The Host Country
Area, Geography, and Climate Last Updated: 4/16/2004 2:22 AM
Sudan, a vast, sun-baked land, gained independence in 1956,
following the end of the Anglo-Egyptian condominium. It is the
largest country in all Africa, stretching almost one million square
miles. Superimposed over a map of the U.S., Sudan would reach from
the Canadian border to Houston, and from eastern Utah to St. Louis.
To the north are the Libyan and Nubian Deserts. In mid-country, a
band of rocky semi-desert reaches from the Chad border eastward to
encompass the range of arid mountains along the Red Sea coast and
the Ethiopian border. The southern half consists of savanna and
swampland grading into semitropical forests along the Democratic
Republic of Congo and Uganda borders. Although arable, fertile land
is available (37 %), but little (1.5 %) is cultivated because of
inadequate irrigation. In the past, the U.S. was involved in many
projects to improve water usage and agricultural methods through the
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), but these
programs were cut when the military took over the civilian
government in 1989.
Through these diverse regions flow the White and Blue Niles,
which converge at Khartoum. The Nile system, with its major
tributaries-the Bahr al Ghazal, Sobat, and Atbara-is the primary
water supply for northeastern Africa. Most cultivation in the north
of Sudan depends on these rivers, but farther south, rainfall is
sufficient for cultivation and grazing.
The river is navigable only in certain areas. The Bahr al-Arab,
flowing west to east, forms a natural frontier. Another, more
formidable obstacle to the south is the Sudd, an immense 12,000
square miles of swamp floating vegetation into which the White Nile
expands before reverting to river again. Over great distances, only
a few paved roads, a limited rail line, and unreliable air service
connect broadly scattered towns and settlements.
Khartoum is usually hot and dusty. During May, June, and July,
daily high temperatures average around 100 F or higher, with
frequent dust storms called "haboobs." July, August, and part of
September are not as hot, with rare but heavy rainstorms (average 8
inches yearly) and continuing haboobs. From November until April,
daily temperatures range around 95 F; nights, around 70 F, are
pleasant. Cool weather at night and in the early mornings sometimes
requires light sweaters or blankets.
Population Last Updated: 4/16/2004 2:28 AM
Sudan bridges Arab and African cultures. Its approximately 30
million people are from as many as 500 different ethnic groups,
cultures, and creeds. About 70% are Moslem and 30% are Christian or
animistic. Among the northern groups are the Hadendowa, Bisharin,
and Beni Amer of the Red Sea hills; the Nubian tribes of the
northern Nile Valley; a conglomeration of "Arab" tribes occupying
the central belt; the Kababish and other nomadic tribes west of the
Nile; and descendants of earlier peoples, such as Nuba, Fur, and
Ingessana. Although some still speak their own Hamitic, Semitic, or
other ancient languages, the common language of northern Sudan is
Arabic. Many local dialects are spoken.
Southern Sudan was isolated from early external influences by
climate and geography. It is inhabited by African ethnic groups that
speak over 100 separate languages and dialects classified as Sudanic,
Nioltic, and Nile Hamitic. The Dinkas, with a population around two
million, constitute the largest southern tribe. Other tribal groups
include the Nuer, Shilluk, and Azande.
Public Institutions Last Updated: 4/16/2004 2:31 AM
The North and South of Sudan have been at war since 1983. An
earlier civil war lasted until 1972 when both sides agreed to end
hostilities in accordance with the Addis Ababa Accord, brokered in
large part by Ethiopiaís Haile Selassie. In April1985, as a result
of overwhelming popular unrest, President Nimeiryís military
dictatorship was overthrown by General Sowar al Dahab. After a
transitional period, Sudan held its first free elections in 17 years
in 1986. Although the civil war prevented elections in 37 of 68
southern constituencies, a Parliament was elected and a democratic
government was installed. Six of 40 parties from a broad political
spectrum participated in Sadiq Al-Mahdiís coalition government until
June 30, 1989, when General Omar Hassan Ahmed Al Bashier headed a
military coup, which overthrew the government. Bashier dissolved the
Parliament and suspended activities of all political parties. Over
time, the government has infiltrated virtually all aspects of civil
society and social life. Islamic Sharia law is in effect, although
the government does not usually enforce the stricter punishments.
Arts, Science, and Education Last Updated: 4/16/2004 2:35 AM
In 1991, the Bashier government changed Sudanís compulsory
education from 12 to 11 years by combining six years of primary and
three years of intermediate education into eight years of basic
education. The three years of secondary education remained
unchanged. Literacy and school attendance rates are difficult to
calculate for many reasons, not the least of which is the continuing
civil war in the south and hostilities in the west. However,
estimates are 20% and 50% respectively, although the government
claims higher figures. Instruction through high school is in Arabic,
although a few private schools do provide some instruction in
English. The curriculum is Koran-based. The University of Khartoum,
with approximately 27,000 students and 914 teaching staff, is the
center of Khartoumís intellectual life. Even here, including in
technical and scientific faculties, Arabic has replaced English as
the primary language of instruction. English, however, continues to
be used in many private Sudanese universities.
In addition to the University of Khartoum, there are 25
government universities throughout the country with over 125,000
students and 3,000 teaching staff. Private universities and
technical colleges number 23 with some 38,000 students and over 400
teaching staff. Al Nilein University (or University of Two Niles),
formerly the University of Cairo, is located in Khartoum; the
Islamic University and the Ahfad College for Women operate in
Omdurman-adjacent to Khartoum. The University of Juba has moved to
Khartoum due to the war. Other universities include Upper Nile
University in Malakal, Bahr al Ghazal University in Wau, the
University of Gezira in Wad Medani and Kordofan University in El-Obeid.
The French and German Cultural Centers offer language classes and
cultural events. Arabic classes are available outside the Embassy.
Commerce and Industry Last Updated: 4/16/2004 2:40 AM
Long the countryís major economic activities, agriculture and
livestock have been replaced in recent years by petroleum
development. Estimates vary but oil reserves total at least 250
million barrels. A pioneer in Sudanís petroleum industry, Chevron
sold its last oil concessions to a private Sudanese corporation in
1992. American participation is now prohibited by U.S. legislation.
Foreign investment is now led by China and Malaysiaís Petronas. In
addition to oil, Sudanís natural resources include gold, iron ore,
copper, and chrome. Although Sudan is believed to possess other
minerals, including zinc, iron, and uranium, mining is still
Agriculture still provides a large part of the countryís export
income. Cotton is the leading cash crop, followed by sorghum,
groundnuts, sesame, and gum arabic. Fruits and vegetables are grown
for local consumption. Limited industry processes agriculture
produce. Sudan also remains Africaís livestock exporter, however the
countryís once flourishing textile and tanning industries have
ceased to exist.
