Preface Last Updated: 6/30/2004 3:04 AM
Rwanda, known as the “land of a thousand hills,” is situated in
east central Africa, in the Great Lakes Region. Physically, it is a
country of mountains, hills, lakes, and rivers. Slightly smaller
than the state of Maryland, Rwanda is the most densely populated
country on the continent.
The capital, Kigali, is a small city located in the heart of the
country. Despite its proximity to the Equator, Kigali's altitude of
approximately 4,800 feet ensures a temperate climate throughout the
Owing to its recovery from a devastating civil war and genocide
in 1994, its on-going decentralization process and economic
progress, its flirtation with democracy, and its vigorous
anti-HIV/AIDS campaign, Rwanda is both a professionally and
personally challenging and rewarding Foreign Service assignment.
The Host Country
Area, Geography, and Climate Last Updated: 6/30/2004 3:07 AM
The Republic of Rwanda is located along the Great Rift Valley in
the mountains of east central Africa and covers 10,169 square miles,
4,587 sq. miles of which is water. Slightly smaller than the state
of Maryland, Rwanda is circular in shape. The eastern boundary is
shared with Tanzania; Uganda lies to the north; the west borders the
Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Lake Kivu; Burundi
lies to the south. The western edge of the country along the
Congo/Nile watershed rises steeply, formed by a chain of volcanoes
called the Virunga Mountains. It is here that the country's highest
point, the volcano Karisimbi at an elevation of 14,782 feet, is
found. Gisenyi, a town at the northern end of Lake Kivu, enjoys
spectacular vistas of the surrounding volcanoes. Rwanda’s green
valleys produce beans, sorghum, corn, manioc, Irish potatoes, rice,
sweet potatoes, soybeans, bananas, coffee, and tea.
The low mountains and steep hills of the remainder of the country
diminish in height as one travels towards the east and southeast. On
the Tanzania border, low hills, papyrus swamps, and shallow lakes
are interspersed with semiarid savanna. Hardy thickets, 8 to 15 feet
tall, cactus-like candelabrum trees, and grassy glades are found
Despite Rwanda’s location of only two degrees below the equator,
the altitude provides a mild, temperate climate for most parts of
the country. The average 24-hour temperature in Kigali is 73° F. The
higher reaches above 14,700 feet might even experience frost and
Two rainy seasons generally occur from February through May, and
from September through December; but variations do occur. The rains
can be torrential, although brief, and sometimes are accompanied by
strong winds and lightning. Although sunshine appears throughout the
rainy seasons, mildew in unventilated rooms can become a problem.
Annual rainfall averages 31 inches and is generally heavier in the
western and northwestern mountains than in the eastern savanna.
The long dry summer season from May to September turns the hills
around Kigali a reddish ochre, fine dust is everywhere, and the
grass dries up. Added to this is the smoke from fires as farmers
burn away the dried brush. Dust from vehicles on unpaved roads
reduces visibility, sometimes causing accidents. The fine dust seeps
through windows and doors, making frequent cleaning a necessity.
Population Last Updated: 6/16/2004 2:10 PM
In August 2002, the Government of Rwanda conducted a general
census that concluded Rwanda’s population totaled 8,262,715 persons,
with a mean population growth rate of 3.1% from 1978-1991, and 1.2%
from 1991-2002. Despite the 1994 genocide and civil war between Hutu
and Tutsi factions that killed up to one million Rwandans and forced
more than two million to flee to neighboring countries, Rwanda is
the most densely-populated country in Africa. In 2002, Rwanda’s
birth rate was estimated at 33.28 births per 1,000 population; the
death rate was estimated at 21.39 deaths per 1,000 population; and
the net migration rate was estimated at 0.32 migrants per 1,000
Ethnic groups within Rwanda include Hutus (approximately 84%),
Tutsi (15%) and Twa [Pygmoid] (1%). Traditionaly, the Hutu are known
as cultivators, the Tutsi as cattle raisers, and the Twa as hunters.
Population pressure, however, has reduced the importance of cattle
raising and hunting; and currently more than 95% of the population
depends on subsistence farming. Despite these differences, Rwanda
has no tribes, as that term is usually understood, since all groups
speak the same language (Kinyarwanda), inhabit the same areas,
freely intermarry, and share one culture.
In contrast to many African countries, life in rural Rwanda is
not centered around villages (except in recent resettlement
projects), but rather around hut compounds called "rugos," scattered
throughout the hillsides.
Approximately 56.5% of the Rwandan population are Roman Catholic;
26% Protestant; 11.1% Adventist; 4.6% Muslim; with 0.1% professing
faith in indigenous beliefs and 1.7% with none [2001 estimate].
The infant mortality rate is 117.79 deaths per 1,000 live births;
life expectancy at birth for the total population is 38.67 years
(38.14 years for males, and 39.2 years for females); and the total
fertility rate is 4.72 children born per woman [2002 estimates].
Rwanda has three official languages: Kinyarwanda (a universal
Bantu vernacular), English, and French. Kiswahili is used in
Approximately 8,000 non-Africans live in Rwanda, including
Belgians, French, Germans, Italians, Dutch, Swiss, British,
Scandinavians, South Asians, and Americans.
Public Institutions Last Updated: 6/16/2004 2:15 PM
History According to folklore, Tutsi cattle breeders began
arriving in the area from somewhere in the north about 500 years ago
and gradually subjugated the Hutu inhabitants. The Tutsis
established a monarchy headed by a Mwami (king) and a feudal caste
of nobles. The Tutsis reduced the Hutus to serfdom through a
contract known as “ubuhake,” whereby the Hutu farmers obligated
their services to the Tutsi lords in return for cattle. Some
successful Hutu and Twa were adopted into Tutsi aristocracy.
Ultimately, the fortunes of some Tutsi declined until they enjoyed
few advantages over the Hutu, and the boundaries of ethnicity and
class became less distinct.
The first European known to have visited Rwanda was the German
Count Van Goetzen in 1894. He was followed by missionaries, notably
the “white fathers.” In 1899, the Mwami submitted to a German
protectorate without resistance. Belgian troops from then Congo
chased the small number of Germans out of Rwanda in 1915 and took
control of the country. After World War I, the League of Nations
mandated Rwanda and its southern neighbor, Burundi, to Belgium as
the territory known as Ruanda-Urundi. Following World War II,
Ruanda-Urundi became a United Nations Trust Territory, with Belgium
as the administering authority.
