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Preface Last Updated: 6/24/2005 8:38 AM

The Republic of Slovenia is one of the youngest countries in central Europe. With 2 million inhabitants in a country about the size of Israel, Slovenia is strategically located at the crossroads between western and central Europe from west to east, and between central Europe and the Balkans from north to south.

Although the Slovene people have occupied their lands for over a thousand years, they have always been dominated and ruled by foreigners. Most notably, the Austro-Hungarian Empire ruled these lands for centuries and had the greatest impact on the shaping of Slovene culture and character. From 1918 to 1941, Slovenia joined its Slavic cousins Croatia and Serbia to form the new state, the Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs, which eventually transformed into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia under the reign of a Serbian monarch. With the onset of World War II, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia collapsed and the Axis Powers of Germany and Italy divided and occupied Slovenia until 1945. After World War II, Marshal Tito and his communist partisans firmly took control of Yugoslavia until its final disintegration in 1991.

Slovenia's road to democracy and independence was neither easy nor without risk. In September 1989, the General Assembly of the Yugoslav Republic of Slovenia boldly adopted an amendment to its constitution that gave the people of Slovenia the right to secede from Yugoslavia. In April 1990, parliamentary elections were held and a new anticommunist coalition, DEMOS, obtained a majority in Parliament. Milan Kucan was elected as President of the four-member Presidency of Slovenia. Then, on December 23, 1990, more than 88% of the electorate voted for independence. With this public mandate, on June 25, 1991, the Slovenian Parliament adopted a new constitutional charter on sovereignty and declared independence from Yugoslavia. (The Republics of Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Macedonia followed suit.) In response to Slovenia's declaration, the Yugoslav Government ordered its army to secure and seal the Slovene borders. However, after 10 days of hostilities and confrontations, Slovenia successfully defended its territory and the Yugoslav army withdrew.

Once its independence and sovereignty were secure, Slovenia began a diplomatic campaign to gain international recognition. The United States officially recognized Slovenia on April 7, 1992, and Slovenia became a member of the United Nations on May 22, 1992. A year later, Slovenia became a member of the Council of Europe. In spring 2004 Slovenia joined NATO and European Union.

An assignment to the American Embassy in Ljubljana will not only expose you to the rich cultural history and charm of this Alpine people, but will bring you to the center of a middle-income country rapidly converging with the rest of Europe. A tour in Slovenia will be of particular interest and challenge now that Slovenia has entered the EU and is a member of NATO.

The Host Country

Area, Geography, and Climate Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Slovenia is a central European country with a surface area of 12,153 square miles. Austria borders it to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the south and southeast, and Italy to the west. To the southwest, Slovenia has a 28-mile coastline on the Adriatic Sea.

There are basically six topographies: the Alps, including the Julian Alps, the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, the Karavanke chain and the Pohorje Massif to the north and northeast; the pre-Alpine hills of Idrija, Cerkno, Skofja Loka and Posavje spreading across the entire southern side of the Alps; the Dinaric karst (a limestone region of underground rivers, gorges, and caves) below the hills and encompassing the "true" or "original" Karst Plateau (from which all karst regions around the world take their name) between Ljubljana and the Italian border; the Slovenian Littoral, 28 miles of coastline along the Adriatic Sea; the "lowlands," comprising about one-fifth of the territory in various parts of the country; and the essentially flat Pannonian Plain to the east and northeast.

Slovenia is predominantly hilly or mountainous; about 90% of the surface is more than 700 feet above sea level. Forest, some of it virgin, covers just under half of the country, making Slovenia one of the greenest countries in the world. Agricultural land (fields, orchards, vineyards, pastures, etc.) account for 43% of the total.

Slovenia is temperate with four seasons, but the topography creates three individual climates. The northwest has an Alpine climate with strong influences from the Atlantic and abundant precipitation. Temperatures in the Alpine valleys are moderate in summer but cold in winter. The coast and a large part of Primorska as far as the Soca Valley has a Mediterranean climate with warm sunny weather much of the year and mild winters. Most of eastern Slovenia has a Continental climate with hot summers and cold winters. The average temperature in July is 68-75 °F in the interior while on the coast it is around 82-85 °F. Ljubljana sits in a valley, and often has fog or rain covering the city.

Slovenia gets most of its rain in the spring (May and June) and autumn (October and November). January is the coldest month with an average temperature of 30°F, and July is the warmest, with an average temperature of 70°F. The mean average temperature in Ljubljana is 50°F. Average annual precipitation is 31" in the east and 117" in the northeast, on account of heavier snowfall.

Major rivers are the Drava, Sava (which meets the Danube in Belgrade), Soca, and Mura.

Population Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Slovenia has a population of some two million, which is about 90% Slovene, with sizable Italian and Hungarian minorities. Slovenes are descendants of the Southern Slavs who settled in what is now Slovenia and parts of Italy, Austria, and Hungary from the 6th century AD. Other groups identify themselves as Croats (2.7%), Serbs (2.5%), and simply "Muslems" (1.3%). There are also 8,500 ethnic Hungarians and 2,300 Gypsies, largely in Prekmurje, as well as 3,000 Italians in Primorska.

The Italians and Hungarians are considered indigenous minorities with rights protected under the constitution, and they have special deputies looking after their interests in Parliament.

Ethnic Slovenes living outside the national borders number about 400,000, with the vast majority (almost 75%) in the U.S. and Canada. Cleveland, Ohio, is the largest "Slovenian" city outside Slovenia. Slovene minorities also live in Italy, Austria and Hungary.

The population density is 300 people per square mile, with the urban-rural ratio split almost exactly in half. The five largest settlements in Slovenia are Ljubljana (270,000), Maribor (108,000), Celje (40,000), Kranj (30,000), and Koper (25,300). The population is growing older. At present, 15% of Slovenia is over 60 years of age, and is expected to rise to over 25%.

About 80% of Slovenes are Roman Catholic. An archbishop sits in Ljubljana, and there are bishoprics at Maribor and Koper. Eastern Orthodox Christians, Muslems, and Protestants are represented in small percentages.

Public Institutions Last Updated: 11/10/2004 3:50 AM

Slovenia is a Parliamentary democracy and constitutional republic. Within its government, power is shared among a directly elected President, a Prime Minister, and a bicameral legislature (Parliament). Parliament is composed of the National Assembly, which takes the lead on virtually all-legislative issues, and the National Council. The Constitutional Court reviews legislation to ensure its consistency with the Slovenian Constitution.

