Muslim mosques.
At Post Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The American International School of Mozambique (AISM), formally
opened in September 1990, is an independent, coeducational day
school offering an American-style educational program from
pre-kindergarten (pre-kindergarten is not covered by the educational
allowance) through grade 8 (grade 9 is being offered as a distance
learning course through the University of Nebraska) for students of
all nationalities. Instruction is in English. The school year of 180
days is divided into 3 trimesters, beginning in August and ending in
AISM offers a high-quality education similar to that found in
private schools in the U.S. Portuguese, music, art, library,
computers, and physical education enrich the curriculum. English
fluency is required. AISM is fully accredited by the Middle States
Association of College Schools.
At the beginning of the 2001-2002 school year the enrollment at
AISM was 141 students. The school employs 15 full-time and 8
part-time faculty members.
AISM moved into a 150-pupil new campus during the 1996-97 school
year. A 10,000-volume elementary library and audio-visual collection
have been developed. The completely networked technology center,
with 16 workstations, introduced new computers in 2000-2001.
Internet access supports student research projects. A fully equipped
science lab was added in 1999 for hands-on science experiments.
Sports facilities include a hard-court and swimming pool.
For application materials for AISM, email email@example.com.
The Christian Academy, attended by one Mission child in the
2001-2002 school year, offers U.S. Christian curriculum (A Beka)
from kindergarten through 12th grade. The total enrollment is 33
students taught by 15 full- and part-time teachers. The Academy
prepares the student for U.S. and Canadian universities. Portuguese,
French, computers, and choir are offered along with basic core
classes. Bible classes are required. The Christian Academy is at
3005 24 de Julho, Maputo; the telephone number is (258 1) 400657;
email is firstname.lastname@example.org. Contact Dr. Claude Meyers, Director,
for application information or further questions.
A number of preschools are found in Maputo, as are informal
playgroups within the Mission family.
Away From Post Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
An away-from-post educational allowance covers the cost of boarding
school tuition for grade 9 and above. Families may elect to send
their child to boarding schools in other countries, in addition to
Recreation and Social Life
Sports Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
A variety of water sports are easily available within minutes of
the Embassy. Windsurfing, parasailing, kayaking, jet skiing,
sailing, Hobie cats, and power boats are all enjoyed, with rentals
available in Maputo. Inhaca Island, a 15-minute plane flight, or a
45-minute speedboat ride away, offers clear water ideal for
snorkeling and scuba diving, deep-sea fishing, and comfortable
A nine-hole golf course offers a chance to practice your skills.
Although the facility is minimal, it is enjoyed by a number of
Mission families. For a weekend away, golfers head to South Africa
or Swaziland, where professional courses await.
Clube Navale offers a swimming pool, modest tennis court,
billiard room, dining and bar facilities, and a place to park and/or
launch your boat. Clube des Desportivos Maritimo has boat storage
and launching facilities, dining, and bar. There are a number of
health and fitness clubs, as well as membership to the facilities
found at the more luxurious hotels in town, including the Hotel
Polana. And of course, Maputo has an active chapter of the Hash
House Harriers, a running club.
Horse riding, instruction, and boarding facilities are available.
Touring and Outdoor Activities Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Mozambique and the region offer limitless possibilities for
touring and adventuring. Within Mozambique, the 1737-mile coast
offers long, deserted beaches; the islands offer deep-sea fishing,
diving, and snorkeling. Add to this all that neighboring South
Africa and Swaziland have to offer, and it is easy to see why it is
hard to make a dent on your list of things-to-see-and-do while in
southern Africa. Game safaris, mountain biking, white-water rafting,
history treks, mountaineering, craft purchases, birding,
whale-watching, casino visits, camping, and the shopping malls of
South Africa all are within as little as a 3-hour drive from Maputo.
Entertainment Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Entertaining at home, be it a sit-down dinner, casual barbecue,
swim party, or buffet, is a popular form of enjoyment for many
Americans within the Mission. The Marines offer the occasional movie
night and happy hour, and will often host seasonal events for the
children in the community. Maputo has an International Women’s Club
which meets once a month. The American International School hosts a
number of annual community events, as do the Hash House Harriers.
As South Africa and Swaziland are so close to Maputo, many
Mission families travel on weekends to these countries to enjoy
tourism, grocery shopping, or all that American-style malls have to
Maputo has a number of cinemas, theaters offering drama, music
and dance performances, lively late-night jazz clubs, and sidewalk
cafes offering a chance to relax and people-watch.
The television broadcasting system for Maputo is compatible with
PAL southern Africa, not NTSC, as in the U.S. If you want to view
broadcast/cable television, you will need a multi-system TV. South
African cable television is available in your home at a reasonable
rate of around $60 per month. The service offers CNN, two movie
channels, two South African network channels, ESPN, MTV, Discovery,
National Geographic, Kids Channel, and more. DSTV, a South African
satellite service, offers even more programming. AFRTS (U.S.
military broadcasting) is also available for those who are
authorized to purchase decoders.