Reforms instituted by the Belgians in the 1950s encouraged the
growth of democratic political institutions but were resisted by
Tutsi traditionalists who saw in them a threat to Tutsi rule. An
increasingly restive Hutu population, encouraged by the Belgian
military, sparked a revolt in November 1959, resulting in the
overthrow of the Tutsi monarchy. Two years later, the Party of the
Hutu Emancipation Movement (Parmehutu) won an overwhelming victory
in a UN-supervised referendum. During the 1959 revolt and its
aftermath, more than 160,000 Tutsis fled to neighboring countries.
The Parmehutu government, formed as a result of the September
1961 election, was granted internal autonomy by Belgium on January
1, 1962. A June 1962 UN General Assembly resolution terminated the
Belgian trusteeship and granted full independence to Rwanda (and
Burundi) effective July 1, 1962.
Gregoire Kayibanda, leader of the Parmehutu party, became
Rwanda’s first elected President, leading a government chosen from
the membership of the directly-elected unicameral National Assembly.
Inefficiency and corruption began festering in government ministries
in the mid-1960s. On July 5, 1973, the military took power under the
leadership of Maj. Gen. Juvenal Habyarimana, who dissolved the
National Assembly and the Parmehutu party and abolished all
In 1975, President Habyarimana formed the National Revolutionary
Movement for Development (MRND), whose goals were to promote peace
and unity and national development. Rwandans went to the polls in
December 1978, overwhelmingly endorsed a new constitution, and
confirmed Habyarimana as President. Running unopposed, President
Habyarimana was reelected in 1983 and again in 1988. Responding to
public pressure for political reform, President Habyarimana
announced in July 1990 his intention to transform Rwanda's one-party
state into a multi-party democracy.
On October 1, 1990, Rwandan exiles banded together as the
Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) and invaded Rwanda from their base in
Uganda. The rebel force, composed primarily of ethnic Tutsis, blamed
the government for failing to democratize and resolve the problem of
some 500,000 Tutsi refugees living in diaspora around the world. The
war dragged on for almost two years until a ceasefire accord was
signed July 12, 1992, in Arusha, Tanzania. The agreement fixed a
timetable for an end to the fighting and for political talks leading
to a peace accord, and it authorized a neutral military observer
group under the auspices of the United Nations. A ceasefire took
effect July 31, 1992, and political talks began August 10, 1992.
On April 6,1994, the airplane carrying President Habyarimana and
the President of Burundi was shot down as it prepared to land at
Kigali. Both Presidents were killed. As though the attack were a
signal, military and militia groups began rounding up and killing
political moderates regardless of their ethnic background, and all
Tutsis. The Prime Minister and her ten Belgian bodyguards were among
the first victims. It soon became clear that the killing was not
limited to Kigali; between April 6 and the beginning of July, a
genocide of unprecedented swiftness left up to a million Tutsis dead
at the hands of organized bands of militia—Interahamwe—even ordinary
citizens were called on by local officials and government-sponsored
radio to kill their neighbors. The dead President’s own MRND party
was implicated in organizing many aspects of the genocide.
Immediately after the shooting down of the President's plane, the
RPF battalion stationed in Kigali under the Arusha Accords came
under attack. The battalion fought its way out of Kigali and joined
up with RPF units in the North. The RPF resumed its invasion, and
civil war raged for two months concurrently with the genocide. In
July, French forces landed in Goma, Congo (then Zaire) on a
peacekeeping mission. They deployed throughout western Rwanda in an
area they called “Zone Turquoise.” The impact of their intervention
is still hotly debated, and Franco-Rwandan relations remain
The Rwandan army was quickly defeated by the RPF, and fled
accross the border to Congo followed by some two million refugees.
The RPF took over Kigali on July 4, 2004, and the war ended a few
weeks later. The RPF took control of a country ravaged by war and
genocide. A million or so had been murdered, approximately two
million had fled Rwanda, and another million were displaced
The international community responded with one of the largest
humanitarian relief efforts ever mounted, with the U.S. one of the
largest contributors. The UN peacekeeping operation, UNAMIR, was
drawn down during the fighting but brought back up to strength after
the RPF victory. UNAMIR remained in Rwanda until March 8, 1996.
Government and Political Conditions
After its military victory, the RPF organized a coalition
government based on the terms of the Arusha Accords. On May 5, 1995,
the Transitional National Assembly adopted a new constitution which
included elements of the Constitution of June 18, 1991, as well as
provisions of the 1993 Arusha Peace Accords and the November 1994
multi-party Protocol of Understanding. The MRND Party was outlawed.
Political organizing was banned until 1999.
Rwandans headed for polling stations three times in 2003. On May
26, Rwanda held a constitutional referendum that resulted in the
adoption of a new 203-article constitution. The leader of the
Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), Paul Kagame, was elected to a
seven-year term as president in national elections held on August
25, 2003. Legislative elections for the newly established 80-seat
Chamber of Deputies and the 26-seat Senate were held September
29-October 2, 2003. The Chamber and the Senate, whose members serve
five-year and eight-year terms respectively, replaced the
transitional National Assembly, which was established on December
12, 1994, and which closed on August 22, 2003.
During the August 2003 presidential or legislative elections, the
Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) led a coalition of four other parties:
· the Centrist (formerly “Christian”) Democratic Party (PDC), led
by Alfred Mukezamfura;
· the Rwandan Labor (formerly “Socialist”) Party (PSR), led by
Dr. Medard Rutijanwa;
· the Ideal (formerly “Islamic”) Democratic Party (PDI), led by
Andre Mumaya; and the
· Democratic Popular Union (UDPR), led by Adrien Rangira.
Other parties represented in the Chamber of Deputies include the
Social Democratic Party (PSD), led by Vincent Biruta; the Liberal
Party (PL), led by Prosper Higiro; and the Concord Progressive Party
(PPC), led by Dr. Christian Marara.
Opposition parties not recognized by the Government of Rwanda
· the Party for Democratic Renewal (PDR) of former President
Pasteur Bizimungu and former Minister of State Charles Ntakirutinka
(both detained since April 2002; Trial began in April 2004);
· the Democratic Republican Movement (MDR), led by former
Minister of State for Finance and Economic Planning Celestin Kabanda,
which the transitional National Assembly recommended be banned in
April 2003; and
· the Alliance for Democracy, Equity and Progress (ADEP-Mizero),
whose registration by Celestin Kabanda was rejected by the
Government in August 2003.
The biggest problems facing the government are rehabilitation of
war damage and reintegration of the one and a half million refugees
who fled to Tanzania, Burundi, and Congo, from as long ago as 1959.
One problem of particular urgency is the prison population, which
has swelled to 130,000 since the war.
Rwanda has 12 administrative divisions known locally as
prefectures: Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama,
Kibungo, Umutara, Kigali Ngali, Kibuye, Kigali, and Ruhengeri.
