|Preface Last Updated: 3/17/2004
The word "Zimbabwe" is derived from the Shona dzimba dza mabwe
(house of stones). It has been written that one of the most striking
features of Zimbabwe is the depth of its historical roots; that the
past of Zimbabwe can be followed, through both traditions and
documents, as a continuous story for five centuries.
With more than a passing resemblance to a magazine's "best of"
issue cover, Zimbabwe is a beautiful country to visit, with
hinterlands which are positively bursting with gorgeousness, both
four-legged and furry, wild and winged, spiky and splashy.
Bantu-speaking farmers were the first occupants of the Great
Zimbabwe site in the south of the country. As early as the 11th
century, some foundations and stonework were in place, and the
settlement, generally regarded as the nascent Shona society, became
the trading capital of the wealthiest and most powerful society in
southeastern Africa. In the 19th century, European gold seekers and
ivory hunters were moving into Shona territory. The best known of
these was Cecil John Rhodes who envisioned a corridor of
British-style "civilization." Sanctioned by Queen Victoria, white
settlers swarmed in, and, by 1911, there were some 24,000 settlers.
Ian Smith became Rhodesian President in 1964 and began pressing
for independence. When he realized that Britain's conditions for
cutting the tether would not be accepted by Rhodesia's whites, he
made a Unilateral Declaration of Independence, which the UN declared
illegal. Increasingly fierce guerilla warfare ensued and whites
began to abandon their homes and farms. Smith agreed to call a
general nonracial election and finally had to hand over leadership.
In 1980, Zimbabwe joined the ranks of Africa's independent nations.
Zimbabwe's traditional arts include pottery, basketry, textiles,
jewelry, and carving. Shona sculpture, a melding of African folklore
with European artistic training, has been evolving over the past few
Music has always been an important part of cultural life.
Traditional musical instruments include the marimba, a richly-toned
wooden xylophone, and the mbira, a device more commonly known as a
English is the official language of Zimbabwe, but it is a first
language for only about 2% of the population. The rest of the people
are native speakers of Bantu languages, the two most prominent of
which are Shona and Sindebele.
The capital city of Harare offers good housing, glorious foliage
and a wonderful climate. Schools are excellent and Harare has a
small but active cultural scene.
The Host Country
Area, Geography, and Climate Last Updated: 3/17/2004 1:55 AM
Zimbabwe is a landlocked country between the Zambezi and Limpopo
Rivers of south-central Africa. Elevations range from below 2,000
feet in the river basins to over 7,000 feet in the Eastern
Highlands. Harare and most population centers are located on the
highveld, a savanna-covered plateau, some 4,000-5,000 feet above sea
Zimbabwe covers 150,000 square miles, about the size of Montana.
It is bounded by Zambia on the north, Mozambique on the east,
Botswana on the west, and South Africa on the south. The landscape
varies from flat and rolling ranges, to farmland and mountains, all
marked by granite outcroppings. Points of geographical and scenic
interest include the magnificent Victoria Falls and manmade Lake
Kariba on the Zambezi River, the mountainous Eastern Highlands along
the Mozambique border, and the historically important ruins of Great
Zimbabwe, the capital of the ancient civilization of Zimbabwe,
located near Masvingo, and several game parks.
The climate on the central plateau is moderate in all seasons
with warm days and cool nights. Homes do not have central heating or
air-conditioning, although room heaters and fireplaces are used on
winter nights (May-August). Annual rainfall averages about 28 inches
on the highveld (Harare), more in the Eastern Highlands, and much
less in the lowveld of the southeast and the Zambezi Valley. The sun
shines nearly every day, even at the height of the warm rainy season
(November-April). In Harare, the average low temperature in winter
is 45°F at night, though frost occasionally occurs. The average
daily temperature in summer is 75°F, with temperatures seldom
Population Last Updated: 3/17/2004 1:56 AM
Zimbabwe's population was reported as 11.6 million in the 2002
Census, and grew at an annual rate of 1.1% between 1992 and 2002.