Despite Sudanís physical advantages, it is among the worldís
poorest countries, with a per capita income of about $250 a year.
The Sudanese economy suffers from high inflation and low output.
Labor shortages have developed because skilled workers have
emigrated to better job prospects abroad. Like many developing
countries, Sudanís infrastructure has gaps: transportation,
especially outside Khartoum, is difficult and impedes development;
power blackouts are frequent and telephone service is irregular.
Certain essential commodities, like gasoline, are occasionally
scarce. The results of the governmentís ambitious economic reform
programs have been disappointing, in part because of declining
foreign assistance levels. Current external assistance is almost
entirely humanitarian relief, due to U.S. economic and other
sanctions imposed due to Sudanís support for global terrorist
Automobiles Last Updated: 4/16/2004 2:43 AM
In June 2003, U.S. Mission Khartoum became a one-year tour of
duty post. Official travel orders for assigned personnel currently
do not authorize shipment of privately owned vehicles (POVs) for
one-year assignments. However, local purchase of a POV is permitted
and it is the employeeís responsibility and personal expense to ship
the locally purchased POV out of Sudan or sell it at the end of
their assignment. With public transportation and taxis both
inadequate and unsafe, the Mission provides for all employeesí
official and personal transportation needs. Please consult with the
General Services Officer concerning current policies. If you plan to
request permission to drive yourself (in official vehicle) at any
time, you will need a valid drivers license and two passport-size
photographs to obtain the mandatory Sudanese drivers license.
Licenses are issued free to diplomatic personnel; non-diplomatic
personnel pay approximately 20,000 Sudanese Dinars (US$ 77.00).
Local Transportation Last Updated: 4/16/2004 2:50 AM
Local buses are rarely used by foreigners. Taxis are easy to find
downtown, but cannot be called by telephone. Most Sudanese
white-collar workers use taxis, frequently in groups. Taxis are not
readily available after dark in residential areas. Most taxi drivers
do not speak English and drive vehicles in questionable state of
repair. Daytime rates are reasonable; they usually double at night.
Rates are at least double for foreigners.
Regional Transportation Last Updated: 4/16/2004 2:53 AM
Sudanís regional transportation system seriously impedes its
economic development. Paved, all-weather roads connect Khartoum with
Port Sudan via Kassala, and with Kosti and Sennar. The drive between
Khartoum and Port Sudan takes approximately 12 hours, excluding
stops. There are few amenities along the route. Although fuel can
usually be found in the larger cities, all necessities, including
plenty of food and water, first aid and toilet supplies, and
essential spare parts should be carried in the vehicle. Travel
elsewhere by car is difficult, even with four-wheel drive vehicles.
In the rainy season, travel in the southern regions is virtually
impossible. At the present time, travel to the south is restricted
due to the civil war. Because of the danger of breakdown, you should
travel any lengthy journey with at least another four-wheel drive
vehicle. Although there is scheduled air and rail service between
Khartoum and major Sudanese cities like Port Sudan, El Obeid and El
Fasher, service is sometimes irregular. Travel is restricted in
particular areas in the east and especially in the west in Darfur.
Telephones and Telecommunications Last Updated: 4/16/2004 7:11 AM
The telephone system is overloaded in Khartoum and inadequate
beyond. Most Mission personnel now have home telephones and all
personnel are provided cellular phones. The RSO operates radio
networks. USAID also maintains a short wave radio network. The motor
pool operates a cellular phone communications network.
The Embassy began operating a comprehensive communications
network including VSAT, IVG, and Opennet Plus in September 2003.
International calls can be placed through Embassy switchboard
(during working hours) or by cellular phone with little difficulty.
Sample rates per minute are as follows:
USA/Canada - SD 280 (US$1.08) Europe - SD 240 (US$.92) Egypt/Gulf
countries - SD 190 (US$.73 East Africa - SD 280 (US$1.08) Other
African countries - SD 400 (US$1.54) Australia - SD 460 (US$1.77)
Commercial communications facilities, including Internet access
are available at the Hilton, Meridien and the Acropole Hotels.
Internet Last Updated: 4/16/2004 3:23 AM
There are numerous Internet and Cyber Cafes throughout Khartoum.
However, due to the panoply of sanctions imposed on Khartoum,
browsers are obsolete and cannot be updated as they connect through
Sudanese commercial facilities. Many Internet activities such as on
line banking and other commercial transactions are currently
prohibited. The Hilton, Meridien and Acropole Hotels offer
commercial Internet access. U.S. Mission employees have desktop
access to the Internet through Opennet Plus in their offices.
Mail and Pouch Last Updated: 4/16/2004 3:29 AM
The Mission receives mail, both personal and official, through
the diplomatic pouch about once a week on average, and international
mail. The pouch address for official mail is:
Name of Section/Person American Embassy Khartoum 2200 Khartoum PL
Washington, DC 20521-2200
Personal mail should be addressed as follows:
(Name) 2200 Khartoum PL Dulles, VA 20189-2200
Please consult current Department regulations regarding pouch
restrictions and size limitations. Contract personnel, including
PSCs/PSAs should consult the terms of their contracts regarding
pouch privileges. Private individuals, voluntary organizations and
other NGOs do not have pouch privileges and should not have
international mail sent through the Mission.
The Missionís address for international mail is:
(Name or office as appropriate) United States Embassy P.O. Box
699 Khartoum, Sudan
Radio and TV Last Updated: 4/16/2004 3:31 AM
Local television stations are Sudan TV, Blue Nile Channel and
Khartoum State Channel. Virtually all programs are in Arabic. In
addition, South African cable is available. The number of channels
depends on various commercial packages, but include English, French,
German, Italian, Spanish, Turkish broadcasts from around the world
and Arabic and English broadcasts from several Middle Eastern
countries including Egypt and Dubai. Channels include CNN, BBC World
and History Channel International. Popular American shows include
American Dreams, West Wing, Law and Order, Oprah, Home Improvement,
Friends and The Guardian.
There are several local AM and FM radio stations. BBC, DW
(Deutsche-Welle) and Monte Carlo are available on FM.