The legal system is based on German and Belgian civil law systems
and customary law. Within the Executive branch of government, the
principal government officials include: President Paul Kagame; Prime
Minister Bernard Makuza; Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation
Charles Murigande; Special Presidential Envoy for the Great Lakes,
Amb. Richard Sezibera; and Ambassador to the United States Zac
Nsenga. President Kagame named ministerial-level Cabinet
appointments in October 2003.
Rwanda maintains an embassy in the United States at 1714 New
Hampshire Ave., NW, Washington, DC, 20009, Tel. (202)232-2882.
Women in Government After parliamentary elections held in Rwanda
in September 2003, the country now has the highest percentage of
women members of parliament of any country in the world. In the
lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, women were elected to 39 of
the 80 seats, or 48.5 percent. In the upper house, the Senate, women
took 6 of 20 seats, or 30 percent. The only other country in the
world with numbers like this is Sweden, where women hold 45 percent
of the seats in the lower house. For comparison, in the U.S., women
hold only 14.3 percent of the seats in the lower house, and only 13
percent in the upper house. Rwanda far outshines its Sub-Saharan
neighbors, where women hold on average 14.6 percent of the seats in
the lower house, and 16.6 percent in the upper.
Arts, Science, and Education Last Updated: 6/16/2004 2:16 PM
Rwanda is especially noted for its handcrafted baskets. The
baskets are made in a wide range of sizes, usually with lids and
graphic patterns woven into the sides. They can be quite intricate
and magnificent. Private and government-operated handicraft shops
can be found in Kigali. In Butare, a city two hours to the south of
Kigali, the German development agency, GTZ, coordinates a non-profit
artisan co-op which offers a wide variety of handicrafts, including
wood carvings, basketry, reed rugs, clothing, drums, and other
tourist items. The National Museum of Rwanda, also located in Butare,
offers a fascinating display of Rwandan history and culture, and a
small gift shop sells many interesting pieces.
Before the 1994 war, many religious missions produced artwork and
handicrafts, but little has been produced since.
Butare is also the home of the National University of Rwanda. The
University operates primarily with Canadian, Belgian, and French
technical assistance. The United States Agency for International
Development (USAID) provides assistance to the Law School. The
Institut de Recherche Scientifique et Agricole du Rwanda (ISAR)
maintains an agricultural experiment station at Rubona, above Butare.
Additionally, the Institut National de Recherche Scientifique (INRS)
maintains an anthropological museum and arboretum at Butare and
conducts studies of regional fauna and flora. The Ministry of
Natural Resources maintains a small but interesting geological
museum in Kigali.
According to the Office National de la Population, the literacy
rate for women is 50.65%, the literacy rate for men 57.57%, for a
total population literacy rate of 53.83%.
Commerce and Industry Last Updated: 6/16/2004 2:17 PM
Rwanda has made great progress since the Genocide and war of the
mid-1990s, particularly in the areas of road infrastructure,
education, health care, and support for tourism. Challenges remain
in the area of privatization, export development, food security, and
micro-economic progress. Since the war, Rwanda’s GDP has averaged
4-6%, with a 9% spike in 2002, fueled primarily by increased
government spending in the construction sector. In 2003 the GDP
cooled to less than 1%. Inflation remained less than 4% through
2002, but in 2003 it rose to 7%, primarily due to the implementation
of a value added tax and exchange rate depreciation. Rwanda remains
one of the poorest nations in Africa, with an annual per capita
income of $210 and 62% of the population living below the poverty
line. Faced with this reality, Rwanda is committed to alleviating
poverty and continuing reconstruction, as it maintains its
continuing work with post-conflict reconciliation, demobilization,
and reintegration. Such plans will continue to put pressure on their
fiscal deficit in the short and medium term.
Agriculture continues to dominate the economy, with some
promising developments in the handicraft and textile sectors, as
well as tourism. The industrial sector employs less than 2% of the
population, with only 12 companies having more than 500 employees.
Exports have stagnated in recent years at a level of $50-60 million
per year, with the major exports for the year 2002 being tea ($17.2
million), coffee ($12.1 million), coltan ($12.8 million), pyrethrum
($2.4 million), and tourism ($2.1 million). The GOR is actively
pursuing opportunities for greater exports, particularly in
agricultural products and eligible items under the Africa Growth and
Opportunity Act (AGOA).
Rwanda offers great potential within its current climate of
political stability, but the economy remains vulnerable to adverse
climatic conditions and global commodity price fluctuations. Efforts
to diversify the economy are planned and, when realized, should
improve Rwanda’s vulnerability in this area. Crop diversification,
industrial improvements, eco-tourism development, and improving
human resources through Rwanda’s education programs will help offset
current weaknesses as well. Growth will most likely continue to
proceed modestly, and Rwanda will continue to require significant
foreign aid for the foreseeable future.
Automobiles Last Updated: 6/16/2004 2:19 PM
Japanese sedans, and American and Japanese four-wheel-drive
vehicles are driven by most Americans. Sedans are suitable for most
roads in Kigali, but a 4x4 is essential on unpaved roads found
throughout the country. Both right and left hand drive vehicles are
in use in Rwanda, although all traffic moves on the right, as in the
Service at garages varies from poor to acceptable. Spare parts
are very expensive and can take months to secure.
Finding a local mechanic to service an American vehicle can be a
challenge. The dry season requires that air and oil filters be
changed frequently. U.S. Government employees may purchase
duty-free, leaded gasoline and diesel at the Embassy.
All drivers must carry third-party insurance, purchased locally.
Insurance for fire, theft, and transportation should be purchased in
U.S. drivers' licenses are accepted by local authorities.
Local Transportation Last Updated: 4/5/2004 12:59 AM
Many roads between major towns are unpaved, but paved roads do
extend from Kigali to the Uganda border via Byumba in the north;
from Kigali to Rusumu on the Tanzanian border in the southeast;
between Kigali and Gisenyi and Ruhengeri in the northwest; and
between Kigali and the Burundi border via Butare in the south.
Traffic moves on the right in Rwanda, Burundi and Congo; on the left
in Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya. Buses and bush taxis (vans or open
pickup trucks) service all parts of the country, but are slow,
overcrowded, and dangerous. Post management does not recommend use
of local transportation outside of Kigali. Some individuals have
been sucessful in finding a local in-city taxi driver they trust and
can use regularly within Kigali. For safety and security, the RSO
does not allow USG personnel to drive after dark outside city
Regional Transportation Last Updated: 6/16/2004 2:20 PM
Within Rwanda there are 12,000 km. of roads; at the end of the
first quarter of 2004, some 1,000 km. are paved.
There is no rail system in Rwanda. Goods are either flown or
trucked into the country. SN Brussels Airlines has direct service
from Brussels to Kigali twice a week. Connections via Kampala or
Nairobi on Kenya Air increase the number of options for flying to
and from Europe, though layovers can add a further 9 hours enroute.