Slovenia successfully integrated into NATO [March 2004] and the European Union [May 1, 2004]. Both goals were achieved with the strong support of the major parliamentarian parties, except the Slovenian National Party (SNS) and the Slovenian Youth Party (SMS), which strongly opposed NATO membership.

The first Slovenian elections for the European Parliament took place in June 2004. LDS faced its first defeat since 1992, getting only 21% support, while New Slovenia (NSi) was the most successful party in the elections with 23%.

In October 2004, Slovenia held national elections on which the leading opposition party SDS [Slovene Democratic Party] received the relative majority of votes and thus opportunity to form the new government. The most likely coalition will consist of SDS [PM Janez Jansa], New Slovenia, Slovene People’s Party and the Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia. All these parties together hold 49 seats in the 90-seats National Assembly. It is expected the new GOS will be elected and operational in late December 2004.

Slovenia enjoys excellent relations with the United States and cooperates with it actively on a number of fronts. Slovenia was one of the first countries to join the Coalition against Terrorism and continues to actively support it.

Slovenia held a non-permanent seat in the UN Security Council from 1998-1999, distinguishing itself with constructive, creative, and consensus-oriented activism. Slovenia will take up the OSCE Chairmanship-in-Office in 2005, and is currently in the organization’s leadership troika. Slovenia joined the United Nations in May 1992 and the Council of Europe in May 1993. Slovenia is also a member of most major international financial institutions (the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank Group, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development), as well as 40 other international organizations, including the World Trade Organization, of which it is a founding member.

One of Slovenia’s primary foreign policy goals is the stabilization and economic and political development of Southeastern Europe (SEE). Slovenia actively contributes to the political development of the region through participation in various Stability Pact projects, through SFOR in Bosnia, and with UNMIK in Kosovo. Through the “Together” Regional Center for Psychosocial Well-being of Children, Slovenia supports the rehabilitation of victims of violence in the region. Slovenia has taken a leading role in demining projects, creating the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance (ITF), which has achieved considerable success. ITF has established partnership relations with competent bodies in SEE countries as well as with other international organizations involved in demining, particularly the United Nations. Slovenia is also a leading investor in several SEE countries.

Slovenia, in accordance with its EU membership, is implementing further reforms in the field of public administration laws and regulations. Judicial reform is still underway and different measures to decrease judicial backlogs have been taken. Slovenia continues to respect human rights and freedoms. It has achieved significant progress on the free movement of persons, fisheries, economic and monetary union, employment and social policy, regional policy, the environment, and financial control. The Government of Slovenia, however, still has to strengthen its institutions’ capacity and infrastructure to comply with the Schengen Action Plan (border security).

Arts, Science, and Education Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

The Reformation brought literacy and general culture to the Slovenes in the 16th century. Where before only a small number of religious persons could read and write Latin, the introduction of the printing press made the Slovene language available to the masses--a political as well as a cultural milestone. Adam Bohoric printed Primoz Trubar's The Catechism in 1551, while 1584 saw the publishing of the first translation of the Bible into Slovene by Jurij Dalmatin, and the first Slovene grammar. Although the subsequent Counter-Reformation crushed the religious gains made by the Protestant Reformation, the linguistic seed of Slovene nationhood had taken root. To this day, October 31, Reformation Day, is celebrated as a national holiday.

Drama and poetry were also instrumental in developing the Slovene language in the 18th and 19th centuries. The poems of Valentin Vodnik and the plays of Anton T. Linhart expressed the libertarian spirit of the French Enlightenment and the French Revolution.

The great educational reforms introduced by Austrian Empress Maria Theresa in the late 1700s resulted in mass literacy of the Slovene people. As a result, poet France Preseren, a lawyer and freethinker, brought to Slovene poetry all the principal classical poetic forms; he spiritually kindled the sub-Alpine province with the fighting spirit of the European Romantics and thus articulated the national consciousness. A century and a half after its creation, his Zdravljica (The Toast) became the national anthem of the Slovene State.

Other influential writers were Ivan Cankar and Oton Zupancic. Both contributed to the cultural and spiritual development as well as the political life of the Slovene people. Cankar, a master of symbolic sketches and somewhat Ibsen-like plays about the disintegration of provincial values at a time of industrialization and the advance of capital, was also an enthusiastic essayist. Zupancic, whose explicitly modern approach to poetry and powerful personality made him for many years the standard for other poets, also supported the national resistance from the start of World War II.

The Slovene capital of Ljubljana has a variety of theaters: drama, opera, and ballet companies of the Slovene National Theater (Ljubljana), the Municipal Theater, Slovene Youth Theater, and other amateur theaters. There are also drama, opera and ballet companies in Maribor, Slovenia's second largest city, and professional theaters perform in Celje, Kranj, and Nova Gorica (as well as in Trieste in Italy). An international agreement guarantees the Slovene minority their own artistic creativity.

Music is an important part of the Slovene culture. Some documentary evidence suggests that the Slovenes first brought their own musical culture with them to their new homeland in the 6th century. Monasteries, churches, and schools provided melodic and harmonic choral and liturgical singing. By the end of the Middle Ages, church music had reached a relatively high level based on the polyphony prevailing in European centers of the time.

In the 18th century, the first Slovene opera was written--Belin by J. Zupan and F.A. Dev. In 1701, Ljubljana received its Academia Philharmonicorum, the forerunner of today's Philharmonic. Europe's leading composers and performers of the day--Joseph Hayden, Ludwig von Beethoven, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Niccolo Paganini, Johannes Brahms, Bedrich Smetana, Antonin Dvorak--were honorary members, and frequently appeared on the Philharmonia stage. Its conductors--guest and permanent--included Gustav Mahler, Pablo Sarasate, and Eugene d'Albert.

Choral singing is also deeply rooted in Slovene culture and very popular. The meeting of choirs at Sentvid by Sticna each year brings together several thousand singers. Representatives of alternative music and culture, groups like Laibach and Borghesia, are specifically Slovene phenomenons.

The most important Slovene fine art can be seen in national institutions such as the National Gallery and the Modern Gallery in Ljubljana, and in numerous smaller galleries and exhibitions throughout Slovenia. At Ljubljana's Academy of Fine Arts, Slovene painters keep pace with the world's creativity, as do sculptors, successors to the traditions of Bernkeker, Zajc, Kalin, Savinsek, and many others. An International Graphics Biennial was initiated in 1955 under the auspices of the Modern Gallery, expanded in 1987 to an International Graphic Arts Center.