Newspapers, Magazines, and Technical Journals Last Updated:
4/16/2004 3:34 AM
The Sudan News Agency (SUNA) publishes a daily news roundup in
English with both national and international news. The Khartoum
Monitor is one of a few daily English language newspapers; Sudanow
is a monthly English publication. There are several other government
and privately owned papers in Arabic. The Acropole Hotel maintains a
small stock of mostly local interest books and pamphlets in English.
There are also several stationery and bookstores throughout the city
and in the major hotels, but virtually all publications are in
The VOA, AP, Reuters, BBC, AFP, and the Italian News Agency
maintain offices in either Khartoum or Omdurman with local
representatives. The Middle East News Agency and Al Gazira also have
local offices, as do Arabic news organizations from Egypt, Qatar and
Health and Medicine
Medical Facilities Last Updated: 4/16/2004 3:39 AM
The Embassy Medical Unit is located on the second floor of the
chancery building and is equipped to provide treatment of minor
ailments or injuries, some routine lab work, immunizations,
counseling and referral services. Its staff includes a Post Medical
Advisor and a western trained nurse. The Regional Medical Officer
for Khartoum is based in Cairo. Some regional support is also given
from Addis Ababa and Nairobi. Hospitals in Khartoum are used only as
a temporary expedient; serious illness or injury and/or surgical
cases are evacuated to civilian hospitals in London. Expectant
mothers are evacuated to the U.S. for delivery.
The Medical Unit stocks various prescription drugs and common
medicines. Anyone on regular medication must make arrangements for a
continuing supply from a reliable source prior to arrival at post.
Communicate directly with the Embassy Medical Unit for information
concerning local availability of specific drugs. Get the generic
name of compound elements of any medication taken regularly as local
products are usually of European manufacture.
Some highly trained European dentists practice in Khartoum and
use modern dental equipment. It is recommended that all major dental
treatment be completed before departing for post. Eyeglasses and
contact lenses are available. Remember to bring an extra pair of
glasses and your prescription with you.
Community Health Last Updated: 4/16/2004 3:41 AM
Khartoum water is potable when it leaves the processing plant,
but the distribution system is subject to contamination.
The extreme heat occurring 9 out of 12 months of the year quickly
ferments uncollected garbage dumped on abundant vacant lots. Sewage
problems are common in some areas of the city when frequent power
outages stop sewage pumps. Lack of toilet facilities, inadequate
refrigeration, and poor health standards in food handling and
processing make it necessary to use extreme care in preparing food
at home and when eating out. During and following the short rainy
season, the city is infested with flies, mosquitoes and other
Constant dust plays havoc with sinus and bronchial systems. If
you are prone to respiratory disease, dust allergies and hay fever,
be aware that this is a hazard in Khartoum. Air humidifiers are
recommended in the bedrooms at night because of extremely low
Preventive Measures Last Updated: 4/16/2004 3:44 AM
Endemic diseases and health hazards in Khartoum and throughout
Sudan include malaria, dysentery, parasitic and respiratory
infections, hepatitis, rabies, cerebrospinal meningitis and
tuberculosis. HIV/AIDS is also a problem in udan. Schistosomiasis
(also known as Belharzia) is present in the Blue and White Niles and
the main Nile.
Only drink distilled or filtered/boiled drinking water. Drink
only pasteurized, fresh milk. Only use local long-life milk if you
are sure it has been stored correctly. Meat, chicken and fish should
be well cooked. Raw vegetables and fruits should be avoided unless
you are sure they have been properly cleaned. Adults should drink
12-16 glasses of water or similar clear liquid (excluding coffee,
tea or alcohol) a day to prevent dehydration in the extreme heat and
All persons coming to Sudan should begin taking Malaria
suppressant tablets two weeks before arrival at post as recommended
by the Medical division and continue the program throughout the
specified period. Yellow Fever, Rabies, Polio, Tetanus, Typhoid and
Hepatitis immunizations, and all necessary childhood immunizations
should be completed as much as possible before arrival at post.
Employment for Spouses and Dependents Last Updated: 4/16/2004
As Khartoum is currently an unaccompanied assignment, there are
no employment opportunities for spouses, other dependents or
significant others. However, once dependents are again permitted at
post, there should be several positions available, especially in the
Community Liaison Office (CLO) and General Services Office (GSO)
Clerical positions should also be available in several Mission
offices. Interested and qualified individuals should also contact
the Khartoum American School regarding potential employment.
Possibilities may also exist with voluntary and other non-government
organizations. Employment on the local economy is virtually
non-existent, although some multinational organizations may from
time to time have specific requirements for which resident
expatriates, including diplomatic dependents, may be considered.
American Embassy - Khartoum
Post City Last Updated: 4/16/2004 3:53 AM
Khartoum is northeast of the countryís geographical center, at
about 15 degrees north latitude. At the junction of the White and
Blue Niles, the area contains a total population of over six million
in three cities: Khartoum, Khartoum North, and Omdurman. Khartoum is
the busiest and the government center. Most resident Europeans and
other expatriates live in the city and its outlying suburbs. Across
the Blue Nile from Khartoum is Khartoum North, a traditional city
with a growing industrial area. The ancient city of Omdurman, across
the White Nile from Khartoum, contains miles of traditional markets,
where local artisans make and sell their wares.
Although still dominated by Northerners, Khartoum now has a
sizable population of displaced Southerners. Arabic is the common
language, but English is usually understood by Sudanese who have
completed secondary school. English is used in transacting business
with non-Arab foreigners. Minority groups resident in Khartoum
include Egyptian, Greek, Lebanese, Italian, West African, and
Armenian. Shops and businesses often close between 1:30 pm and 5:30
pm, during the hottest part of the day.
Security Last Updated: 4/26/2004 8:58 AM
The Regional Security Office (RSO) is dedicated to making your
tour in Sudan a safe one. While we all face the reality of
terrorism, most of us enjoy a normal life in Khartoum.
In the mid-1990's, Embassy Khartoum was evacuated due to serious
terrorist threats. Many terrorist organizations are known to have a
presence in Sudan. Although Sudan is still considered a
critical-threat post for transnational terrorism, a renewed
full-time American presence was established in 2002. Since then,
post has increased its local guard force manning by over 50%,
established an armed police presence, completed technical and
physical security upgrades, closed streets surrounding the building,
and installed active anti-ram vehicle barricades to control access
to the chancery compound area.
Residences are all in compliance with Diplomatic Security
physical security standards, with grilled windows, lighting,
security doors, safe havens, and a 24-hour guard coverage. Planned
security upgrades also call for installation of security alarm
systems and shatter-resistant window film.