The population is 98% African. Of that group, some 82% belong to
Shona-speaking tribes. The largest Shona subgroups are the Karanga,
the Zezuru, and the Manyika. 14% of the black population is
Ndebele-a tribe of Zulu origin inhabiting the southern and western
part of Zimbabwe-or Kalanga, Deme, San, Shangaan, Swana, Tonga, and
Venda. Whites, mainly of South African, British, and European
ancestry, number about 70,000. Asians, of Indian ancestry, and
Coloreds, people of mixed European-African origin, number about
English is the official language. Shona and Sindebele are spoken
in their respective areas. The literacy rate is estimated at 90%. A
large majority of the population is formally or nominally Christian.
Thousands of Zimbabweans have earned university degrees in their own
country or in the U.S., U.K., or Europe, giving the country one of
the most highly educated populations of any African state.
The Harare metropolitan area has a population of more than 1.9
million, including the municipality of Chitungwiza, which has an
estimated population of 400,000. Other major cities are Bulawayo
(965,000), Mutare (190,000) Gweru (155,000), and Kadoma (106,000).
Most Zimbabweans live in communal lands, areas formally reserved for
African settlement and covering nearly half the nation's territory.
Some 40% of the population live in urban areas. Communal lands tend
to be overcrowded and overgrazed, and inhabitants rely heavily on
About 4,000 mostly white-owned commercial farms once occupied
much of the nation's most productive land and produced half of
Zimbabwe's staple food crop, white corn, and the main export crops:
tobacco, cotton, sugar, tea, and coffee.
Due to imbalances and perceived colonial relics in land ownership
patterns, the government embarked in 2000 on a sometimes violent
"fast-track" land resettlement program purportedly designed to
decongest indigenous communal lands and introduce more indigenous
players into the commercial farming sector. In actuality, the
program stripped white commercial farmers of almost all agricultural
land in Zimbabwe, regardless of when or how they had actually
purchased the land -- despite the fact that up to 80% of white-owned
land had been purchased, often with the government's acquiescence,
after Zimbabwe achieved its independence from Britain. According to
official sources, the program -- declared in August 2002 to be
"complete," despite successive waves of acquisition notices -- is
now an ongoing process with only about 400 farms still controlled by
whites. However, due to poor planning and widespread corruption,
with political beneficiaries taking over many of the most productive
farms, the exercise has resulted in few gains to Zimbabwe's true
indigenous farmers and massive damage to both its food security and
the formerly export-oriented, agricultural-based economy. The
government of Zimbabwe must now attempt to balance its stated goal
of indigenization with a necessary return to commercial farm
productivity and food security, two goals which must be reconciled
before the country can rebuild its formerly stable economy.
Public Institutions Last Updated: 3/17/2004 1:58 AM
The Republic of Zimbabwe became independent on April 18, 1980,
after a guerrilla war against the white colonial government. Under
the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI), the colonial
government announced its independence from the U.K. in 1965 in an
effort to avoid majority rule. The African majority fiercely
resisted UDI, as it forestalled achievement of self-rule. The first
incidents of armed opposition against Prime Minister Ian Smith's
regime began in the late 1960s, and continued at a low level through
the early 1970s. After the fall of the Portuguese administration in
Mozambique in 1974, the outlawed Zimbabwe African National Union
(ZANU), which had been in exile in distant Tanzania, shifted
operations to Mozambique, while the rival Zimbabwe African People's
Union (ZAPU) continued its guerrilla operations from Zambia,
resulting in an increase in the general level of fighting.