Architecture is also an important aspect of the Slovenian culture and character. Slovenia's most famous architect, Joze Plecnik, developed a master plan for the reconstruction of Ljubljana after much of its city center was destroyed in an earthquake in 1895. His works included the famous bridge of Tromostovje (Three Bridges), Ljubljana's busiest and most beautiful bridge; the National and University Library; the open market by the Ljubljanica River; Zale Cemetery, the Garden of All Saints; the adaptation of Krizanke for the summer theater; the Churches of St. Francis in Siska and St. Michael on the Marsh; and the central stadium. Credit for Ljubljana's architectural charm is also due to modern architect Max Fabiani, who conceived the beautiful Secession Park in the city center.

Any discussion of Slovene culture must take into account such important institutions as the Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts and the University. The Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts was founded just prior to World War II (1938), but has deep roots reaching back to the 17th century, to the Academia Operosorum. The University of Ljubljana, founded in 1919, was Slovenia's only educational institution until the founding of its second university in Maribor in 1975.

The first well-known Slovene scientist was the social historian, Janez Vajkard Valvasor (1641-1693), a member of the British Royal Society. In 1689, he published in 3,500 pages a richly illustrated work, In Praise of the Duchy of Carniola, which thoroughly presented a central part of Slovenia to Europe and remains an important reference source to the day.

The first scientific academy operated in Ljubljana in the period from 1693 to 1725. In 1762, almost 100 years before Pasteur, the physician Marko Plencic recognized microorganisms as the cause of contagious diseases. The mathematician Jurij Vega developed logarithms in the 1700s while the greatest Slovene physicist, Jozef Stefan, discovered the law of heat radiation in 1879. In 1923, Ljubljana-born Friderik Pregl received the chemistry Nobel Prize for his work on organic chemical microanalysis.

After World War II, a number of basic research institutes were established in Slovenia: physics, chemistry, electromechanical, and others. The Physics Institute, named after Jozef Stefan, has become one of Slovenia's premier research institutes with approximately 550 scientists. Its founder and first director, physicist Anton Peterlin, went abroad in 1960 and became one of the top scientists in the field of large molecules and polymerization. The Stefan Institute keeps abreast of the world's main developmental trends in at least 10 fields. As such, it is a natural venue for scientific and environmental programming, conducting all nuclear and environmental research in Slovenia. It is also actively involved in international exchange.

Today, with a total of 27,000 students and 1,300 faculty members spread among 20 separate faculties, three academies, three specialized schools, and other associated research institutes, the University of Ljubljana remains preeminent. The Economics Faculty's MBA program has profited from a 30-year relationship with the University of Indiana.

The University of Maribor has 12,500 students and 550 professors and has been particularly interested in expanding its cooperation with American educational institutions.

In addition, six freestanding institutes of higher education that grant diplomas have recently been established, with three already fully operational. Two other institutions, the privately operated GEA College and the MBA Center at Brdo, both have excellent international reputations.

The board of education is engaged in a major overhaul of the Slovene school system, including instituting new standardized exams, curriculum reform, educational technology, and foreign language teaching, to better match it to the country's projected economic needs.

Commerce and Industry Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

With less than 2 million inhabitants, Slovenia's economy produced $19.64 billion in goods and services. Slovenians per capita earn just over $10,000, which is one of the highest among all transitional countries in central and Eastern Europe. The country has a reliable and modern telecommunications system, relatively good public utility infrastructure, a well-developed and modern industrial base, and an educated and productive work force.

Due to its strategic location, Slovenia has embarked on an ambitious road construction plan that will criss-cross the country in two directions: from east to west, linking Milan-Ljubljana-Budapest; and from north to south, linking Munich-Ljubljana-Zagreb. Under this plan, the Slovene traffic network will be entirely modernized by the year 2005. A planned railway from Hungary to the Slovene Port of Koper is another important transportation plan, thereby giving central Europe a new access to the Adriatic coast.

The Slovene economy is extremely diverse. Manufacturing, which has made considerable progress in recent years, provides almost 30% of the gross domestic product. It is followed in importance by trade, business and financial service, transport, and agency business. Tourism is directly responsible for only around 3% of the gross domestic product, but it is extremely important, both for its general effect on the Slovene economy and for the balance of payments. In 1997, Slovenia's tourism industry provided a US$1.2 billion contribution to the current account.

Small businesses have been the engine of Slovenia's economic growth in recent years. The number of registered companies has grown to almost 52,000 (36,700 were active at the end of 1997). Ninety-five percent of all companies are small, with up to 50 employees. Large companies with more than 250 persons account for 2% and medium-sized companies, roughly 4%.

Industrial production in Slovenia is diverse, with approximately 6,800 industrial companies in all branches, employing close to 240,000 persons and making roughly 1,690 different groups of industrial products. Primary production includes: electrical machinery and equipment, metal workings in the production of vehicles and machinery, textiles and leather products, wood products and foodstuff, iron and glass, and pharmaceuticals and furniture.

Per capita exports in 1997 amounted to $4,220; considerably higher than other southern, central, and eastern European countries, reflecting Slovenia's exceptional openness. The total exports of goods and services in 1997 reached $10.5 billion, of which exports of goods contributed $8.4 billion. Slovenia has enjoyed virtual balance in the current account since 1992.

Slovenia has a number of important foreign trading partners in the EU, notably Germany, Italy, and Austria. In 1997, Slovenia negotiated an Association Agreement with the EU and expects to become a full member. Slovenia is also a member of CEFTA (Central European Free Trade Agreement) and has signed 30 free trade agreements with a number of countries including Macedonia, Croatia, Israel, Turkey, and the Baltic States.

The tax system has to a large extent been harmonized with arrangements in other European countries. Profits are taxed at a level of 25%. Individual income tax rates range from 17%-50%. There is a compulsory social security contribution from employees (22.1% of gross pay) and employers (an additional contribution of 19.9%). A new law on value added tax and another on excise duty tax entered in force in July 1999, creating a general tax level of 19% and a reduced rate of 8%.

The process of privatization (or ownership transformation of a formerly socially owned firm) was formally concluded in Slovenia at the end of 1997. The first dividends were paid to the new shareholders in 1995, and shares of an increasing number of companies are traded on the Ljubljana stock exchange.

U.S. policy supports the strengthening of bilateral economic ties, particularly trade and private business investment, which contribute to Slovenia's development. Some 50 American companies, including some of the largest Fortune 500 firms, have established a presence in the country. Most of these companies are members of the American Chamber of Commerce in Slovenia, established in July 1999. The U.S. has supported Slovene application for membership in such international economic organizations as the World Bank and IMF. Official U.S. economic assistance through the Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) officially closed out in September 1997, and as arelatively limited and focused on financial markets.. Although some follow-on activities continue, technical assistance is provided largely without official AID intermediation.