Crime in Khartoum against Americans has been negligible. Our
threat rating for crime is medium, although virtually no crimes have
been committed against the American diplomatic community in the past
year. Other Westerners stationed in Khartoum have been victims of
crime; however, using common sense crime prevention measures, such
as locking doors, avoiding dark alleys at night and keeping a low
profile, go a long way toward keeping you and your valuables safe.
Travel within the Khartoum area is generally safe and
unrestricted; however, travel outside Khartoum may be unsafe
depending on destination and the current political or conflict
status. All personnel wishing to travel outside Khartoum must first
consult with the RSO and provide a detailed travel plan and
Please note that importation of personal firearms into Sudan can
be a complex and difficult issue. Anyone wishing to bring firearms
MUST first route their requests through the RSO.
The RSO requires all official Americans to schedule a
post-specific security briefing within 24 hours of arrival in Sudan.
The Post and Its Administration Last Updated: 4/16/2004 3:58 AM
The Chancery is in a seven-story office building on Ali Abdul
Latif Avenue, roughly four blocks from the Blue Nile. Housed in the
Chancery are offices of the Charge, DCM, Political, Economic, Public
Diplomacy, Consular, Management, Human Resources, Financial
Management, Medical Unit, Regional Security, the Defense Liaison
Office (DLO) and Country Coordination Element (CCE). The Consular
Officer, resident in Cairo, makes periodic visits to Khartoum. USAID
Mission offices are primarily located in a separate building, with a
small presence in the Chancery building. The General Services Office
is located in a separate compound about a 10-minute drive from the
Chancery. Although there are no Marine Guards, Post One is manned 24
hours daily by the Local Guard Force. The Motor Pool Dispatch Office
is also manned 24 hours daily. Embassy telephone numbers are
249-183-774700 through 774704. The fax number for the Management
Office is 249-183-774137. The Executive Office and USAID fax numbers
are 249-183-774613 and 249-183-473091 respectively.
The Embassy follows the Muslim workweek and is open Sunday
through Thursday from 0800 - 1630. Offices are closed Friday,
Saturday, and for American and Sudanese holidays. Personnel assigned
to Khartoum are met and assisted at the airport if the post has been
informed of arrival plans. A visa is required prior to arrival,
regardless of the type of passport; allow four to six weeks for
processing. Visas are issued gratis to Diplomatic and Official
passport holders. Visas cannot be issued at Khartoum International
Airport. Ensure that passports do not have an Israeli stamp, as this
will result in a visa not being issued. If it is not possible to
obtain a visa, contact the Travel Office at the Embassy for
The Charge has authority over and responsibility for all U.S.
Government executive branch activities in Sudan, including all
military activities and personnel not under the command of a unified
or specified commander. Assisted by the DCM, the Charge coordinates
all Mission elements. USAID focuses on emergency and humanitarian
relief assistance, both food and non-food. The DLO, under the
direction of a U.S. Army Colonel, and CCE, under the direction of a
Marine Corp Lt. Colonel, provide liaison with both the Sudanese and
U.S. military establishments. The Management Office, headed by a
resident American Foreign Service officer provides management
support to all agencies at post under the International Cooperative
Administrative Support Services (ICASS) agreement. This support
includes General Services (headed by an American General Services
Officer), Human Resources, Financial Management, Medical and
Information Management (headed by an American Information Management
Officer). The Financial Management, Human Resource and Medical
Sections are headed by senior Locally-Engaged Staff under the
supervision of the Management Officer. The acting Community Liaison
Officer, our locally hired long-term expatriate resident nurse,
assists with new arrivals and TDY personnel in post orientation and
adjusting to life in Khartoum.
Temporary Quarters Last Updated: 4/16/2004 4:00 AM
The post makes an effort to assign all employees to permanent
quarters immediately upon arrival. If this is not possible,
temporary lodging is provided by assignment to U.S.
Government-leased quarters. Because hotel living is expensive,
hotels are used for temporary lodging only as a last resort. Most
restaurants in hotels are adequate but expensive. There is a growing
number of good local restaurants available.
Permanent Housing Last Updated: 4/16/2004 4:03 AM
Furnished U.S. Government-leased or owned apartments, houses or
townhouses are provided for all personnel. An interagency housing
board maintains fair standards for housing and furnishings.
Most housing is convenient to the chancery although not within
walking distance. Generators are provided at all residential units
to run lights, appliances and at least a minimum number of
air-conditioners for bedrooms and living areas. Water tanks and
pumps are provided as necessary. 24/7 local guards are assigned to
all residential properties.
Residents are responsible for yard maintenance except when the
area exceeds 8,000 square feet for single family residences or
16,000 square feet for duplexes. Likewise, when the property
includes a pool, maintenance and upkeep are the
residentísresponsibility. GSO will assist as appropriate and in
accordance with current regulations. Employees assigned permanent
housing with a pool who do not wish to use or maintain the pool can
request a change in housing assignment or contact GSO to have the
pool drained and covered for health and safety reasons.
Questions on housing should be directed to the Housing Board or
the General Services Officer.
Furnishings Last Updated: 4/16/2004 4:07 AM
Basic furniture and major appliances (stove, refrigerator,
freezer, washer, dryer, vacuum cleaner, microwave, water distillers,
television, VCR, and transformers for these appliances) are provided
for all government provided housing. Lamps, draperies or other
window coverings, some carpets, ironing boards, and some patio
furniture are also provided.
Linens, dishes, flatware, kitchen utensils, and small electrical
appliances (toaster, iron, mixer, etc.) are not provided. Ship these
items and transformers to operate personally owned equipment. Bring
personal bric-a-brac and recreational equipment such as a tape deck,
compact-disc player, DVD player, a laptop or PC, and a short wave
radio to pick up VOA and BBC. A voltage stabilizer to counteract
power fluctuations is helpful (see Utilities and Equipment).
When selecting items for shipment to post, consider the climate
which, except for a few months of the year, is exceedingly hot and
dry; dust is prevalent at all times. USAID and DOD employees should
write ahead to confirm furniture items available. Welcome Kits
provide necessities for immediate occupancy of quarters pending
arrival of your airfreight. For convenience and comfort, time your
airfreight arrival to coincide with your arrival. On average,
airfreight takes six-eight weeks to arrive at post, based on
departure from the east coast.
Utilities and Equipment Last Updated: 4/16/2004 4:09 AM
Electric current for all appliances is 240v, 50-cycle, AC.