In September 1979, all parties to the conflict agreed to
participate in a conference held at Lancaster House in London. Ian
Smith, Bishop Abel Muzorewa (who, with Smith, in early 1979
attempted to create a state under joint rule prior to the Lancaster
House conference), ZANU leader Robert Mugabe, ZAPU leader Joshua
Nkomo, and other factional leaders signed an agreement on December
21, 1979, in which the parties agreed on a constitution and a plan
that provided for a brief return to British rule, general elections
open to all parties, and ultimate independence. The agreement also
stressed administrative continuity in the adoption of the prime
ministerial system in preference to an executive presidency and in
the disproportionate political influence reserved to the white
minority. At the outset, ZANU and ZAPU opposed the compensation
clause attached to land reform but reluctantly agreed to the clause
after vague assurances had been given about a multinational fund to
assist in land redistribution.
The February 1980 elections were monitored by international
observers and considered to be free and fair. Mugabe's
ZANU-Patriotic Front won 57 of the seats in the 100-member House of
Assembly; Nkomo's Patriotic Front (PF)-ZAPU won 20; Bishop
Muzorewa's United African National Council (UNAC) won 3; and Ian
Smith's Rhodesian Front (RF) won all 20 seats reserved for whites.
Robert Mugabe was selected to be the country's first Prime Minister.
Once in office, Mugabe pursued a policy of national
reconciliation with the country's small but economically influential
white community. He set up a government of national unity, which
included PF-ZAPU and some whites. Spurred by international aid and
pent-up demand after 15 years of U.N.-imposed sanctions, the economy
and internal political situation were very healthy in the first year
of independence. However, the euphoria of independence wore off as
the Government came to grips with myriad problems involved in
running a country. Serious political differences developed between
ZANU-PF and PF-ZAPU as the result of strife between ex-combatants of
the two former guerrilla armies and the discovery of illegal arms
that were cached on PF-ZAPU properties. As a result, Mugabe fired
Nkomo and several of his close aides from the cabinet in 1981.
During 1982, dissidents from ZAPU's former guerrilla army
perpetrated numerous indiscriminate acts of violence for which the
Government held ZAPU largely responsible. The following year, the
Fifth Brigade-a North Korean trained military unit-was accused of
committing gross human rights abuses and killing thousands of
civilians in Matabeleland. After a brutal massacre in the
Ndebele-populated provinces of Matabeleland in November 1987,
ZANU-PF and PF-ZAPU agreed to unite; the parliamentary seats
reserved for whites were abolished, and Prime Minister Mugabe became
executive president, initially for a three-year term. However,
ethnic tension and the failure to redress the human rights issues
remain an underlying points of stress in the so-called Unity
ZANU-PF's dominance of Zimbabwe politics was confirmed again in
1990, when Mugabe was elected to a full six-year term as President
and led his party to victory in that year's Parliamentary elections.
The new 150-member unicameral Parliament, consisted of 120 elected
seats, 10 chiefs elected by their peers, eight provincial governors,
an attorney general, and 12 non-constituency MPs appointed by
Mugabe, and a speaker of Parliament elected by parliament. Mugabe
was re-elected to the presidency in 1996.
In 1999, leaders of the country's powerful labor union
confederation, the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU), formed
the country's first major opposition party, the Movement for
Democratic Change (MDC). Capitalizing on a sluggish economy and
growing dissatisfaction with the Government, the MDC quickly became
the first serious challenge to the ruling ZANU-PF. In February 2000,
the voters defeated the Government's proposed new constitution in
the first electoral setback for the Government since independence.
Selected veterans groups from Zimbabwe's liberation struggle and
other ZANU-PF supporters embarked on a campaign of political
violence designed to intimidate supporters of the opposition. At
least 31 people were killed and thousands were left homeless.