Flights are also available from Kigali to Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya,
Tanzania, Burundi, and South Africa.
Communications Last Updated: 6/16/2004 2:22 PM
Telephones and Telecommunications Last Updated: 6/16/2004 2:23 PM
All American Mission residences in Kigali have one telephone
line. It is possible to have two telephone instruments: one in the
safe-haven (usually the master bedroom) and another in the living
room or other central location in the residence. Calls are
individually charged on monthly telephone bills based on duration
Long-distance service within Central and East Africa is fair in
quality and charges. Satellite service to Europe and the United
States is reliable but expensive.
Employees are responsible for payment of all residential
telephone charges, except initial line installation charges. If
official calls must be made from a residence, the employee may
highlight that charge on the monthly telephone bill and deduct its
cost from the full payment.
Internet Last Updated: 4/5/2004 8:38 AM
Two local commercial companies offer 56K dial-up internet service
for 15,000RwF (approx $25) per month, plus per minute line charges.
High speed service is expensive ($170 a month) and is unreliable.
Mail and Pouch Last Updated: 5/12/2004 3:32 AM
International mail service to Rwanda is fairly reliable; however,
the majority of American employees at post rely on the diplomatic
pouch. Pouch use is restricted to American direct-hire employees and
their families only. There is no APO/FPO. Letters, magazines,
medicines, and packages weighing up to 45 pounds and 17x18x30 inches
in size, may be received via the pouch. Outgoing mail is restricted
to letters, camera film, and VCR tapes (packages under 2 pounds);
otherwise packages must be sent via international mail. Pouch mail
is received twice a week and dispatched once a week. First-class
mail usually takes 16-30 days to or from the U.S. Bring a supply of
postage stamps for outgoing mail to the U.S. via the pouch. U.S.
postage is not available for purchase locally.
Personal pouch mail should be addressed as follows:
Employee Name 2210 Kigali Place Dulles, VA 20189-2210
The local address for the American Embassy is:
Ambassade Americaine B.P 28 Kigali, Rwanda
Radio and TV Last Updated: 9/15/2004 4:15 AM
Locally broadcast radio includes four AM and FM stations (Radio
Rwanda, Butare Community Radio, Gisenyi Community Radio, Kibungo
Community Radio), three FM international stations (VOA, BBC, and
Deutsche Welle), three private stations (Radio 10, Radio Flash, and
the Kagbayi based Catholic station), as well as several short wave
stations. Bringing a short wave radio allows you to pick up
programming from around the world.
There is one local television station, Rwanda Television (TVR),
which broadcasts in English, French, and Kinyarwanda. Three channels
of the American Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS) are
available to USG direct hire employees via satellite.
Commercial DSTV (Direct Satellite TV) service is available
locally with prices ranging from $342 to $647 every six months,
depending on the programming you select, the provider you get it
from, and the current exchange rate. There is an additional charge
for installation which, as of January 22, 2004, ranges from $304 to
$574 (dish and decoder included).
Newspapers, Magazines, and Technical Journals Last Updated:
6/18/2004 10:55 AM
There is a local French-language newspaper available, as well as
The New Times, a Rwandan paper published in English. The Embassy
subscribes to the International Herald Tribune. News is also
available on the Embassy's internet line, and from the AFRTS
television channels provided to U.S. direct hire staff.
American news magazines are available locally, but not many
paperbacks are available in English. French-language hardbound and
paperback books can be found at Caritas and Ikirez, two shops in
central Kigali. The Community Liaison Office also has a small
Bring leisure reading material to post, or plan to order books
through catalogs and the Internet.
Health and Medicine
Medical Facilities Last Updated: 6/16/2004 2:42 PM
Kigali has a well-stocked health unit staffed by a Foreign
Service Health Practitioner and a Western-trained RN. The Regional
Medical Officers from Nairobi and Pretoria make periodic visits. The
Regional Psychiatrist also makes periodic visits and is available
for phone consultation, which can be arranged by the Health Unit
There are several local physicians recommended by the Health
Unit, if the need for a specialist is required. The preferred
hospital for routine laboratory work, x-rays, and initial
stabilization or assessment is King Faycal Hospital. Most of the
staff is English-speaking, and our American Health Practitioner
maintains liaison with the medical and nursing staffs. A
traumatologist and a surgeon are available at King Faycal Hospital
for extreme emergencies. In-depth medical care and complex cases are
medevaced to Pretoria or Nairobi.
Local pharmacies primarily stock European drugs, vitamins, and
over-the-counter medication, including antihistamines, cold pills,
and throat lozenges. Some antibiotics are sold without a
prescription. Washington area drugstores (CVS, etc.) will send
prescription medications through the pouch, provided they have your
prescription on file.
Eye exams by a competent ophthalmologist can be arranged.
Eyeglasses can be made in Kigali, but selection of frames is
limited. Complex progressive lenses are not available.
All preventive dental work should be done before coming to
Rwanda. Routine dental care should be scheduled during R&R or Home
Leave. A relatively high-standard dental clinic is available and
staffed by Seventh Day Adventist Missionary dentists, but they are
limited by their supplies and equipment to basic and routine care.
Dental emergencies may require evacuation to Nairobi.
Community Health Last Updated: 6/16/2004 2:45 PM
Public sanitation is reasonably good. Drains in most
European-style houses are adequate. Main streets are cleaned
periodically, and trash and garbage are collected—though
irregularly. Houses occupied by Mission personnel have septic tanks.
Insects abound, and learning to live with them is the best
strategy. Attention to the maintenance of window and door screens,
proper disposal of food waste, and proper food storage will assist
in residence insect control. Geckos, a useful, silent, insect-eating
lizard, are found in every home, usually inhabiting the upper
reaches of interior walls. Poisonous snakes are not a significant
hazard. Rabies is prevalent, and immunization against rabies is
Rwanda’s temperate climate is generally healthful, but dust and
pollen aggravate throat and respiratory ailments during the dry
season, which can also cause wearers of contact lenses to suffer
some irritation. Allergies may be exacerbated due to mold and
dampness during the rainy season.
Preventive Measures Last Updated: 6/16/2004 2:49 PM
Most health hazards encountered in Rwanda can be avoided with
vigilance and a few precautions. Risks from malaria, AIDS,
dysentery, bilharzia, and hepatitis can be greatly reduced by using
the appropriate method of prophylaxis. Proper food preparation,
well-cooked meat, water purification, inoculations, repellants,
mosquito nets, avoidance of beach areas where there is a danger of
water borne disease organisms, and constant awareness will all
reduce the risk to your health. Adherence to an anti-malaria drug
regimen is extremely important in this Malaria-prevalent region.