Transformers bring the current down to 110v to accommodate most U.S.
manufactured appliances. Electric clocks, unless manufactured to
operate on 50 cycles, will not work properly. Convert 60-cycle
stereo turntables before shipment. Frequent power fluctuations can
damage equipment, so it is highly recommended that you bring a
All residential units have electric hot water heaters. Water
pressure falls during certain hours of the day. Any residential
units lacking sufficient water supply or water pressure during
certain seasons have reserve water tanks.
Telephone service is not readily available in all areas of the
city. Whenever it is, the post makes arrangements with the house or
apartment lessor for the initial installation in U.S.
Monthly telephone operating expenses are the responsibility of
Food Last Updated: 4/16/2004 4:13 AM
The Embassy currently does not have a commissary. However, most
basic items, including many western products, are available locally.
More products are becoming available daily. Some items - not all -
may be more expensive. Mission personnel can take advantage of the
750-pound consumables shipping allowance currently authorized for
post, especially for unusual dietary items, or for goods such as
dried pet food, or special brand items you would not consider
purchasing locally. Embassy housing is equipped to provide
additional refrigerator and freezer storage to accommodate items
such as flour which may be included in the consumables shipment.
However, flour is now available locally but should be stored in a
freezer to prevent insect infestation. Importation, manufacture or
consumption of alcohol is prohibited by the Government of Sudan. Do
not include liquor, beer, or wine in your consumables shipment.
Fresh fruits and vegetables are sold at open-air markets.
Available fruit includes small bananas, grapefruit, limes, oranges,
watermelon, and mangoes. Some local supermarkets now import apples,
grapes strawberries and avocados all year round, but these items can
be expensive. Throughout the year, onions, cucumbers, green peppers,
carrots, tomatoes, okra, garlic, and eggplant are available. For a
few months such cool season crops as cabbage, potatoes, beets,
squash, lettuce, green beans, radishes, peas, and cauliflower
appear. Imported vegetables, e.g. broccoli, asparagus and corn are
also becoming more available at some of the bigger local
supermarkets. Beef, mutton, veal and chicken are available locally,
although beef and mutton are frequently found in unfamiliar cuts.
Clothing Last Updated: 4/16/2004 6:21 AM
Clothing is informal; however, Sudanese are conservative in
dress. Orders from a U.S. catalog company arrive in five to six
weeks, so an entire year's supply of clothing is unnecessary.
Clothing is washed more frequently here and therefore wears out
faster. Natural fabrics like cotton are recommended since they tend
to be cooler, but polyester is suitable for winter. Sweaters and
wraps are needed in early mornings and evenings during cool months
and a few winter things are necessary if you intend to travel to
Clothing needs in outlying areas are similar to those for
personnel stationed in Khartoum, except that personnel anticipating
travel to southern regions should include rain gear because of the
heavy annual rainfall in that area.
Men Last Updated: 4/16/2004 7:09 AM
For men, work attire consists of simple sport shirts and pants
when not involved in official representation. A lightweight suit or
sports jacket is appropriate for more formal occasions. Formal
evening dress, such as tux, may sometimes be required for official
functions. Men should avoid shorts and going shirtless in public.
Bring wash-and-wear shirts. Dry cleaning is available locally but
can be expensive.
Women Last Updated: 4/16/2004 7:09 AM
Women wear dresses, skirts, and tops or pants in the Embassy or
for leisure. In deference to Islamic traditions, women should avoid
sundresses, shorts, or tight slacks or blouses in public. For
evenings, long skirts or caftans are popular. More formal evening
wear is required for special functions. Outdoor entertaining makes
flats more comfortable, as high heels sink into lawns, sand and
other soft earth.
Children Last Updated: 4/16/2004 4:32 AM
As U.S. Mission Khartoum became an unaccompanied one-year
assignment in June 2003, there are no dependent children authorized
Office Attire Last Updated: 4/16/2004 4:33 AM
See descriptions of office attire under clothing for men and
Supplies and Services
Supplies Last Updated: 4/16/2004 4:35 AM
Paper products, limited toiletries, feminine personal supplies,
aspirin and other common home medicines, soaps, and general cleaning
supplies are available locally although brand names may be
unfamiliar to many Americans and many do not meet U.S.
specifications. Commodities in short supply or not available include
holiday or birthday supplies, stationery and cards. Sports
equipment, toys, games, sewing notions, books, records, cassettes,
CDs, DVDs, etc. are available locally, but can be of poor quality.
Bring favorite brands of toiletries and cosmetics to post, unless
you are prepared to switch. Batteries should be included in
shipments as many sizes are not always available.
Basic Services Last Updated: 4/16/2004 4:53 AM
Repair services, tailors and seamstresses are available, but of
mixed quality. Imported spare parts are often not stocked and are
highly priced, if available. Qualified mechanics are difficult to
find. Simple shoe repair is available.
Domestic Help Last Updated: 4/16/2004 5:01 AM
Because of the heat and dust, the need for incessant cleaning,
washing, and the time consumed by local marketing, domestic help is
considered a necessity and not a luxury, especially among those with
heavy social responsibilities.
Experienced domestic help is increasingly scarce in Khartoum
because of opportunities available in other countries at higher
salaries. However, domestic help is available. The CLO can provide
general guidelines on hiring domestic help. Based on an April 2004
survey, the following chart represents monthly salary ranges for
various domestic positions. All salaries are in Sudanese Dinars
(SD). The exchange rate in April 2004 is SD 260 to the U.S. dollar.
POSITION SALARY RANGE SALARY AVERAGE
Maid 20,000 - 29,000 24,500 Houseboy 20,000 - 29,000 24,500 Nanny
20,000 - 30,000 25,000 Gardener 14,000 - 26,000 20,000 Cook 25,000 -
One needs to take into account whether your household staff will
be working full time or part time and the size of the house.
Overtime pay is expected for evening work. Most domestic workers
live in their own homes and come to work before breakfast (0600 to
0630) and leave after lunch (about 1600). If a cook is needed
specifically for evening hours, it should be understood when they
are hired. More information can be found in the Community Liaison
Office at the Embassy.
Religious Activities Last Updated: 4/16/2004 5:07 AM
Islam is the dominant religion in Sudan encompassing 70% of the
population. One hears the call to prayer from hundreds of minarets
five times a day as Moslems enter mosques for prayers and
reaffirmation of their faith.
There are Anglican, Orthodox (Greek, Coptic and Armenian), and
Roman Catholic churches as well as the Protestant,
non-denominational Khartoum International Church in Khartoum. Some
conduct regular church services in English. Consult the Embassy CLO
for times of services.