Despite the intimidation campaign, the MDC won 57 of 120 contested
seats in Parliament in the June 2000 elections, denying ZANU-PF the
two-thirds majority necessary to amend the constitution and
subjecting the Government to parliamentary scrutiny to which it was
In the aftermath of that campaign, the MDC gained strength,
benefiting from continued economic decline and intensified
intimidation of the population by war veterans and ZANU-PF
supporters. Since June 2000, the Government has orchestrated a
campaign of intimidation against the judiciary, the independent
media, and the MDC leadership. It forced the Chief Justice into
early retirement and replaced him with someone widely considered
sympathetic to the ruling party's political agenda. It has conducted
an intensive rhetorical campaign against the independent press, shut
down the only daily independent newspaper, and threatened and
arrested individual journalists, charging them under repressive
legislation passed in early 2002. The GOZ also has raided the MDC's
offices, detained for questioning most of the party's top
leadership, and filed charges of treason against MDC President
Morgan Tsvangirai, Secretary-General Welshman Ncube, and Shadow
Minister for Agriculture Renson Gasela, although the charges against
Ncube and Gasela were subsequently dropped. In addition, MDC Members
of Parliament have been regularly targeted for physical abuse.
The March 2002 presidential election was preceded by months of
intensive violence and intimidation against MDC supporters, and more
than 50 people, mostly opposition supporters, were killed. President
Mugabe was declared the winner over challenger Morgan Tsvangirai by
a 56-to-42 percent margin. Most international observers condemned
the election as seriously flawed--the pre-election environment was
neither free nor fair, and the election itself was marred by
significant fraud and rigging--but regional opinions were mixed.
Soon after the election, the MDC filed a petition challenging
Mugabe's victory, citing flaws in electoral laws, electoral
irregularities and pre-election violence. As of the end of 2003, the
case had not yet been decided.
As a result of this election, the United States, the EU, and
other European countries imposed travel restrictions against senior
Zimbabwean officials and embargoed the sale of arms to Zimbabwe. The
U.S. and the EU also froze the financial assets of selected ruling
party officials. The Commonwealth suspended Zimbabwe from council
meetings for one year after its election observer team found the
election neither free nor fair. At the mid-term suspension review in
March 2003, the three-country committee, charged with deciding
Zimbabwe's fate, decided to continue the suspension until the next
Commonwealth meeting in December 2003. At this meeting, despite
vigorous campaigning by South Africa, Zimbabwe was not invited to
attend the meeting and the Commonwealth decided to continue with the
suspension. Immediately after this, Mugabe withdrew Zimbabwe from
In the year and a half since the presidential election, the
political climate has grown more tense and political intolerance
more pervasive. President Robert Mugabe fired his Finance Minister
in August 2002 rather than heed his advice to devalue the currency.
In his stead, Mugabe appointed Herbert Murerwa, who served in that
capacity from 1996 to 2000 and was less likely to go against party
hardliners. Another example of the increased political intolerance
was the escalation of violence that preceded rural council elections
in September 2002 and various Parliamentary by-elections. The March
2003 by-elections in Kuwadzana and Highfield, predominantly MDC
areas, were also marred by widespread intimidation and beatings. The
Government also passed legislation that curtails free speech, free
press, and rights of assembly.
Public Private Institutions
Zimbabwe is replete with civic and charitable organizations
including the Red Cross, the Jairos Jiri Association and St. Giles
Association (for the physically handicapped), the St. John's
Ambulance Corps, Rotary, Island Hospice, Masons, Samaritans, and
numerous missionary organizations that welcome volunteer assistance.
The country enjoys a number of relatively strong nongovernmental
organizations, including civil society organizations, human rights
groups, and welfare organizations. Examples of civil society
organizations that focus on good governance, accountability, and
human rights include: ZimRights, Transparency International, Amani
Trust, Legal Resources Foundation, Catholic Commission for Justice
and Peace, Women's Action Group, Zimbabwe Women Lawyers'
Association, Women in Politics Support Unit, Zimbabwe Lawyers for
Human Rights, Zimbabwe Human Rights NGO Forum, and the National
Zimbabwe's Foreign Relations
With the United States:
The U.S., which played a behind-the-scenes role during the
Lancaster House Conference, extended official diplomatic recognition
to the new government immediately after independence, and a resident
Embassy was established in Harare on Zimbabwe's Independence Day,
April 18, 1980. The first U.S. Ambassador arrived and presented his
credentials in June 1980. Until the arrival in 1983 of a resident
Ambassador in Washington, Zimbabwe's relations with the U.S. were
handled by its Ambassador to the United Nations (U.N.) in New York.