In addition to those mentioned above, diseases endemic to Rwanda
include tuberculosis, cholera, and leprosy. Also prevalent are
venereal, alimentary tract, parasitic, respiratory, and childhood
infectious diseases. Outbreaks of meningitis occur in the rural
areas and several cases of “sleeping sickness” are reported each
year. Cantharides, known in East Africa as “Nairobi Eye,” is a
common, seasonal, skin infection caused by a thin
green-and-orange-striped insect. First and second-degree burns can
occur from contact with the fluids of this bug. If the insect lights
on your skin, take care to remove it carefully without crushing it,
which releases the skin-burning fluids.
Recommended inoculations include yellow fever, hepatitis A & B,
typhoid, MMR, tetanus, anti-rabies, and polio. Anti-malaria
prophylaxis are strongly recommended.
Employment for Spouses and Dependents Last Updated: 1/10/2004
A number of positions within the mission are available to family
members, including Management Assistant, GSO Assistant, Consular
Assistant, Consular Associate, and Community Liaison Office
Coordinator. With such a large number of NGOs and international
organizations in Kigali, spouses have found other opportunities for
employment. In addition, Rwanda and the U.S. have a bilateral work
agreement, opening up employment options on the local economy. A
Student Summer Hire Program, coordinated by the Management Office,
offers returning high school and college students the opportunity to
work during the summer.
If time permits, completing the FSI course on teaching English as
a second language or the consular training course could be a
valuable asset when searching for employment.
American Embassy - Kigali
Post City Last Updated: 4/5/2004 10:37 AM
With independence in 1962, Kigali became the capital of Rwanda.
Kigali is a small city perched on a series of hills and ridges at an
altitude of almost 4,800 feet. Rather than having a defined city
center, Kigali is a mixture of low buildings, European-style
housing, and mud-brick African dwellings. Kigali offers tree-lined
streets and plentiful gardens. Main streets are paved.
Security Last Updated: 6/16/2004 2:52 PM
Crime: Crime is rated at “medium” by the U.S. Department of
State. Violent crimes such as car-jackings, home invasions, and
armed robbery are low compared to most other cities in Africa.
However, violent crimes do occur periodically. Non-violent crimes
such as pick-pocketing, purse snatching, and vehicle break-ins are
common in crowded areas. Street children can be aggressive at times
while begging for money and are known to steal handbags, wallets,
and other items in plain view.
The Rwandan National Police are a capable and motivated police
force. However, their resources are limited, which can affect their
response times and investigative capability. The U.S. Embassy has
excellent relations with the police and works with them on a daily
basis addressing a variety of security concerns.
Terrorism: There is no known international terrorism organization
or cell active in Rwanda. However, East Africa is constantly in a
state of alert due to numerous threat reports. The Embassy keeps a
watchful eye on security developments in the East Africa region.
Security within Rwanda: Rwandan insurgents residing in the Congo
have been attempting to infiltrate and attack Rwanda since 1994.
Rwandan government forces have successfully secured the borders.
Recently, a number of insurgents have surrendered and others have
been captured. The insurgency seems to be winding down and is not
seen as a major threat to Rwandan security. However, the Embassy
monitors the activity in northwest and southwest regions of Rwanda
for insurgent activity and issues appropriate notifications or
warnings should an incident occur.
Physical Security: All official residences have 24-hour guards,
alarms, and a dedicated mobile patrol for the Embassy neighborhoods.
All residences require RSO approval before they are occupied. All
other official buildings and offices have 24-hour guard service and
have a variety of access controls in place.
Firearms: COM, RSO and Rwandan government permission must be
obtained before importing a firearm to Rwanda. Contact the RSO for
The Post and Its Administration Last Updated: 6/16/2004 3:00 PM
The Embassy is located on the corner of Avenue des Grand Lacs and
Boulevard de la Revolution.
The country code for dialing Rwanda is 250, the Embassy telephone
number is 505-601, or 602, or 603. The Embassy fax number is
572-128; the Management Office fax number is 501-207. All sections
and agencies are open Monday through Thursday, 8:00AM to 5:30PM, and
Friday 8:00AM to 1:00 PM.
Public Diplomacy Office, including the library and cultural
center, occupies a building adjoining the Embassy and shares the
same telephone number. The PD Fax number is 507-143.
USAID offices are located one mile from the Embassy at 55 Avenue
Paul VI. Telephone numbers are 570-937 through 943; fax numbers are
573-950 or 574-735.
CDC offices are located next door to the embassy in the Banque
Rwandaise de Developement building. Telephone numbers are 503-234
through 237; fax number is 502-679.
U.S. Government paychecks are issued by the Charleston Finance
Center in Charleston, South Carolina. Salary payments are made by
electronic funds transfer (EFT) directly to your U.S. bank account.
Temporary Quarters Last Updated: 5/12/2004 3:49 AM
In most instances, personnel will move directly into permanent
housing upon arrival.
Permanent Housing Last Updated: 6/16/2004 3:01 PM
With the exception of the residences of the Ambassador, the
Deputy Chief of Mission, the Public Affairs Officer, the Defense
Attaché and the USAID Director, all housing in Kigali is assigned by
the Inter-Agency Housing Board (IAHB) according to family size and
Most houses occupied by mission personnel are modest,
single-story dwellings on nicely-sized lots. Houses usually have a
living room, a separate dining room, and three to four bedrooms; and
many have two or three full bathrooms.
Furnishings Last Updated: 5/12/2004 3:53 AM
All assigned housing is fully furnished by the USG, including
carpets and drapes, a clothes washer and dryer, microwave oven,
stove, refrigerator, upright freezer, water distiller, vacuum
cleaner, hot water heaters, and three voltage transformers.
Welcome Kits are available for newly arrived personnel and
provide ample kitchenware and bed and bath linens until airfreight
Utilities and Equipment Last Updated: 6/16/2004 3:02 PM
Water shortages lasting several days can occur at any time.
Reserve water tanks installed in most Embassy quarters alleviate the
inconveniences of water cutoffs to some extent, but personnel are
advised to conserve water at all times. Tap water can be a muddy
reddish-brown. Water distillers installed in all residences provide
The electric supply in Kigali is 220/240 volts, 50 Hz. The
Embassy and USAID will provide step-down transformers to convert the
power supply to 110 volts. This does not change the Hz (American
appliances are 110 volts, 60 Hz), so any appliance with a motor can
be damaged. Variable step-down transformers allow voltage
adjustments to lower voltage below 110 volts, thus sparing the
motor. If bringing electronic equipment such as a stereo, television
or computer, plan on bringing a heavy duty servo-stabilizer or
voltage regulator that will accommodate all of the items and UPS
equipment, if needed. In addition, you should bring surge protectors
for each piece of electronic gear. If possible, bring 220V
appliances. The Family Liaison Office (FLO) at the State Department
will provide you with a list of suppliers in the Washington D.C.
area that sell overseas appliances and equipment.