The Ljubljana stock exchange was established in 1989 as the first stock exchange in Eastern Europe. Until the recently ended mass privatization of Slovenian economy, the stock exchange did not play an important role. Market capitalization has grown strongly in recent years, a trend that should continue as the culmination of the privatization program brings increasing supply to market.


Automobiles Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Like in most of Europe, compact or smaller cars are preferred because of their ease in parking, fuel economy, and resale value. Any standard-make European or Asian-make car is suitable. There are a great number and variety of mechanical repair stations for most types of cars. Chrysler and Ford are the two American car companies represented in Slovenia. Slovene law permits diplomats to import vehicles of any age, but the vehicles must pass a technical inspection. No taxes or customs fees need to be paid on the vehicle, unless the car is sold to a nondiplomat within 3 years of arrival.

Unleaded gasoline is readily available. Following importation and registration of a POV, each Embassy employee is issued a petrol card to allow purchase of a limited amount (total of 900 liters per 3 months for the first car and 300 liters per 3 months for the second car registered under an employee's or a family member's name) of tax-free gasoline. Gasoline purchased through use of these cards from Petrol filling stations is about 60% cheaper than the standard pump price. All cars brought into the Republic of Slovenia must have a factory-installed catalytic converter; an older car that cannot be equipped with a catalytic converter cannot be used.

The total cost of Local Third-Liability Insurance, Vehicle Inspections, and Registration Fees for your vehicle can be expensive, and typically ranges between 400 and 1,200 U.S. Dollars. Insurance, which is based on engine power is the major expense, but discounts may be obtained if you provide a safe driving certificate from your insurance company. Slovene law requires that cars be equipped with a European first-aid kit, triangle emergency breakdown marker (available locally), and a set of spare fuses and bulbs. On trips to nearby Croatia, a rope for emergency vehicle towing is also required. Additional obligatory equipment for winter includes: tire chains; small shovel; small bag of sand; and, a blanket. Snow tires, or radial tires, are recommended for winter driving.

A U.S. drivers license accompanied by a diplomatic identity card serves as a valid drivers license in the Republic of Slovenia.

Locally purchased third-party-liability insurance is required for all vehicles. Every car shipped to Slovenia must pass a technical inspection prior to purchase of this insurance and temporary insurance must be purchased to cover this interim period. This temporary insurance costs between 7,000 and 15,000 SIT ($30 and $62), depending on the size of the engine.

Traffic moves on the right. Road signs and traffic rules are similar to those used throughout Europe. During winter, roads are adequately cleared of snow and ice. Traffic within city limits can get surprisingly heavy at times but is generally light compared to most major U.S. cities. On major freeways, traffic delays are unusual except during the summer vacation period, July through September, when long delays can be experienced, especially at border crossings.

Local Transportation Last Updated: 11/9/2004 9:18 AM

The public bus system in Ljubljana is excellent. Because of the shortage of parking downtown, many Embassy personnel commute by bus. In general, buses run from 6:00 a.m. to midnight. A one-time ticket costs 300 SIT ($1.5); tokens which are sold in any post office or kiosk are 190 SIT ($1). Taxis are available either by telephone or at taxi stands. Bicycles are also widely used for in-city commuting.

Regional Transportation Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

There is train and bus service throughout Slovenia and to neighboring countries. The road system is excellent, though the highway system is still under construction in some areas. Ljubljana has one international airport (Brnik) with flights to and from major European cities.


Telephones and Telecommunications Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Within Slovenia, telephone calls are very inexpensive but calls to other countries are much more expensive than in the U.S. Several international companies provide international callback services at reasonable prices. There is no provision for calling card use in Slovenia.

Internet Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Among the frequently accessed sites in Slovenia are:, A Guide to Virtual Slovenia, and, Academic and Research Network of Slovenia.

The Public Affairs Section in Ljubljana also maintains an official Web Site to disseminate information about the Embassy, U.S. Government policy, and other related information. The web address is:

Mail and Pouch Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Since there is no APO at post, both personal (including incoming packages within pouch weight and size limits) and official mail go through the diplomatic pouch. The diplomatic pouch arrives twice weekly. American personnel can use Aviano Air Base postal facilities to send packages and buy stamps. The international mail in Slovenia is also reliable.

Pouch mail address:

Ms. Jane Doe
7140 Ljubljana Place
Department of State
Washington, D.C. 20521-7140

International mail address:

Ms. Jane Doe
American Embassy
31 Presernova
1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Radio and TV Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

There are several Slovenian television channels: one national TV station with two channels and several private TV stations. A regular antenna will pick up local stations that carry English-language TV shows and films, with subtitles in Slovene. Most areas have access to cable TV, which provides over 30 channels, including CNN, TNT, BBC, and the Discovery Channel. There are numerous radio stations, both public and private.

Newspapers, Magazines, and Technical Journals Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Slovenia has four daily newspapers: Delo (Work), Dnevnik (Daily), Vecer (Evening), and Slovenska novice (Slovenia News). Some three dozen weeklies, biweeklies, and monthlies cover topics as diverse as agriculture, finance, and women's fashion.

There are no locally published English-language newspapers, though Vitrum publishes a good political and business newsletter called Slovenia Weekly and a magazine devoted to tourism, leisure and the arts called Flaneur.

The International Herald Tribune provides same-day delivery service. Other English-language newspapers and magazines are available at newsstands.

Health and Medicine

Medical Facilities Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

When arriving at post, it is recommended that you hand carry your medical records and prescriptions.

In general, medical services in Slovenia are excellent. The principal medical institution is The University Clinical Medical Center in Ljubljana. It is a diagnostic, therapeutic, research center that also serves as an educational base for the School of Medicine of the University of Ljubljana. The Embassy has an agreement with a small clinic to serve as the first point of contact for general medical concerns for all American staff and dependents, with English-speaking doctors, both generalists and specialists.

Dental facilities are adequate, but it is recommended that employees and their dependents have a thorough dental check-up before coming to post. Slovene dentists do not routinely practice preventive care as is common in the United States.

English-speaking Alcoholics Anonymous Meetings are held in Ljubljana one evening a week.

There is a Regional Medical Office in Vienna. The regional medical officer and the Foreign Service Nurse Practitioners stationed in Budapest visit the Embassy quarterly. They renew prescriptions and provide general consultation service to employees and their families. Embassy staff have also used the clinic at Aviano Air Base on a fee basis. The Embassy has a booklet listing local doctors and dentists who speak English.