At the Zimbabwe Conference on Reconstruction and Development
(ZIMCORD) held in Harare in 1981, the U.S. Government pledged US$225
million over three years as the U.S. contribution to Zimbabwe's
development needs. This goal was more than met; from independence to
September 2003, the U.S. provided more than $900 million in economic
and development assistance to Zimbabwe. Most of this assistance was
in the form of direct grants and was used to help rebuild schools
and clinics, train agricultural experts, build low-cost housing, and
get the national economy back on its feet.
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance to
Zimbabwe since the 1990s has focused on agriculture/food security,
education, family planning, HIV/AIDS prevention, private sector
development, low-income housing, micro-enterprise funding and
democracy and governance programs, and emergency food aid. The
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began its direct
assistance program in August 2000. CDC's program consists of
prevention of HIV transmission; improved care of persons with
HIV/AIDS; surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation of the epidemic;
and health sector infrastructure support.
Bilateral relations have deteriorated since 2000, when political
violence began to escalate and the rule of law started to break
down. Prior to this, relations had been generally good. A series of
undiplomatic statements by the Zimbabwe Government led to a
suspension of most U.S. aid in 1986, but aid resumed in 1988. The
collapse of the Communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the former
Soviet Union led Zimbabwean leaders to reexamine their worldview,
and Zimbabwe and the U.S. cooperated very closely during the
former's latest tenure on the U.N. Security Council, 1991-92.
President Mugabe visited Washington informally in September 1980,
and on official working visits in September 1983, July 1991, and in
1995, meeting with Presidents Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton
respectively. He has also led the Zimbabwean delegation to the U.N.
on several occasions, including most recently in 2003. Vice
President George Bush visited Harare in November 1982 on a trip to
several African countries.
Diplomatic relations with the West again soured in 1997 when
President Mugabe announced plans to seize white-owned farms without
providing compensation. An agreement was reached between the
Government and donors in 1998, whereby donors would provide funding
to much-needed land reform. The process broke down in 2000 and many
Western donors withdrew their aid as an often violent campaign to
seize white-owned farms was undertaken without regard to applicable
law or due process considerations. Since then, the Government has
implemented an extensive land reorganization campaign ostensibly to
give the land to indigenous people. However, much of the land was
distributed to ruling party elites and supporters, and far less to
the needy than had been promised by end of 2003. One of the
consequences of the poorly planned land process has been the
destruction of the agricultural sector, rendering Zimbabwe-once the
breadbasket of the region-a major food aid recipient with half of
its population receiving assistance in 2003.
With Other Countries:
Historically, Zimbabwe's closest links have been with the U.K.;
however, in the past three years, this relationship has been very
strained. The Government has demonized Britain in the press, blaming
the country for Zimbabwe's problems, and claiming that Britain
reneged on promises made at Lancaster House to provide money for
land reform. As with the U.S., thousands of Zimbabweans studied in
the U.K., and private links remain close; however, official
relations are strained.
Other West European countries have ties with Zimbabwe. The
Scandinavian countries share certain philosophical affinities and
have provided much assistance, as have France, Canada, and the
Federal Republic of Germany. Portugal and Greece maintain links
partly because of the sizable Portuguese and Greek communities in
the country. Similar historical ties have led to the establishment
of relations with India and Pakistan, and to a lesser extent, with
Bangladesh. The Government's "look east" policy has led to closer
diplomatic relations with East Asian countries such as Malaysia and
Zimbabwe maintains diplomatic relations with virtually every
African country, although some ties are closer than others. African
nations with embassies in Harare are Algeria, Angola, Botswana, DRC,
Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nigeria, South Africa, the Sudan, Tanzania, and Zambia.
Ruled continuously by a liberation party, Zimbabwe developed and
maintains close ties with a number of revolutionary states and
organizations. Among these are the People's Republic of China, Cuba,
the People's Democratic Republic of Korea, Iran, Libya, and the
Palestinian Liberation Organization.