Short power outages occur fairly often. Each Embassy residence is
furnished with a generator. Plumbing in USG quarters is reasonably
good; electrical wiring often is not. Circuits often break if too
many appliances are used at the same time. Residences are equipped
with continental European-style wall sockets of various sizes. Bring
plug adapters—they are in short supply in Kigali.
Food Last Updated: 6/16/2004 3:04 PM
Locally grown fruits and vegetables are good and generally
plentiful. Many vegetables available in the U.S. are also available
in Kigali, with the exception of yellow corn, lima beans, and a
short season of broccoli. Mangos, pineapple, papaya, passion fruit,
guava, bananas, and seasonal citrus fruits are all on the market.
South African apples are found from time to time in some import
stores, but are very expensive.
A German butcher has established a reliable shop offering beef,
pork, chicken, fish, and deli and breakfast meats. Most cuts tend to
Most Americans purchase either imported UHT milk or powdered
milk. UHT cream from Belgium is available. Imported cheeses can be
found, at a premium price! A local cheese is tasty and good for
sandwiches, pizza or casseroles.
A number of grocery stores offer a wide variety of imported
items, but generally at great cost (two to four times the U.S.
cost). Supplies fluctuate, with some products not being available
for months at a time. When shopping, purchase what you need when you
see it; don't count on it being there next week.
Personnel assigned to Kigali are authorized a consumables
shipment of up to 2,500 lbs, to be used within the first year of
your tour. The CLO in Kigali provides a list of items suitable for
your consumables shipment. The pouch does not accept liquids, items
in glass containers, or liquor. Many mission families place group
orders with European and South Africa duty-free exporters for food
and beverages. Shipping costs are high but orders generally arrive
within a few weeks. Kenya offers great shopping at prices much lower
If you are bringing a pet, ship pet food and pet supplies as they
are not found in Kigali. Some pet food companies sell their products
on the Internet.
Clothing Last Updated: 11/30/1999 6:00 PM
Clothing requirements are generally less dressy than at other
posts. For men, khaki pants and sport shirts suffice in the office,
with a tie and jacket added for meetings with Rwandan officials.
Most women wear dresses or suits to the office. Cocktail clothes do
not need to be overly fancy. Depending on your personal interests,
leisure time clothing should include a warm jacket, running shoes,
hiking boots, rain gear, bathing suit. Shorts are worn at home,
during athletic activities in town, and at safari camps. Generally
speaking, dress for both men and women is conservative.
Larger sizes of shoes are difficult to find in Kigali, and
variety of styles and types of shoes is limited. It is advised to
purchase shoes before coming to post.
It is always a good idea to include a winter coat in your
shipment in case you must travel to Washington in the winter.
Men Last Updated: 4/5/2004 1:07 PM
Men generally wear casual clothing during leisure time. Summer
clothing is appropriate during most of the year. However, rainy
seasons can be quite cool, and long-sleeved shirts or light jackets
can be comfortable in the evenings. Informal and business wear is
appropriate for most social functions.
Women Last Updated: 6/16/2004 3:05 PM
Most women dress casually in comfortably-loose clothing.
Stockings and heels are not worn frequently, unless attending a
special function. Light suits and dresses are appropriate for most
social engagements. Summer clothes are most appropriate for
year-round wear, but bring some light jackets and long-sleeved
shirts for the cooler rainy seasons, particularly in the evenings.
Children Last Updated: 4/5/2004 1:13 PM
There are few occasions for children to dress up, but some
"special" wear is recommended. Generally children will wear
comforable summer clothing (shorts and tops), with jeans or long
pants and long-sleeved shirts for the cooler rainy seasons. Sandals
and running shoes are the most frequently worn footwear. Rubber
boots can be useful during heavy rainy periods. Bring umbrellas.
Office Attire Last Updated: 4/5/2004 1:16 PM
Typical, light-weight business atire is most appropriate in
Kigali's mild climate. Men wear business suits and women wear
business suits, dresses, and pants. Clothing should be professional
looking but comfortable for a climate that varies from quite warm
during the dry season, to quite chilly during the rainy seasons,
particularly in the evenings.
Supplies and Services
Supplies Last Updated: 5/12/2004 4:21 AM
With a small number of import shops available in Kigali, most
typical household supplies and toiletries can be found at one time
or another. Stock availability varies; selection is limited. Be
prepared to pay much more (double to triple) than you would pay in
Washington, D.C. If you have favorite brands of particular items,
bring them with you, as most American products are absent from the
Basic Services Last Updated: 6/16/2004 3:07 PM
Tailoring and dressmaking services can be found; however, fabric
selection is limited and expensive. Shoe repair is possible but the
results are marginal. Washable clothing is the best bet, as local
dry cleaners are only adequate.
Servicing of radio, television, and other electronic equipment is
Unisex beauty salons operate in the three major hotels, as well
as a number of other salons about the city.
Domestic Help Last Updated: 5/12/2004 4:22 AM
In Kigali servants generally do not live in, but live-in help can
be found if required. A housekeeper does most household chores
including ironing, and sometimes cooking. Some mission families
employ a cook and/or a gardener. The Embassy provides 24-hour guards
at each residence. Once a year, the CLO conducts a Servant’s Salary
Survey to help determine fair wages.
Be prepared to train your domestic staff in food preparation and
personal hygiene. They should receive annual medical examinations.
Some employers provide locally made uniforms. Employers should
register servants with Rwandan social security and make the required
payments. Severance pay is two weeks’ salary.
Religious Activities Last Updated: 6/16/2004 3:07 PM
Protestant - Episcopal
- 7th Day Adventist
- Christian Science
- Jehovah’s Witness
- Restoration Church
- Zion Temple
- Assemblies of God
- Multiple Evangelical denominations
Small Jewish Community
An expatriate interfaith fellowship meets on Sunday afternoons
At Post Last Updated: 5/12/2004 4:29 AM No American curriculum
and no State Department-supported school exists in Kigali. Middle,
junior high, and high school-age Mission children attend boarding
schools in the U.S. or elsewhere.
A number of younger Mission children attend the local Belgian
school in pre-school and in primary grades, where all instruction is
in French and the curriculum is based on the Belgian system. As of
the 2003-04 school year, no Mission children attend Green Hills
Academy, the English-language British-based system school in Kigali.