Community Health Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Tap water is potable. Sterilized long-life and fresh milk is available. Raw fruits and vegetables are safe to eat using the precautions one would normally follow in the U.S. Sewage and garbage disposal treatment is adequate.

Antibiotics, allergy medication and all other prescription medication are available at local pharmacies. Regularly used prescription medication can be renewed through the mail system using the diplomatic pouch service. Some over-the-counter medicine is available locally. Most U.S. brands are also available through U.S. Military exchange stores in Italy.

Preventive Measures Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Either the visiting mediacal staff administers periodic flu shots from Budapest or by local doctors. For those persons who engage in outdoor activities, a vaccine to prevent tick-borne encephalitis is recommended and is also administered periodically.

Employment for Spouses and Dependents Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

There are several opportunities for employment of spouses in the Embassy, which has four to six PIT positions. Slovenia and the U.S. recently signed a Spousal Employment Agreement, which should provide enhanced opportunities for spousal employment. One difficulty, however, is the requirement for Slovene-language ability in many jobs. Some dependents give English-language classes. Berlitz, having recently opened in Slovenia, recruits English-language instructors, but applicants must also possess a working knowledge of Slovene. Many new companies opening in Slovenia will need English-speaking personnel, but will also require Slovene.

American Embassy - Ljubljana

Post City Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Slovenia was one of the inner provinces of the Hapsburg Empire until the demise of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I. A major earthquake destroyed most of the buildings in the city around the turn of the century, so many public and private buildings in the city center are done in the secession style of the late imperial period. Together with the medieval castle on the hill and the Ljubljanica River which meanders through the old town, there is a distinct Old World flavor to the Slovenian capital.

Ljubljana and its outlying suburbs number nearly 300,000 inhabitants. The city has doubled in size since World War II, yet has benefited from a planning policy that encouraged industrial development in other parts of the Republic.

As the center of a small republic which places a high value on its culture, Ljubljana is home to a more intense cultural life than its size would suggest. In addition to several museums and theaters, the city has its own opera and ballet, two symphony orchestras, a cinema society, and writers' club. Yet, because of the beauty of the Slovenian countryside and the proximity of the Adriatic coast and surrounding mountains, inhabitants frequently go out of town on weekends, often taking advantage of their easy access to Italy and Austria. Most Slovenians are deeply attached to the countryside, and skis and walking boots are a common sight on the streets.

The Post and Its Administration Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

In 1970, the then United States Information Service (USIS) established an office in Ljubljana as one of the four USIS posts in the former Yugoslavia.

Following the establishment of an independent Slovene state, the American Embassy was established in August 25, 1992, at a temporary location at Prazakova 4. A permanent building was purchased and renovations were completed during December 1999. Marc Grossman, then Assistant Secretary of European Affairs, inaugurated the new Embassy, on December 17, 1999. The Embassy telephone number is (386-1) 200-5500 and the fax number is (386-1) 200-5555.

The Embassy is staffed with the Executive Office (Ambassador, DCM, and Ambassador's Office Manager, Foreign Service and DCM's Office Manager, PIT), Political Office, Econimic Office, Regional Affairs Office, Administrative Office, General Services Office, Regional Security Office, 6-member Marine Security Detatchment, Consular Office, Commercial Office, Public Affairs Office, Defense Attaché Office, and a Security Assistance Office. One American officer and 7 FSNs administer an Information Resource Center and informational and cultural programs. A Military Liaison Team from EUCOM works closely with the Embassy. Office hours are from 8:15 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., with 45-minute lunch break, Monday through Friday.

Persons assigned to Ljubljana should write to the Embassy administrative officer as soon as possible, giving their firm arrival itinerary. They should include the names and ages of accompanying dependents, along with any special requirements. If pets are accompanying, that information should also be included (see "Notes for Travelers" Section for special requirements for pets). Sponsors will meet employees and their dependents at the airport.


Temporary Quarters Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Every effort is made to move employees and their dependents directly into their permanent quarters upon arrival. If that is not possible, families will stay at one of the following hotels within walking distance of the Embassy: Grand Hotel Union, Holiday Inn, or Slon Hotel.

Permanent Housing Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Permanent housing in Ljubljana consists of fully furnished government-leased apartments, townhouses or houses. Assignment of housing is determined by the guidelines in Airgram 171 of May 23, 1991. Although the Embassy tries to assign personnel according to uniform space standards, it is not always able to do so because of the limitations of properties available. Apartments and/or houses often lack a separate dining area, having instead a combined kitchen/dining room arrangement. Living rooms and bedrooms are generally smaller than U.S. standards. Most housing within the city center consists of old buildings internally renovated but with exteriors preserved intact. However, most of those apartments have modern bathrooms and kitchens. Most housing is within walking distance of the Embassy. With the exception of the Ambassador's residence, all housing is government-leased.

The Ambassador's Residence: The three-story building was built in 1926 and acquired by the U.S. Government in early 1998. Situated west of the new Embassy the building faces on to Tivoli Park to the north. It was originally built as a residential out-structore on the adjacent Kollman estate, which subsequently became "Vila Podroznik," the Slovenian executive mansion. The site of the building has since been separated from the Kollman property. The building originally contained four apartments, two on the principal floor, and two on the second floor. At the time the building was acquired by the U.S. three additional apartments had been added, one in the basement and two in the attic.

The building has about 792 gross square meters of usable space including the basement and attic. It sits freestanding on a lot of approximately 1,980 square meters. There are small front and side yards, the the bulk of the open space at the rear of the house. The rear yard contains a gazebo. The principal feature of the existing landscape is a grove of mature pine trees about 100 feet in height.

The present DCM's residence is a five-level house with a two-car garage and a wine cellar at the basement level. The second level has a maid's room, bathroom with shower and a large kitchen suitable for official functions. The next level is the main entrance level to the house with a dining room to accommodate up to 14 guests. The dining room opens out to a large veranda that is suitable for outside dining and/or drinks. There is also a small bedroom and powder room at the same level. A few steps lead to the living room area which contains a fireplace and small kitchen used for serving cocktails. The living room also opens onto another veranda and part of a garden surrounding the house. Again, a few more steps lead the way to the master bedroom, dressing room, full bath, and a separate powder room. On the same level is a small study. The next level houses a large guest bedroom, with a separate living area and a full bath. The top level is suitable for storage.

Furnishings Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Quarters are supplied with basic U.S. Government furniture, including a stove, refrigerator, freezer, washer and dryer. Most quarters are also equipped with dishwashers provided by the property owners. Most appliances are smaller European models due to space restrictions and lack of connections required for the larger American appliances. Families must be ready to accept the European standard, since in most cases post cannot undertake the renovations and plumbing changes needed to accommodate American appliances.