Shortly after attaining independence, Zimbabwe was welcomed into
the world community of nations and was granted membership in many
international organizations. Chief among these is the United
Nations, which Zimbabwe joined just before the General Assembly
convened in September 1980. In honor of its newest state, Africa
chose Zimbabwe to hold one of its seats in the Security Council,
which it did for the biennium 1983-84 and again in 1991-92. Zimbabwe
participates in many bodies within the U.N. system. It is also a
member of the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the G-20
within the WTO, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund,
although the IMF commenced measures in 2003 to expel Zimbabwe over
Arts, Science, and Education Last Updated: 3/17/2004 1:59 AM
Zimbabwe's cultural life is diverse, with ample opportunities for
foreigners to study, appreciate, and participate in both Western and
The National Gallery of Zimbabwe offers a small collection of
European art and a collection and workshop for African sculpture,
mostly impressionistic soapstone works. Zimbabwe is known worldwide
for its unique and well-developed stone sculpture tradition. Private
collections, such as the Chapungu Sculpture Garden on the outskirts
of Harare, and artists' cooperatives such as the famous Tengenenge
Village, several hours north of Harare, boast beautiful collections
of large and small pieces and are equipped to display and ship
sculpture internationally. The Queen Victoria Museum in Harare,
located next to the College of Music, holds ethnographic,
geological, and natural history displays. The neighboring National
Archives also has excellent permanent displays. The National Museum
of Bulawayo is known for its displays of Zimbabwe's wildlife and
natural and human history. Harare, Mutare and Bulawayo have several
small private art galleries which show interesting local art and
fine craft work.
Amateur theater groups welcome new participants. Professional or
semi-professional theatrical performances are continually available.
There are several choral groups and a few small orchestral
ensembles. Several cinemas offer films (mostly American and British)
a few months after their first run in the U.S. Video shops rent
tapes of feature films, and there are occasional dance
performances-Zimbabwean, modern, and classical-by local groups.
Performances by Zimbabwean popular musicians are numerous and
Performances by non-Zimbabwean artists and groups-whether of
music, dance, or drama-are relatively rare.
There are scientific, cultural, hobby-related, and artistic
societies, with frequent meetings open to spectators and prospective
Several subscription libraries in Harare offer a fair selection
of reading material. A decent selection of new books is available in
The University of Zimbabwe is an important force in the
community, and its courses, lectures, and library are open to
foreign students. Universal primary education remains one of the
state's goals. The government currently estimates that there are
more than 2.5 million children in school in Zimbabwe, up from about
800,000 at independence. Educational opportunities greatly
increased, during most of the country's history, but have suffered
significantly as a result of economic difficulties in recent years.
Commerce and Industry Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:00 AM
At independence, Zimbabwe inherited one of the strongest and most
complete industrial infrastructures in sub-Saharan Africa, as well
as rich mineral resources and a strong agricultural base. Since the
mid-1990s, this infrastructure has been deteriorating rapidly, but
remains better than that of most African countries. Electricity and
phone service are erratic.
Zimbabwe's economy has been in recession since 1997. The present
rate of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) decline is about 14 percent
annualized, probably the highest in the world at present for
countries not at war. Though difficult to measure, GDP has dropped
from about US$5.5 to 3.5 billion. Per capita GDP is about US$290.
The zimdollar has devalued continuously since 1998.
Zimbabwe's once-enviable agricultural sector has become less
productive. Tobacco exports in 2003 were down about two-thirds from
2000. Many Zimbabweans depend on international food assistance, even
in non-drought years. However, a variety of produce, often from
South Africa, is still available in upscale neighborhoods, where
some items - such as cooking oil and sugar - still remain in short
supply at times. Corn, called maize in Zimbabwe, is the staple crop.
Export crops include tobacco, cotton, sugar, horticultural products,
coffee, and tea.