At Post Last Updated: 4/18/2004 5:08 AM Although there are no
dependents at post, the Khartoum American School (KAS) continues to
operate, serving the international community. The school is located
on the southern edge of New Extension in an
air-conditioned/air-cooled, eight-building campus built to U.S.
standards. It has 14 classrooms, a science laboratory, a computer
lab, and art and music rooms. KAS offers a U.S. curriculum taught by
a well-qualified staff that maintains U.S. standards. The curriculum
consists of various academic subjects, ESL (English as a Second
Language) instruction, music, art, and physical education. Foreign
language offerings include Arabic and French. There is also a
computer specialist and a resource specialist. A good library is
served by a trained librarian. A limited supply of paper, notebooks,
pencils, pens, colored pencils, colored pens, etc., is available at
school. A lunch break is given at midday. All children take at least
a quart of water to drink each day, usually utilizing a large,
unbreakable thermos (e.g., Playmate Jug). Employees carry these to
work as well.
There are no other English language schools in the area that
offer a U.S. curriculum. There are secondary-level English language
schools in Khartoum (e.g., Unity High School, Sisters School for
girls, and Camboni College for boys); however, vacancies are rarely
available. The French School might accommodate students reasonably
fluent in French, though its current enrollment is small (only about
Away From Post Last Updated: 4/16/2004 5:11 AM Most secondary
school dependents attend U.S. or European boarding schools. Contact
the Management Officer regarding education allowances. There are no
boarding facilities are available at KAS.
Higher Education Opportunities Last Updated: 4/16/2004 5:18 AM
At present, there is no Arabic language program available at post
for U.S. personnel. However, at personal expense, Arabic classes may
be taken at the Sudan Arabic Institute in the Riyadh section of
Khartoum. The University of Khartoum and the African International
University offer language instruction in Arabic also.
Recreation and Social Life
Sports Last Updated: 4/25/2004 1:30 AM
Located on an attractive site bordering the Blue Nile, the Blue
Nile Recreation Site (Rec Site) opened in 1985, but fell into
disrepair during the long absence of American personnel from
Khartoum. In August 2003, the Mission began some rehabilitation of
the site. It is not known at this time when the site will again be
fully operational; and for the time being, activities are restricted
to social events such as individually sponsored parties.
The Missionís townhouse complex has a swimming pool and tennis
courts open to all members of the official community. Although open
year round, many members find the pool too cold for swimming between
November and January. Most other entertainment is usually in the
Sailing is available at the Blue Nile Sailing Club, with an
active racing scene involving small dinghies first introduced by the
British in 1934 during a sailing season running from November
Khartoum also has an International Club, a private facility
unattached to the U.S. Mission. Membership is open to Mission
personnel. Club members include expatriates assigned to Sudan as
well as Sudanese. The Clubís facilities include a swimming pool,
concrete tennis courts, and a snack bar. Other clubs include the
Diplomatic Club, the German Club, and the Syrian Club.
Sudanese professional clubs -- civil service, army, engineers,
university -- are exclusive, but sports clubs accept those actively
interested. The Sudan Lawn Tennis Association is also open for
membership and offers both grass and cement courts. Mission
personnel who join the private Hilton Hotel Club have access to
billiards, sauna, massage, and hard-surface tennis courts with
lighting. The Hilton also has a small, well-maintained swimming
pool. A bowling facility located at the newly opened Turkish Mall is
available to the public at a reasonable cost per game.
Many Embassy personnel join the Khartoum Hash House Harriers on
their weekly jaunts. Some staff water ski on the Blue Nile.
Spectator sports are limited to soccer, tennis tournaments,
occasional horse and camel races, and informal polo matches. Public
sports facilities are scarce, and each private national club has its
own activities for members only.
Al Mogran Family Park is an amusement park on the point of land
where the White and Blue Niles meet. The park has rides, refreshment
stands, and a first-aid station. It is operated by the Sudanese
Peopleís Armed Forces.
Touring and Outdoor Activities Last Updated: 4/25/2004 1:28 AM
Khartoum Area: Points of interest in and around Khartoum include
the Mahdiís Tomb, Khalifa House and the National Museum housing
archeological collections and the Fara frescoes, the Ethnological
Museum with a charming display of tribal artifacts, and the Natural
History Museumís display of specimens of Sudanís birds and wild
Omdurmanís large market area (or "souk") offers local color, an
occasional bargain, and the Khalifa Museum. The museum was formerly
a residence and now houses relics of the Mahdiya period. On Friday
afternoons, whirling dervishes perform near the tomb of a saint.
Opposite the zoo is the landing for the Tuti Island Ferry. You can
cross to the island for a walk to see its typical rural village and
Sudan also possesses a multifaceted habitat for bird watching,
which is particularly rich during the migratory seasons as birds
travel to and fro along the Nile between Europe and sub-Saharan
Africa. Jebel Aulia Dam, a one-hour drive from Khartoum (possible in
a sedan with high clearance), is a pleasant spot to see a wide
variety of water birds. Also at the dam, one can watch Sudanese cast
their round nets for fish; fish can be purchased on the spot. A
small grass plot is available for picnics. The dam serves as a major
crossing of the White Nile where a constant stream of camels,
donkeys, sheep and goats with their herders passes by.
Outside Khartoum: Other excursions outside Khartoum are likely to
take on the aspects of a picnic or a camping trip by high clearance
vehicle fully equipped for the length of the journey. A favorite day
or overnight outing is about a two-hour drive north to the Nileís
Sixth Cataract in Sabaloka Gorge. Another popular day trip (again
with a high clearance vehicle) is to visit the Nubian pyramids
followed by the ancient city of Meroe and the temple ruins at Naga
and Musawwarat es-Sufra. On a three-day weekend, you can visit the
Meroitic ruins near Shendi. A visit to Dinder National Park, a game
preserve, takes several days and is rugged. If attempting this last
trip, one must be prepared to carry about 90 gallons of fuel.
Facilities available to travelers are almost nonexistent outside
Khartoum. Ample food, fuel, and water must be carried on trips.
Bring camping gear if you enjoy this type of activity. With
continual fair skies, people rarely bother with tents, but cots are
recommended, as the ground is stony, covered with thorns, and
populated by the occasional insect and reptile.
Hunting opportunities range from local bird shooting (sand
grouse, dove, water fowl) to big game hunting in the southern parts
of Sudan. Hunting requires use of a four-wheel drive vehicle and
often a guide. Hunting licenses are required for different types of
game (see Firearms and Ammunition).