The living rooms usually include a 3-seat sofa, one love seat, one wingback chair, 2 end tables, one coffee table, 2 table lamps, one bookshelf, and one 2-door cabinet. Dining rooms will have one china cabinet and base, one sideboard, one table and eight chairs. The master bedroom will have one queen-sized bed, one dresser, one mirror, one chest of drawers, 2 bedside tables, 2 table lamps, and one chair. The other bedrooms will have twin beds, one bedside table, one chest of drawers, one mirror, and one table lamp. It should be noted that not many apartments/houses are large enough to accommodate all of the furniture in a basic kit.

Utilities and Equipment Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

The electricity supply is 220v, 50 cycles. Appliances rated for 110v or 120v at a maximum charge rate of 10 amperes (about 1,000 watts) may be operated by using a stepdown transformer of 220v to 110v connected to each outlet. Transformers are available on loan from GSO for government-owned equipment or can be purchased through the military exchange facilities in Italy. Voltage stabilizers are not usually required for sensitive electronic equipment.

All quarters have private telephones. Telephone charges are paid monthly. Calls are not itemized unless specifically requested, in which case a small charge is added to the monthly bill.

There is no central air-conditioning in the Embassy housing. Central heat and hot water are generally provided through a central city system from government-run facilities.

Food Last Updated: 11/9/2004 9:19 AM

The Slovene market provides exceptional quality foods. There are no food shortages. There are several food stores/supermarkets where many important food items, including Western cereals, and convenience foods, with new items being added to the shelves periodically. Open markets offer plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables, and herbs. The variety of fresh fruits and vegetables may be limited during winter months, but summer months offer more variation at reasonable prices. Beef, pork, chicken, turkey, and fish are available as are canned, frozen and a wide variety of baby food. Prices are typically higher than in the U.S. Cleaning supplies are plentiful but more expensive than in the United States.

Slovene beer and wine are very good and not expensive. Slovenia is filled with vineyards of high quality and variety. Other liquors are available but are expensive. Employees and their families can make trips to commissary and exchange stores at the Air Base in Aviano or Army Base in Vicenza, Italy, for food, supplies and other U.S. products. The American Embassy in Vienna issues military ID and ration cards for access to military facilities throughout Europe.

Clothing Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Good quality clothing is available, but the prices are high compared to prices in the U.S. Limited items can be purchased at the military exchange stores in Italy. Prices and products on the Italian and Austrian economy are also higher than in the U.S.

Military personnel attached to the Embassy wear uniforms for dress occasions, such as National Day receptions, escorting military visitors and conducting official business with host-country officials. For specific uniform requirements, military personnel should contact the Defense Attaché's Office in the Embassy.

In general, a wardrobe suitable for Northeastern U.S. weather should be satisfactory. Boots, heavy winter coats, raincoats, and umbrellas are a must throughout fall and winter months. Light summer clothing is needed for July and August, with light sweaters, suits, light raincoats required for spring and early summer.

Supplies and Services

Supplies Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Basic toiletries, cosmetics, tobacco products, medicines, and household supplies are available either from local stores, duty-free shops, or through mail order. Local stores sell mainly European brands. They can also be purchased at the military exchange stores in Italy. Specific brands may not always be available through these sources, so pack necessities in your shipment.

Basic Services Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Good, reasonably priced tailors and dressmakers are available in Ljubljana. Local drycleaning and shoe repair services are also available. There are several excellent beauty and barbershops which provide service at prices comparable to those in the U.S.

Repair facilities for many makes of newer automobiles, audio and video equipment, and household appliances are available.

Domestic Help Last Updated: 11/9/2004 9:20 AM

Many Embassy families hire part-time domestic help at an hourly rate of approximately $8. The employer also pays transportation. It is not easy to find qualified people for these jobs since Slovenes consider domestic work to be part of the family responsibility. Most domestic helpers tend to be refugees or immigrants from other countries. There is no requirement to pay Social Security Tax for part time domestic employees.

Parking. Parking is limited throughout the city. The majority of residences have only street parking available, although the Embassy will attempt to provide off-street parking when this is not included with a residence. Public parking lots are limited and costly. There is no parking available for private vehicles within the Embassy grounds.

Religious Activities Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Ljubljana's churches are all Roman Catholic, except for one Eastern Orthodox Church and one Protestant Church. Catholic services in English or French are held Sundays at 11:00 a.m. at the Franciscan Church in Ljubljana. The rabbi from Zagreb holds occasional services for the tiny Jewish community in Ljubljana since there are no functioning synagogues in the country now.


Dependent Education

At Post Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM
The Embassy community currently has students in two different schools in Ljubljana--a private school founded by Quality Schools International (QSI) and a Slovene International School sponsored by the Ministry of Education. Instructions in both schools is in English. QSI opened a school in Ljubljana providing an American curriculum for children ages 4 to 13 (K-8) in September 1995. Students who attend the QSI will easily re-enter the U.S. school system. There are plans to establish a half-day program for 3-year old children in the near future. School bus transportation is not offered by any of the schools. Correspondence courses for high school classes are available at QSI through the University of Nebraska. The Slovene International School curriculum leads to a baccalaureate degree. They have 70 students in their Danila Kumar elementary school, and 50 in their Gimnazija Bezigrad (high school). Their nursery program accepts only 15 children aged 3 and above, but is limited to 15 children. The French school in Ljubljana accepts students aged 3-16. With the exception of preschoolers, students are expected to speak French fluently to enter their program. Slovenian Childcare Centers accept foreign children for their full-day preschools, however, instructions are entirely in Slovene.

Away From Post Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM
Families who choose to send their children to school away from post will receive an allowance determined by the Office of Overseas Schools in the Department. There are several outstanding boarding schools in Austria and Switzerland that offer instruction in English. Some follow an American curriculum.

Special Needs Education Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

None of the schools that offer instruction in English can accommodate students with special education needs. Physical access to schools is also difficult for students with disabilities. Building codes to not reflect U.S. standards.

Higher Education Opportunities Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

The University of Ljubljana accepts enrollment of foreign students. Generally, however, diplomatic personnel have attended only for language instruction. Before being admitted into a special field of study, students must take an intensive year-long Slovene language course. Private instruction in art, music and Slovene language can be arranged.

Recreation and Social Life

Sports Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Slovenians are very active in all forms of sports. There are several well-equipped sports centers, many health spas, tennis courts, swimming pools and bowling alleys throughout the country. Membership dues to these facilities are reasonable. Spectator sports like ice hockey, basketball and soccer are also available. Sporting equipment can be purchased locally or through the exchange stores in Italy.