The largest industries are iron, steel, metal products, food
processing, chemicals, textiles, clothing, furniture and plastic
goods. Tourism is potentially very important as a foreign currency
earner for the country, but the erratic political situation has
discouraged visits. The U.S. has a travel warning in effect. Most
manufacturers have scaled back operations. Zimbabwe is not a member
of the African Growth and Opportunity Act and a number of textile
businesses have migrated to other African countries. Zimbabwean
producers still export lumber products, certain textiles, chrome
alloys and windscreens to the U.S.
Zimbabwe is endowed with rich mineral resources. Exports of gold,
asbestos, chrome, coal, platinum, nickel, and copper could lead an
economic recovery one day. No commercial deposits of petroleum have
been discovered, although the country is richly endowed with
coal-bed methane gas that has yet to be exploited.
The giant Kariba Hydroelectric Dam on the Zambezi River,
supplemented by several thermal generators and a coal-fired thermal
plant at Hwange, supply the country's electric power. However, coal
production at Wankie Colliery has fallen precipitously. Without
petroleum of its own, the country depends on imports of gasoline and
diesel for all transport needs.
Zimbabwe's inflation rate at year-end 2003 was more than 500%.
Government has frequently intervened in the economy in recent years,
by redistributing farmland, controlling prices and establishing an
unsupported official exchange rate. In all, it has made for an
increasingly challenging operating environment for most businesses.
Automobiles Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:06 AM
Traffic moves on the left, British fashion, but although U.S.
standard left-hand-drive cars can be used, they are not recommended
for safety reasons.
A personal car is necessary, and incoming employees should plan
to ship or purchase one locally. It could take up to three months
for official personnel to receive a car from the time it is shipped
from the U.S. However, used cars purchased from departing diplomats
are generally of good quality and reasonably priced. New and used
cars can be purchased in South Africa at prices similar to those in
the U.S.; delivery in Harare can be arranged by road or by personal
pick-up in South Africa. Many personnel find air-conditioning a
welcome and almost necessary convenience.
For accredited Diplomatic personal they may import up to two cars
duty free per married family during their entire tour. Supporting
staff may import only one vehicle within their six months duty free
Cars imported duty free may be re-exported, sold to a diplomat
with similar privileges, or sold on the local market. Vehicles
imported under diplomatic rebate will attract duty for a period of
four years. The intended buyer purchasing a vehicle from a Diplomat
who chooses to dispose of their motor vehicle before the expiry date
of four years will be liable to pay residual duty. The Zimbabwe
Customs Authority will calculate the remaining months or years left
on the four-year period from date of importation. A Diplomat should
have used the vehicle for at least 18 months before he/she can apply
to sell it except in cases of unscheduled
A Zimbabwean driver's license or international driver's license
is required in order to drive in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwean driver's
license applications are part of the HR check-in process.
Local auto insurance is required. All customary forms of
automobile insurance are available. All American employees must
purchase at least "third-party extended" insurance, which covers
damage to other vehicles and injury to parties not in the insured
car. The cost is minimal. Comprehensive and collision insurance is
highly recommended and many personnel use a U.S. company for this.
Parts are generally, but not always, available for domestically
assembled vehicles. Delivery of parts from South Africa for other
makes can take several weeks. Bring spare parts to post if you ship
a car or purchase them with a new car. Fuel shortages have become
endemic since January 2000, with supplies sporadic and
unpredictable. Gasoline, when available, at current exchange rates,
costs about US $1.70/gallon. This results in limited vehicular
mobility. The Embassy Warehouse supplies unleaded fuel, diesel and
blend (leaded fuel) at market prices.