Sport fishing is possible along either the Nile or at Jebel Aulia
Dam on the White Nile. Giant Nile perch are excellent to eat, but
are rarely caught from shore. Good tasting and commonly caught from
shore are talapia and several varieties of catfish. Tiger fish are
good game fish, but they are not edible.
Port Sudan and the Red Sea Coast: The coast is over 700 miles
from Khartoum. Port Sudan is an hour away by jet, or less than three
hours by propeller plane. The drive to Port Sudan takes about 14
hours; only a high clearance vehicle is recommended for this trip. A
small resort at Arusa is north of Port Sudan, and the ancient city
of Suakin is 60 kilometers south of Port Sudan. The Red Sea has some
of the worldís most beautiful coral. Snorkeling and scuba diving in
Port Sudan are popular, and the Port Sudan Hilton provides an
excellent base for excursions along the coast. In addition to the
Hilton, there is at least one other independent dive center in Port
Sudan offering scuba instruction.
Photography: Photography in Sudan requires a special permit,
which the post Human Resources office can help you obtain. Caution
must be exercised, since many scenes or areas may not be
photographed. At times whole groups will insist on posing for you;
other times, the presence of your camera will create vigorous
R&R: The designated R&R point for personnel assigned to Sudan is
London. Personnel also have the option to travel to any location in
the U.S. If a U.S. destination is chosen, the traveler must spend at
least 50% of his/her leave time in the U.S. Cost constructive travel
may be performed to other than the U.S. or London, based on the
current full economy round trip fare from Khartoum to London.
Entertainment Last Updated: 4/16/2004 5:34 AM
The British, French, and German cultural centers have libraries,
films, and sometimes offer special programs. The German Club offers
periodic barbeques to which Embassy U.S. staff can obtain tickets in
advance. The British "Pickwick" Club offers weekly TGIT nights, but
guests must be sponsored by a member and have name placed on a list.
Even then, space at the Pickwick is limited and admission is
frequently on a first come, first served basis. There is horse
racing at the Khartoum Race Course every Friday at 3:30 p.m. from
October 30 to July 30; periodically, camel races are also held at
the same race track.
Dining out choices are getting better and more varied at a
sustained rate. Choices include restaurants in the larger hotels,
Chinese, Korean, Ethiopian, and Indian restaurants as well as a few
restaurants serving local cuisine such as chicken dishes and the
tasty swarma. The newly built Turkish Mall offers a good Turkish
restaurant as well as a food court. Although one will not find the
familiar fast food chains in Khartoum, there are several fast
food-type restaurants frequented by Embassy personnel: Italy Pizza
and Tutti Frutti Ice Cream are among the favorites. Embassy CLO has
a list of selected restaurants available to permanently assigned and
temporary duty employees.
All personnel should consider sending an ample supply of sports
equipment, books, records, CDs, DVDs and tapes.
Among Americans Last Updated: 4/16/2004 5:36 AM Entertainment is
usually in the home. In addition, different offices often sponsor
happy hours, barbeques, or parties at the Rec Site or the
Townhouses. The International Volunteer Welfare Group (IVWG)
membership is open to Embassy personnel. They meet monthly to raise
funds for Sudanese charities and hold monthly programs on Sudanese
International Contacts Last Updated: 4/16/2004 5:38 AM Although
private clubs are strongly divided by nationality and other factors,
it is possible to mix internationally. Social activities, such as
tennis, bridge, Hash runs, bingo, and sports provide contacts in the
local and international communities. For those interested in
singing, the Khartoum Singers is an informal group that performs at
Christmas and at a few private functions. The Sudanese Archeological
Society. supported by the German and British Cultural Centers and
the University of Khartoum, arranges regular tours of sites and
lectures for its members.
Nature of Functions Last Updated: 4/16/2004 5:41 AM
Official representational responsibilities are significant for
the Charge and certain officers of the Embassy. Men wear business
suits and women wear cocktail dresses or long skirts to most
receptions and dinners.
During hotter months, conservative casual wear is acceptable for
men (see Clothing). Most receptions and many dinners are outdoor
events, with more social functions occurring in the winter season,
when evenings are cooler. Many Sudanese and members of the
diplomatic corps leave for extended vacations June through August.
Functions given by the Sudanese Government normally do not include
spouses. However, it is customary to invite Sudanese spouses to
Standards of Social Conduct Last Updated: 4/16/2004 5:42 AM
In conducting business in Sudan, it is important to remember the
conservative religious nature of the Moslem country.
Special Information Last Updated: 4/16/2004 6:06 AM
For club applications, visas, licenses, identification, and other
needs, photographs are necessary. Employees should have at least 20
passport-size pictures. They may be in color or black and white.
Officers also need a good supply of business cards. A supply of
informals is also very helpful for use as thank you notes and
invitations. Printing is available in Khartoum. Consult with the
Management Office or your sponsor regarding proper wording of cards.
Post Orientation Program: Currently, there is no formal post
orientation program. However, there is an active sponsorship program
for new arrivals. Additionally, new employees are required to follow
check-in procedures to receive appropriate briefings by various
Embassy officials. Mission personnel can also take advantage of
periodic orientation lectures covering Sudanese history, politics,
culture, etc., and other culture-related CLO activities.
Notes For Travelers
Getting to the Post Last Updated: 4/16/2004 5:47 AM
Personnel travel to Khartoum by air. American carriers do not
operate to Sudan. Standard routing from the U.S. to Khartoum is
through Frankfurt, with a stop, but no plane change, in Cairo.
British Airways recently began service from London to Khartoum with
a stop in Amman. Another routing to Khartoum is through Nairobi.
Standard routing from the U.S. to Nairobi is through Amsterdam.
There are daily direct flights from Nairobi to Khartoum except
Mondays. In all cases, employees choosing not to take a rest stop
will be authorized business class travel. Cable your arrival
information as early as possible to ensure being met and assisted
through immigration and customs at the airport. Employees transiting
Kenya should make arrangements directly with the relevant offices in
The post supplies Welcome Kits to new arrivals. Your
unaccompanied airfreight should include some dishes, cooking
utensils, flatware, and linens (see Housing). Send advance
telegraphic notification to post for your various shipments. Include
date shipped, name of shipping firm or airline, bill of lading or
airway bill number, and total number of pieces in each shipment.