Reliable Internet service is available to your home.
Among Americans Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The American Embassy community sponsors the Fourth of July Community
Picnic, and children’s Halloween, Christmas, and Easter parties. The
Marine Ball, the highlight of Mission social events, is held each
Nature of Functions Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Embassy staff members assist the Chief of Mission in entertaining
guests at official or semiofficial functions, serving in essence as
co-hosts, thus ensuring host-country guests a pleasant and rewarding
Standards of Social Conduct Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The number of calling cards varies according to type and amount
of social activity. Bring at least 100 personal cards (cards may
also be purchased in Maputo). Married officers may wish to include a
small supply of “Mr. and Mrs.” cards.
Special Information Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Post Orientation Program
New arrivals, including adult family members and other members of
the household, receive a number of pertinent briefings regarding
living in Mozambique. These briefings will touch on health matters,
security issues, administrative procedures, and how to best enjoy
life in Mozambique. All new arrivals are given a welcome packet of
information, offering basic survival skills and orientation to
Post-language classes are offered to officers and, when space is
available, to family members.
Notes For Travelers
Getting to the Post Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Travelers may arrive to Maputo from New York or Atlanta via Delta
Airlines/South African Airlines code-share through Johannesburg,
South Africa. Travelers may also travel on various American-carrier
code-share airlines through Europe (example: United/-Lufthansa,
Northwest/KLM), on to Johannesburg. Flights connect to Maputo in
Johannesburg on South African Airlines.
The Mozambican Government’s Embassy in Washington, D.C., issues
visas. For U.S. direct-hire personnel, visas will be obtained for
you and your family members through your agency. Allow 2 weeks to
secure a visa. Tourist visas obtained through the Mozambican Embassy
can take 2 weeks or more but may be obtained in less time for an
Customs, Duties, and Passage
Customs and Duties Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Maputo has no distinction between diplomatic and non-diplomatic
official personnel for purposes of customs, importation privileges,
etc. Your agency will arrange all import and customs formalities
with the Government of Mozambique for incoming household effects (HHE),
airfreight, vehicles, etc.
There are no restrictions on types or quantities of permitted
articles imported for personal use, with the exception of firearms
and ammunition. HHE and other personal-use articles may be imported
at any time during your tour. Contract personnel should contact
their contracting agency for importation rules and regulations.
The bill of lading or airway bill, and packing list are required
to clear all shipments, and should be received by post well in
advance of shipment. Include the following information: name of ship
or flight number, expected date of arrival, and gross weight.
Air and surface shipments for Maputo should be addressed as
American Ambassador (your initials)
Republic of Mozambique
Pets Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
Mozambique does not require quarantine for your pet. However, the
following documents must be in the hands of the administrative
officer or executive officer at least 3 weeks before your pet’s
A valid rabies certificate dated at least 1 month before arrival.
A recent (within 2 weeks) certificate of good health from your vet.
Name, age, and breed of pet; owner’s name and current address; and
expected date of arrival and flight number.
In the likely event you will be transiting Johannesburg on your way
to Maputo, be prepared to have your animal quarantined as you
transit the airport. South African animal forwarding agencies will
obtain the necessary transit permit from the South African
Department of Agriculture in advance of your arrival. Contact: Pet
Travel, fax 0027 11 708 3074, or Animal Travel, fax 0027 11 460
1436. Please note that your pet will have to travel to South Africa
as manifest cargo, NOT as excess baggage—this is a Government of
South Africa rule (and yes, it will cost you more). If your pets do
land as excess baggage, there is a strong possibility that South
African authorities will send them back to the country from which
they came! Diplomats do not have to pay the transit permit fee.
Firearms and Ammunition Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The importation of firearms requires prior approval of the
Ambassador. For the stringent Mozambican regulations regarding the
importation for firearms and ammunition, contact your agency’s
Currency, Banking, and Weights and Measures Last Updated:
1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The Mozambican unit of currency is the metical. Notes are
available in the following meticais denominations: 5,000; 10,000;
20,000; 50,000 and 100,000. The exchange rate floats against the
U.S. dollar. The exchange rate in November 2001 was approximately
23,000 meticais to the dollar.
Within Maputo (and some tourist towns in Mozambique), the South
African rand and the American dollar are accepted. Credit cards may
be used in Maputo at hotels, restaurants, some shops, and at travel
and car rental agencies.
The metric system is used for all measurements.
Taxes, Exchange, and Sale of Property Last Updated: 1/31/2002
U.S. Government employees in Mozambique are exempt from local
Mozambican income taxes. Diplomats do pay a Value Added Tax (VAT) on
locally purchased items and goods. In addition, diplomats must pay
an airport departure tax of $10 when flying out of the country, $5
within the country.