Touring and Outdoor Activities Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Ljubljana is a skier's paradise with almost four dozen ski resorts nearby. Mountain and hill climbing are popularly supported through associations. The seaside is only a 2-hour drive from Ljubljana. Swimming is also popular in the Bled and Bohinj lakes and Krka and Kolpa rivers. Hiking and climbing are excellent both summer and winter. Boating and windsurfing, kayaking, canoeing, and rafting are among the most popular sports. Lake and river fishing and hunting are excellent, but licenses are very expensive compared to U.S. prices. Cycling is a favorite sport among all ages. A 27-hole course at Bled, an 18-hole course at Mokrice, a 9-hole course in Lipica, and a new layout in Rogaska Slatina offer their services to golfers.

Entertainment Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Ljubljana enjoys a very rich cultural life. It is blessed with a graceful Opera House which was opened in 1892 as the Provincial Theater, as well as with several concert halls and theaters throughout the city. Nearly 800 cultural events a year take place at Cankarjev Dom, the national theater center composed of excellent acoustics. Although performances by Slovenians are most prominent, there are guest performances by philharmonic orchestras from various European capitals and from the U.S. There are several movie theaters where the majority of films are shown with their original sound track and Slovene subtitles. Ljubljana also houses excellent music clubs for jazz, rock, and pop music. Discos, bars, and pubs add to the entertainment scene of Ljubljana. Several Slovenian TV channels show American movies and TV shows in English.

The International Summer Festival of music, theater and dance, held principally at the open-air theater of the Krizanke, runs from mid-July through August.

As a university town, there is a lively student community, and a multitude of bars and discos that cater to young people. Nightlife is very active during the university terms, and young people can be found gathering until the wee hours on most weekends.

Ljubljana has many museums, including a National Gallery of Art. There are numerous smaller art galleries throughout the city, displaying the works of Slovene artists, along with guest artists from various countries.

In the countryside, restaurants were traditionally part of an inn, called a gostilna. Families would gather at these charming gostilnas for long meals, generally heavier than Americans are accustomed to (schnitzel, sausage, and potatoes). Now there are restaurants scattered throughout the city, including Italian, Chinese, and Mexican. There are many pizza parlors and several McDonald's restaurants.

Social Activities

Among Americans Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM
Social life among Americans is informal. Since distances are so short to various attractive spots within and outside of Slovenia, most people take advantage of the weekend to travel. Slovenians are friendly and informal in their social dealings. Entertainment at home is not very common within the Slovenian community, hence most entertainment hosted by the Slovenians takes place in restaurants.

International Contacts Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM
There is a Slovenian International Ladies Association, SILA, which was established in 1993 for the purpose of encouraging social, cultural and educational exchange. Membership is open to all Slovene and foreign women for a small fee. SILA organizes regular meetings, trips, lectures, cultural events, sports activities, language classes, cooking lessons, an annual ball during February and the annual charity bazaar during November.

Official Functions

Nature of Functions Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

In the summer of 2000, the U.S. Ambassador, with generous contributions from U.S. businesses represented in Slovenia, hosted an Independence Day reception, considered the premier diplomatic social event of the year. All employees of the Mission, U.S. and foreign national, and their spouses, are invited to that event. It is likely that with the completion of the official residence, the nature of such functions will change in the coming years. Other official Americans and their spouses occasionally receive invitations to receptions and/or dinners either by Slovenian contacts or other foreign missions' representatives. The President of Slovenia and his wife host an annual New Year's reception for Ambassadors. The President's wife hosts an annual New Years' reception for the female employees and spouses of the Embassy employees.

Standards of Social Conduct Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Most officers use business cards rather than formal calling cards. Although they can be printed locally, most employees order cards from U.S. suppliers after arrival at post. Dress style is almost identical to that of the U.S.

Notes For Travelers

Getting to the Post Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Travel to Ljubljana is very easy, by air, train, bus, or car from any of the major European cities. Since no American air carrier flies direct from the U.S. to Ljubljana, connections are made in Vienna, Frankfurt, or Zurich. Slovene Adria Airways flies to most major European cities. Personnel assigned to Slovenia must notify the Embassy regarding their flight and date of arrival so that they are met at the airport.

All shipment containers, boxes and accompanying documents should clearly indicate consignment to:

American Embassy Ljubljana
31 Presernova
1000 Ljubljana
(FOR) (employee's first and last names)

Shipments, including unaccompanied baggage (UAB) and POV, must arrive at post after the employee. Post does not have the facilities for storage of effects. Slovene customs regulations require that the employee be in country prior to customs clearance.

The size and weight limitations of containers are: a maximum capacity of 9.50 cubic meters, weight 1 ton, width of 7 feet, length of 8 feet, and height of 6 feet. Do not ship a container taller than six feet exterior dimensions.

UAB size limitations are width and length of 3 feet and height of 4 feet. There are no weight limitations per container.

Personally owned vehicles should be routed through the port of discharge in ELSO, Antwerp, Belgium. Marking instructions: ELSO, Antwerp, Belgium, for forwarding to:

American Embassy Ljubljana
31 Presernova
1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
(FOR) (employee's first and last names)

Accompanying documents and a cable of notification should be addressed to ELSO, Antwerp, Belgium with info copies to American Embassy Ljubljana.

Customs, Duties, and Passage

Customs and Duties Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

All personnel are entitled to duty-free entry of personal effects and a personal vehicle for each adult family member imported during the first 6 months of their tour.

Passage Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

A valid passport is the only document needed for entry into Slovenia. A visa is not required for American citizens who plan to stay for less than 90 days. For those staying longer or on official travel orders, a visa and diplomatic identification card will be obtained after arrival at post.

No immunizations are required before entry into Slovenia.

All employees and their dependents (regardless of age), require three passport-size photographs for issuance of MFA and military ID cards. Photographers are available locally for express service at a reasonable cost.

Pets Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

At least 1 week before arriving in Slovenia, the Embassy must request permission from the Ministry of Agriculture for the animal to enter the country. The Embassy will need copies of your pet's shot records, which should include a certificate of rabies vaccination. This can be faxed to the Embassy at (386-61) 200-5555. All dogs and cats entering Slovenia must be accompanied by a certificate of good health bearing the seal of your local board of health and signed by a veterinarian. This certificate must be issued not more than 10 days prior to the animal's arrival. A veterinarian meets the animal at the airport upon arrival and checks all these health papers before allowing entry through the customs. There is also a 3-week in-house quarantine period. The quarantine period ends after a stool examination and an inspection by a veterinarian. The general level of veterinary care in Ljubljana is very good.