This will ensure prompt clearance on arrival in Khartoum. Official
freight shipments should be routed by U.S. Despatch Agents if
transiting or originating in the U.S. If traveling from another
post, contact your GSO to determine most advantageous shipping
Unaccompanied airfreight should contain all the items that you
need during your one year tour. Airfreight bill of lading should
U.S. Ambassador (Your initials ONLY) U.S. Embassy Via ELSO,
Antwerp Khartoum, Sudan Africa
Customs, Duties, and Passage
Customs and Duties Last Updated: 4/16/2004 5:49 AM
Diplomatic personnel and all USAID employees (including
contractors) are entitled to duty-free privileges during their
assignment in Sudan. The Sudanese Government allows other personnel
free entry only of initial shipments of household and personal
effects. Importing foreign currency is not quantitatively
restricted, but is closely monitored by the Sudanese Government.
Passage Last Updated: 4/16/2004 5:50 AM
It takes four to six weeks to obtain an entry visa. If you are
unable to obtain a visa for some unavoidable reason, immediately
inform post for assistance. Visas are not issued at Khartoum
International Airport. Although presentation of up-to-date
immunization records is no longer routinely required upon arrival in
Sudan, travelers should have them available.
Pets Last Updated: 4/16/2004 5:52 AM
Careful consideration should be made before bringing a pet to
Sudan. Owners should keep in mind the extreme heat and possibilities
of disease. Though death/illness of pets does not happen often, a
few very unfortunate incidents have occurred. Many people choose to
adopt animals found in Khartoum, such as dogs, cats, even rabbits.
Veterinary care is available in Khartoum for treatment or
You may bring animals into Sudan with the correct import permit.
If you plan to bring or ship pets, inform the General Services
Officer in advance of your arrival and/or the petís arrival, and fax
copies of the animalís health and rabies inoculation certificates
issued by a registered veterinarian as well as a description of the
animal. Advance notice will permit time to obtain the permit license
and to arrange for a Sudanese Government veterinarian to be on hand
when the pet arrives to expedite its clearance into the country. You
should hand-carry original documents relating to your pet with you
as well as attach documents to the animalís shipping container.
Sudanese embassies and consulates can also issue pet import permits.
Pets arriving without a permit are subject to quarantine and
Firearms and Ammunition Last Updated: 4/16/2004 5:53 AM
All personnel must have the approval of the Charge and an import
license before shipping guns or ammunition. Include the make, model,
serial number, and bore as well as the kind, caliber, and exact
number of rounds of ammunition. Types and quantities of firearms are
specified by the Sudanese Government, and licensing is sometimes
tedious. Before shipping arms or ammunition, inform the Regional
Security Officer of your intention to ship such items.
Currency, Banking, and Weights and Measures Last Updated:
4/16/2004 5:55 AM
Most transactions are conducted in local currency, although U.S.
dollars may be used in hotels. The rate of exchange as of April 2004
is 260 Sudanese dinars (SD) to the dollar. Sudan is a mostly cash
economy; credit cards and personal checks are not accepted due to
U.S. Government sanctions. Assigned personnel may cash personal
checks with the Embassy cashier for dollars or local currency as
appropriate. A U.S. checking account and a supply of personal checks
are essential. Due to U.S. economic sanctions, on line banking is
not possible from Khartoum. However, this option became available to
employees from their workstations when Opennet Plus was made
The metric system of weights and measures is used. The local
weight unit is the kilogram, equivalent to 2.2 pounds. Some
commodities are sold not by weight, but by bulk measured in
standard, graduated measures.
Sudan is eight hours ahead of the U.S. Eastern Standard Time
zone. When Daylight Savings Time is in effect, Sudan is seven hours
Taxes, Exchange, and Sale of Property Last Updated: 4/16/2004
Restrictions: U.S. Government employees are not subject to
Sudanese income tax or property tax laws. Taxes are paid on some
locally made items. A 10% value added tax (VAT) and a 5% "residence
fee" are added to hotel bills. Selling personal property valued at
more than $250 requires written approval of the Management Officer.
Normally such sales are authorized only when an employee is
completing a tour of duty.
Facilities: Accommodation exchange is arranged at post for
American employees and official visitors. Bring a supply of personal
checks from U.S. Bank. All hotel accommodations must be paid for in
hard currency cash or travelers checks. However, the Embassy has an
arrangement with the Hilton Hotel to allow visitors to pay bills in
Sudanese Dinars. A letter signed by the Management Officer is
required at time of check out and settlement of bill. Sudanese
Dinars are obtained at the Embassy cashier. Personal credit cards
cannot be used in Sudan due to U.S. Government sanctions.
Recommended Reading Last Updated: 4/16/2004 5:59 AM
The following titles are provided as a general indication of the
material published on this country. The Department of State does not
endorse unofficial publications.
Area Handbook for the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. U.S.
Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1973.
Bechtold, Peter. Politics in the Sudan, Parliamentary & Military
Rule in an Emerging African Nation. Praeger: New York, 1976.
Churchill, Winston S. The River War. Worldwide Press: Holicong,
Collins, Robert O. Egypt and the Sudan. Prentice-Hall: 1962.
The South Sudan (1883-1898). Yale University Press: New Haven,
The South Sudan (1898-1918). Yale University Press: New Haven,
Hassan, Yousif Fadl. The Arabs and the Sudan. Khartoum University
Holt, P.M. and H.W. Daly. The History of the Sudan from the
Coming of Islam to the Present Day. (3rd edition) Weiderfield &
Nicholson: London, 1979.
Mahgoub, Mohamed Ahmed. Democracy on Trial, Reflections on Arab
and African Politics. Andre Deutsch: London, 1974.
Morehead, Alan. The Blue Nile. New England Library: London,
Morehead, Alan. The White Nile. Penguin Books: London, reprinted
Scroggins, Debra. Emmaís War. Vintage Books: 2002.
Sylvester, Anthony. Sudan Under Nimeiri.
Taylor, Bayard. A Journey to Central Africa (reprint of 1854
edition). Negro University Press: New York, 1970.
Trimingham, J.S. Islam in the Sudan. Oxford University Press:
Wingate, Reginald. Wingate of the Sudan (reprint of 1955
edition). Greenwood Press: Westport, Conn., 1975.
Local Holidays Last Updated: 4/16/2004 6:01 AM
Please note that several local holidays last more than one day.
Dates based on the Moslem calendar vary and are not predictable,
since some are based upon moon sightings. Official local holidays
observed by the Mission are:
Eid al Fitr (two days) variable (follows Ramadan) Eastern Easter
variable Sham Al Naseen variable Eid Al Adha variable Islamic New
Year variable Prophet Mohamedís Birthday May 1 National Salvation
Revolution June 30 Israa Wal Mií Raaj September 12