On departure, official personnel may obtain permission from their
agency’s administrative officer for a reverse accommodation
exchange, exchanging a limited amount of meticais to dollars. In the
case of the sale of a POV, funds will be processed through
electronic fund transfer.
At the end of your tour, you may sell personal property in
accordance with Embassy and Government of Mozambique regulations. In
general, no items may be sold until the end of your tour. Your
vehicle will be valued by the Mozambican Government, and, most
often, a high percentage of tax, based on the official valuation,
will be applied to the sale of your vehicle (unless sold to another
Recommended Reading Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The following titles are provided as a general indication of the
material published on this country. The Department of State does not
endorse unofficial publications.
Abrahamsson, Hans and Anders Milsson. Mozambique the Troubled
Transition from Socialist Construction to Free Market Capitalism.
New Jersey: Zed Books, 1995.
Aldan, Chris. Mozambique and the Construction of the New African
State: From Negotiations to Nation Building. New York: St. Martin’s
Andersson, Hilary. Mozambique: A War Against the People. New
York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992.
Birmingham, David. Frontline Nationalism in Angola and
Mozambique. Trenton: Africa World Press Inc., 1992.
Bowen, Merle L. The State Against the Peasantry: Rural Struggles
in Colonial and Post Colonial Mozambique. Charlottesville:
University Press of Virginia.
Cabrita, Joäo. Mozambique: The Tortuous Road to Democracy. New
York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.
Chan, Stephen and Moisés Venâncio. War and Peace in Mozambique.
New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
Chingano, Mark F. The State, Violence and Development: The
Political Economy of the War in Mozambique 1975–1992. Brookfield:
Chissano, Joaquim Alberto. Peace and Reconstruction. Harare:
Africa Publications Group Southern African Research and
Documentation Center, 1997.
Ciment, James. Angola and Mozambique: Post Colonial Wars in
Southern Africa. New York: Facts on File, 1997.
Davidson, Basil. Joe Slovo and Anthony R. Wilkinson. Southern
Africa: The New Politics of Revolution. Harmandsworth: Penguin,
Davidson, Basil. Southern Africa: Progress or Disaster. London:
British Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa, 1984.
Finnegan, William. A Complicated War: The Harrowing of
Mozambique. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
FRELIMO. Department of Ideological Work. A History of FRELIMO.
Harare: Longman, 1982.
Hall, Margaret and Tom Young. Confronting Leviathan: Mozambique
Since Independence. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1997.
Hanlon, Joseph. Mozambique: Who Calls the Shots? Bloomington:
Indiana University Press, 1991.
Hanlon, Joseph. Mozambique: The Revolution Under Fire. New
Jersey: Zed Books, 1984.
Harrison, Graham. The Politics of Democratization in Rural
Mozambique: Grassroots Government in Mecufi. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen,
Humbaraci, Arslan. Portugal’s African Wars: Angola, Guinea-Bissau
and Mozambique. New York: Third Press, 1974.
Kitchen, Helen, ed. Angola, Mozambique and the West. New York:
Machel, Samora. Mozambique: Sowing the Seeds of Revolution.
London: Committee for Freedom in Mozambique, Angola and Guin‚, 1975.
Machel, Samora and Barry Munslow. Samora Machel: An African
Revolutionary Selected Speeches and Writings. London: Zed Books,
Magaia, Lina. Dumba Nengue: Run for Your Life Peasant Tales of
Tragedy in Mozambique. Trenton: Africa World Press Inc., 1988.
Minter, William. Apartheid’s Contras: An Inquiry into the Roots
of War in Angola and Mozambique. New Jersey: Zed Books, 1994.
Minter, William. Portuguese Africa and the West. New York:
Monthly Review Press, 1972.
Minter, William. King Solomon’s Mines Revisited: Western
Interests and the Burdened History of Southern Africa. New York:
Basic Books, 1986.
Mondlane, Eduardo. The Struggle for Mozambique. Baltimore:
Penguin Books, 1969.
Newitt, M.D.D. A History of Mozambique. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 1995.
Saul, John, ed. A Difficult Road: The Transition to Socialism in
Mozambique. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1985.
Slater, Mike. Guide to Mozambique. Cape Town: Struik Publishers,
Synge, Richard. Mozambique: UN Peacekeeping in Action 1992–94.
Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1997.
Urdang, Stephanie. And Still They Dance: Women, War and the
Struggle for Change in Mozambique. New York: Monthly Review Press,
Vines, Alex. RENAMO: Terrorism in Mozambique. Bloomington:
Indiana University Press, 1991.
Local Holidays Last Updated: 1/31/2002 6:00 PM
The following local holidays are observed in Mozambique.
New Year’s Day January 1
Mozambican Heroes Day February 3
Woman’s Day April 7
Worker’s Day May 1
Independence Day June 25
Lusaka Agreement Day September 7
Revolution Day September 25
Maputo City Day November 10
Family Day December 25