Firearms and Ammunition Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

Except with specific advance approval from the Embassy, no U.S. Government personnel assigned to the Republic of Slovenia may bring any type of firearms or ammunition into the country.

If approved, a diplomatic note shall be sent to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The note must be comprised of the following:

Name and title of diplomat
Type of firearms
Serial number(s) of the firearms(s)
Date, type and point of origin

Firearms and ammunition may also be imported for hunting purposes. In this case a diplomatic note must be sent to the Foreign Ministry. Diplomats entering Slovenia must possess a license/certificate for carrying hunting weapons. An invitation of the hunting organization is not necessary.

Currency, Banking, and Weights and Measures Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

The official currency unit of the Republic of Slovenia is the tolar, abbreviated "SIT," which is divided into denominations of 10,000, 5,000, 1,000, 500, 200, 100, 50, 20, and 10, with coins in denominations of 5, 2, and 1 SIT. The currency is relatively stable, with current exchange rates of approximately US$1=SIT245.

The Embassy cashier is open for accommodation exchange Monday through Friday from 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon. The limit in check cashing per employee per day is $500 and $1,000 per week, with a minimum check amount of $50.

Embassy personnel have been able to open checking accounts with certain banks in Slovene, notably Volksbank of Austria. These accounts are required in order to receive Value Added Tax (VAT) rebates from the government. However, the growing presence of ATM machines that accept Cirrus and/or Plus System cards from the U.S. means that Embassy staff and foreign visitors alike can get Solvene tolars (SIT) around the clock.

Major credit cards are increasingly accepted, as more and more establishments obtain permission to use them.

The metric system of weights and measures is used.

Taxes, Exchange, and Sale of Property Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

It is not permitted to sell imported goods unless they have been in the country for three years. Otherwise, all taxes and customs duties must be paid. Items valued at more than 15,000 SIT may be purchased locally tax-free after submission of the proper paperwork. Payment of tax refunds takes approximately three months.

Recommended Reading Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

These titles are provided as an indication of the material published on Slovenia. The Department of State does not recognize unofficial publications.

Anderlic, Joze and Zadnikar, Marjan (trans. Danica Dolenc). Religious Art in Slovenia. (Koper: Ognjisce, 1986)

Arnez, John A. Slovenia in European Affairs: Reflections on Slovenian Political History. (1958)

Arnez, John A. Slovenian Lands and Their Economies, 1848-1873. (1983)

Banac, Ivo. The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History and Politics. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984)

Benderly, Jill and Kraft, Evan (eds.). Independent Slovenia: Origins, Movements, Prospects. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994)

Barker, Thomas M. (with Andreas Moritsch). The Slovene Minority in Carinthia. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984)

Burkhardt, Francois; Eveno, Claudio; and Podrecca, Boris (eds.). Joze Plecnik, Architect: 1872-1957. (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1989).

Fallon, Steve, Slovenia a Lonely Planet travel survival kit (The best and only English travel guide to Slovenia.)

Gelt, Draga. The Slovenians from the Earliest Times. (Victoria, Australia: Coordinating Committee of Slovenian Organizations, 1985)

Gow, James and Carmichael, Cathie. Slovenia and the Slovenes.

Hafner, Danica Fink. Making a New Nation.

Hall, Brian. The Impossible Country: Journey Through the Last Days of Yugoslavia.

Harriman, Helga. Slovenia Under Nazi Occupation 1941-1945. (New York and Washington: Studia Slovenica, 1977

Hocevar, Toussaint. The Economic History of Slovenia, 1828-1918. (New York: Society for Slovene Studies Documentation Series, No. 4, 1978)

Joze Plecnik, 1872-1957: Architecture and the City. (Oxford: Oxford Polytechnic - Urban Design, 1983)

Kuhar, Aloysius L. The Conversion of the Slovenes and the German-Slav Ethnic Boundary in the Eastern Alps. (New York and Washington: Studia Slovenica, 1959)

Kuhar, Aloysius L. Slovene Medieval History: Selected Studies. (New York and Washington: Studia Slovenica, 1962)

Lencek, Rado L. The Structure and History of the Slovene Language. (Columbus, Ohio: Slavica Publishers, 1982

Loncar, Dragotin (translated by Anthony Klancar). The Slovenes: A Social History (From the Earliest Times to 1910). (Cleveland: Jugoslav Printing and Publishing Co., 1939)

Menase, Lev (ed.). Art Treasures of Slovenia. (Belgrade: Jugoslovenska revija, 1981). Treasure Chest of Slovenia. (Ljubljana: Cankarjeva zalozba/Mladinska knjiga, 1988).

Novak, Bodgan. Trieste, 1941-54: The Ethnic, Political, and Ideological Struggle. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970)

Silber, Laura. Death of Yugoslovia.

Singleton, Fred. A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985)

Slovene Studies. (Scholarly journal, published annually in English since 1979)

Slovenia Business Report. (Monthly magazine) (Ljubljana: Gospodarski vestnik)

Slovenia for Everyone. Ljubljana: Government Public Relations and Media Office (1993).

Slovenija. (Quarterly magazine) (Ljubljana: Slovenska izseljenska matica)

Stele, France (ed.). Slovene Impressionists. (St. Paul, Minnesota: Control Data Arts; Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, 1980)

Thompson, Mark. A Paper House: The Ending of Yugoslavia. New York: Pantheon (1993)

Tollefson, James. The Language Situation and Language Policy in Slovenia. (Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1981)

West, Rebecca. Black Lamb and Grey Falcon.

Winner, Irene. A Slovenian Village: Zerovnica. (Providence, Rhode Island: Brown University (Press, 1971). Conceptions and Strategy of the Development of Education: Education Modernization Programme in Republic Slovenia until 2000. (Ljubljana: Zavod republike Slovenije za solstvo, May 1990)

Local Holidays Last Updated: 2/28/2003 6:00 PM

The following Slovenian holidays are observed:

New Year's Holidays January 1 and 2
Slovenian Cultural Day February 8
Easter Monday March/April
Resistance Day April 27
Labor Day Holidays May 1 and 2
Whitsunday May 25 (Varies)
Slovenian National Day June 25
Assumption Day August 15
Reformation Day October 31
All Saints Day November 1
Christmas Day December 25
Slovenian Independence Day December 26

Adapted from material published by the U.S. Department of State. While some of the information is specific to U.S. missions abroad, the post report provides a good overview of general living conditions in the host country for diplomats from all nations.
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