Away From Post Last Updated: 4/5/2004 11:06 AM Kigali has an
Away-From-Post Education Allowance that covers the cost of boarding
schools in the United States or Europe through high school. An
Educational Travel Allowance allows college-age dependents to visit
post once a year.
Special Needs Education Last Updated: 4/5/2004 11:07 AM
There is no facility for special needs education in Kigali.
Higher Education Opportunities Last Updated: 4/5/2004 11:08 AM
There are no higher education opportunities in Kigali for
Recreation and Social Life
Sports Last Updated: 6/16/2004 3:10 PM
Kigali has a challenging 9-hole golf course complete with club
facilities. Membership is US $500 a year. Bring equipment, including
balls, tees, gloves, etc. Weekend instruction is available.
The Cercle Sportif, Kigali’s sole private club, boasts complete
facilities for tennis, squash, basketball, volleyball, soccer, and
swimming. The Club also provides bar and restaurant service.
Membership is open to everyone; cost depends upon the length of
membership desired and the facilities to be included.
The Hotel des Mille Collines and the Umubano Novotel Hotel have
decent-sized swimming pools and several tennis courts. The swimming
pool at the new InterContinental Hotel is reserved for resident
guest use only.
The Hash House Harriers is a popular Saturday event, with trails
set for runners and walkers.
Touring and Outdoor Activities Last Updated: 6/16/2004 1:36 PM
The Embassy owns a small piece of property on the shores of Lake
Muhazi, a 45-minute drive out of town. It is a pleasant place for
picnicking and camping. The property has a covered patio, small
kitchen/storage room, and toilet facilities.
The CLO organizes tours and adventures both in and out of Kigali.
The National Museum at Butare and the handicraft shops there are a
popular destination. Akagera National Park has a new hotel with
excellent dining and large swimming pool. It is a good spot to go
fishing, camping, birdwatching and, with any luck, spot zebra,
giraffes, hippos, impala, bush buck, springbok, and a wide variety
of fascinating birds. The border with Uganda is a two-hour drive
from Kigali, and the CLO offers shopping as well as sightseeing
weekends in Kampala.
The region offers many travel adventures including white-water
rafting, photographic safaris, ballooning, mountain climbing,
hiking, gorilla watching, boat trips on the Nile, a week at the
beach in Kenya or Tanzania, and much more. Several local travel
agencies are available to assist in planning your adventures.
Entertainment Last Updated: 6/16/2004 1:39 PM
Kigali has four Rotary Clubs and one Lions Club. Membership in
any of these clubs offers an excellent way to meet Rwandans and
become engaged in the community.
A few pleasant restaurants, nightclubs, and the occasional
dinner-dance sponsored by a local organization are the alternatives
to entertaining at home.
Traditional Rwandan Intore dancers and drummers often perform on
Rwandan holidays and other special occasions.
Remember to join a book club or bring an ample supply, as
English-language books are difficult to find. Video tapes, CDs, and
cassette tapes are expensive when they are available, and the
selection is very limited.
Life in Kigali is informal. Small dinners, private parties, and
government or diplomatic receptions round out the entertainment
Among Americans Last Updated: 4/5/2004 11:17 AM The American Club
continues to host free weekly "movie nights" with catered dinner
available at reasonable cost. Otherwise, Americans entertain in
their homes and dine in small groups in local restaurants.
International Contacts Last Updated: 9/13/2004 11:32 AM Kigali
hosts a number of NGOs from all over the world, as well as a full
complement of foreign diplomatic missions. Most American Mission
members enjoy the friendship and company of a variety of
international individuals and families.
Kigali's International Club began membership in 2004 for expats
and local residents interested in getting involved in the community.
Monthly meeting are held in the homes of volunteer members and
usually center around a few local individuals who have come to
promote the virtues of their ventures.
The International Club includes a number of smaller clubs that
individuals may join, including an English-language book club,
cultural activities, bridge club, Christmas bazaar, bird walks,
golf, biking, and a variety of other one-time workshops as they
happen to avail themselves.
Official Functions Last Updated: 6/16/2004 3:11 PM
Some Mission personnel will be required to attend official
functions celebrating local holidays, etc. Many of these events
include speeches lasting up to three hours! Some events may include
local dance performances. Bring comfortable shoes.
Nature of Functions Last Updated: 4/5/2004 11:41 AM
The Chief of Mission occasionally hosts informal gatherings in
honor of visiting American officials and other local officials. The
Mission July Fourth celebration is a large formal event to which
senior contacts of all Mission sections are invited.
Special Information Last Updated: 5/12/2004 4:37 AM
Post Orientation Program
Twice each year the Embassy holds an official, full-day
orientation to post organized by the CLO. Newly arrived personnel
and their family members are invited to meet the Ambassador and to
hear an overview of Rwandan programs from representatives of each
agency. The orientation program includes a cross-cultural discussion
with invited local guests, highlighting Rwandan culture, traditions,
and society. The CLO addresses life-at-post issues and includes a
city orientation tour.
Notes For Travelers
Getting to the Post Last Updated: 6/16/2004 3:23 PM
Direct flights to Kigali are available twice each week from
Brussels on the SN Brussels airline, and via Nairobi on Kenya Air.
Travelers from the U.S. may take an overnight rest stop if not
flying business class.
Make reservations well in advance and reconfirm them several days
prior to departure. Check in early as flights are frequently
over-booked. Bring favorite snack and specialty foods, pet food, and
liquor for your first weeks in-country. Such items can be scarce in
Kigali and, if found, are very expensive.
Airfreight from the U.S. can arrive within 3 weeks, but delays
are common. Surface shipments are normally routed to Antwerp,
Belgium, and airlifted from there to Kigali.
Transit time from the U.S. to Antwerp is 8 to 12 weeks, but may
be longer. Band or crate all effects.
SEA FREIGHT (HHE, CONSUMABLES, and POV, per 6 FAH 161.2.1) should
be handled as follows:
1. POVS are air shipped via ELSO antwerp and should be
containerized. HHE and consumables are also shipped via ELSO to
Kigali International Airport and should be packed in wooden or
plywood crates not exceeding 193 cm. in height, 145 cm. in width,
and 220 cm. in length.
2. Surface Shipments should be marked as follows:
For: American Ambassador
3. Original bill of lading, packing list, POV ownership document,
and valuation certificate should be sent via courier (DHL, FedEx,
etc.) to GSO Section, American Embassy, Boulevard de la Revolution,
4. Notify post using the standard telegraphic Notification of
Shipment Enroute cable format. In addition, for POV shipments,
include particulars of vehicle: make, model, year, VIN, engine size,
fuel type, body style (van, sedan, SUV, etc.).
5. Copies of packing lists for HHE, UAB, and POV ownership
certificate or invoice, along with estimated declared value for
customs purposes, are required at port of entry.
Customs, Duties, and Passage
Customs and Duties Last Updated: 5/25/2004 9:42 AM
The Rwandan Government adheres to the Vienna Convention of 1961
concerning privileges and immunities for members of diplomatic
missions. Both diplomatic and non-diplomatic personnel are
authorized importation of duty free personal and household effects
for the duration of assignment to Rwanda.
No unusual restrictions are imposed on importation of vehicles,
nor on material mailed to Rwanda.
Passage Last Updated: 4/5/2004 11:51 AM
Visas are not required for American citizens entering Rwanda.
Officials check health certificates for up-to-date immunization
against yellow fever.
All visitors are met by Embassy staff at the airport when advance
notification is received.
Private vehicles driven to Rwanda must be declared at the border.
Importation formalities are arranged later in Kigali.
Pets Last Updated: 4/5/2004 11:52 AM
Pets are not quarantined, but dogs must have proof of rabies
vaccinations and a veterinarian’s certificate showing origin and
health. Although the same is not required for cats, it is
At present, veterinary service is fair to good, with two private
Rwandan veterinarians available and on call. Most pet supplies are
not available, so bring a supply of flea and tick repellant,
heartworm medicine, toys, pet food, pet supplies, etc.
Be sure to advise post at least one month in advance if you are
bringing one or more pets, so that airport formalities may be
arranged prior to arrival.
Firearms and Ammunition Last Updated: 4/5/2004 11:52 AM
The Ambassador, the RSO, and the Government of Rwanda must
pre-approve the importation of any weapon. Weapons imported into
Rwanda must be registered and approved before they enter the
country, or turned over to Customs upon arrival until they are
registered and approved. Email the Embassy RSO as soon as possible
regarding importation requirements.
Currency, Banking, and Weights and Measures Last Updated:
6/16/2004 3:27 PM
The Rwandan Franc (RwF) is the currency of Rwanda. As of April 5,
2004, US$1 = RwF582.44. For the sake of comparison, the rate of
exchange (ROE) on January 1, 2004, was US$1.00 = RwF577.24.
The Embassy provides accommodation exchange facilities for U.S.
direct hire staff and dependents. The Embassy's correspondent vendor
bank is the Banque Commerciale de Rwanda (BCR). U.S. dollar
traveler's checks may be purchased from the National Bank of Rwanda
Taxes, Exchange, and Sale of Property Last Updated: 4/5/2004
The airport embarkation fee is US$20 per person. Reimbursement
may be claimed on a travel voucher at the completion of official
Rwandan VAT tax is 18% on most items, which must be paid at time
of purchase. Under reciprocal agreement, VAT tax is reimbursable
upon completion of appropriate forms for submission to the GOR.
Reimbursement takes approximately three months to process and return
to the purchaser from the GOR.
Department of State regulations, based on the Code of Federal
Regulations relating to the sale of personal property, state that
personnel under the authority of a Chief of Mission may sell their
personal property only before departure from post on transfer or
home leave orders, and with prior written approval of the Chief of
Mission or designee. Current regulations also state that employees
may not make a profit on the sale of personal property originally
imported into the country under exemption from import limitation,
customs duties, or taxes.
These provisions apply to the personal effects of all
U.S.Government employees and contractors, their spouses and
dependents, regardless of agency, under the jurisdiction of the
Chief of Mission. Included are military personnel who are not under
the command of an area military commander.
In accordance with Rwandan law, used household-type personal
items may be sold to duty-free and non duty-free buyers without
further payment of import duties. All vehicles, including
motorcycles and four-wheeled vehicles, however, if not sold to
duty-free buyers, must have import duties paid by any non duty-free
Recommended Reading Last Updated: 6/16/2004 1:43 PM
These titles are provided as a general indication of the material
published on this country. The Department of State does not endorse
Finlay, Hugh and Crowther, Ceoff. 1997. Lonely Planet Guide—East
Africa. Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 0864424493.
Isaac, John and Greenberg, Keith Elliot. January 1997. Rwanda:
Fierce Clashes in Central Africa. Blackbirch Press. ISBN 1567111858.
For ages 8 and above.
Newbury, Catherine. February 1989. Cohesion of Oppression:
Clientship and Ethnicity in Ruanda, 1860-1960. Columbia University
Press. ISBN 0231062567.
Prunier, Gerard. September 1995. The Rwandan Crisis: History of a
Genocide. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231104081.
Rosamund Carr, Land of A Thousand Hills: My Life in Rwanda
Jean-Pierre Chrétien (translated by Scott Straus), The Great
Lakes of Africa: Two Thousand Years of History (New York: Zone
Books, 2003). 503 pp.
Human Rights Watch, Uprooting the Rural Poor in Rwanda (New York:
Human Rights Watch, 2001). 91 pp.
Johan Pottier, Re-Imagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and
Disinformation in the Late Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2002). 251 pp.
Howard Adelman and Astri Suhrke, eds. The Path of A Genocide: The
Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction
Publishers, 1999). 414 pp.
Bill Berkeley, The Graves Are Not Yet Full: Race, Tribe and Power
in the Heart of Africa (New York: Basic Books, 2001). 308 p.
Alison Des Forges, Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in
Rwanda (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1999). 789 pp.
Philip Gourevitch, We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be
Killed With Our Families: Stories from Rwanda (New York: Farrar,
Straus and Giroux, 1998). 356 pp.
Fergal Keane, Season of Blood: A Rwandan Journey (London: Penguin
Books, 1995). 198 pp.
Alan J. Kuperman, The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention:
Genocide in Rwanda (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press,
2001). 162 pp.
Mahmood Mamdani, When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism,
Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 2001). 364 pp.
Linda Melvern, A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in
Rwanda’s Genocide (London: Zed Books, 2000). 272 pp.
Democratic Republic of the Congo:
John F. Clark, ed. The African Stakes of the Congo War (New York:
Palgrace Macmillan, 2002). 249 pp.
Human Rights Watch, The War Within the War: Sexual Violence
Against Women and Girls in Eastern Congo (New York: Human Rights
Watch, 2002). 114 pp.
Michela Wrong, In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink
of Disaster in Mobutu’s Congo (New York: HarperCollins Publishers,
2001). 338 pp.
Local Holidays Last Updated: 6/30/2004 3:35 AM
New Year's Day Jan. 1 Hero's Day Feb. 1 National Mourning Day
Apr. 7 Labor Day May 1 Independence Day July 1
Rwandan Liberation Day July 4 Assumption Aug. 15 Republic Day
Sept. 25 Patriot's Day October 1 All Saint's Day November 1 Id-el-Fitr
(Date varies) November 12 Christmas Day December 25