Local Transportation Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:07 AM
The ongoing fuel crisis has made most forms of public transport
scarce and unreliable. Taxis can be hired on call in town if fuel is
available, but are not up to U.S. standards. The dependability of
bus service - both within Harare and between towns - also depends
largely on the current availability of petrol. When buses are
available, they are very crowded and service rarely keeps to
A very good network of paved roads stretches across the
countryside. Personal automobiles remain the most reliable form of
transportation between cities, but the frequent lack of fuel at many
gas stations can make long distance traveling problematic. Most
Embassy travelers fill up at the Embassy warehouse before leaving
the city, and carry adequate fuel for the round trip in portable
"jerrycans". Buses and passenger service between the larger towns is
becoming less and less reliable. Air Zimbabwe runs flights linking
Harare, Bulawayo, Kariba, Victoria Falls, and other towns. An
express bus service operates between Harare, Bulawayo, and Mutare.
Regional Transportation Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:07 AM
International flights connect Zimbabwe with London, Cairo,
Nairobi, Addis Ababa and Johannesburg. Most international carriers,
however, have pulled their direct flights to and from Harare. The
remaining direct international routes out of Zimbabwe to and from
Europe (via London) are generally overbooked and can be extremely
difficult to reserve during the school holidays-December-January,
April-May, and August-September. The most common international
routing is via Johannesburg, South Africa.
In addition to Air Zimbabwe, the national airline, Harare is also
served by British Airways, South African Airways, Kenya Airways,
Ethiopian Airways, Egypt Air, Ghana Airways, and Air Tanzania. There
are also flights via regional African airlines.
Telephones and Telecommunications Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:08 AM
Zimbabwe's telephone system was once one of the best in Africa,
but now suffers from poor maintenance. Phone outages are numerous,
especially during the rainy season, when leaks in antiquated phone
switch boxes cause electrical shorts. The copper and colorful
plastic coatings of telephone cables also make tempting targets for
thieves, who resell the copper and use the plastic to weave colorful
baskets for resale. The current fuel shortage and economic crisis
compound maintenance problems, with technicians unable to drive to
problem sites, or unable to source spares.
Calls made from a home phone that are not operator-assisted are
charged by the unit. This includes local and long distance
direct-dial calls, and unless a call is booked through an operator,
which is more expensive, the individual charges are not listed on
the phone bill. Direct dialing out of Zimbabwe is sometimes easier
than reaching a local number. It is cheaper to call from the U.S. to
Zimbabwe than vice-versa. International and local phone rates
fluctuate wildly in the current hyperinflationary environment, but
are generally cheaper than US international rates. Current phone
rates are available on Harare's Intranet website:
Personal calls can be made using the Embassy's three IVG lines to
dial US toll-free numbers, or with the use of a US calling card.
Telephones and Telecommunications
Wireless Service Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:08 AM Several mobile
phone companies have recently entered the market, but quality of
service is very poor, caused mainly by a vast overselling of
cellular network capacity. International roaming features have been
blocked by most international cellular networks due to non-payment
of bills by Zimbabwean cellular companies.
Internet Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:09 AM
Several local companies offer dialup Internet services. Monthly
costs for unlimited Internet use range from $4 / Month on the low
end to $20 / Month on the high end. All ISPs are required by law to
use the government-owned telecommunications company for all outgoing
bandwidth. This bandwidth has been oversold many times past
capacity. The rapidly degrading landline phone network also
contributes to connection problems. As a result, Internet access
during most times of the day or evening is very slow and requires a
tremendous amount of patience.
Broadband in the form of leased lines is available at a
significant cost. However, this only guarantees you fast
connectivity to Zimbabwean-based Internet sites. Access to sites
outside of Zimbabwe is constrained by the same international gateway
bottleneck as experienced via dial-up connections.
The Embassy's access to the Internet through OpenNet Plus is
reliable and quick. Spouses can obtain OpenNet Plus accounts, and
use these accounts for Internet browsing on a shared access terminal
at the Embassy during working hours.
Mail and Pouch Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:10 AM
International airmail between Zimbabwe and the U.S. takes 5-21
days; sea mail sometimes takes several months. Do not have packages
sent to you through the local mail service. Support staff members
are subject to duty charges that begin at 30% and are subject to
additional charges. Accredited diplomats do not pay duty, but
contend with delayed clearance formalities. The address for personal
mail sent directly to the Embassy is:
(Name) American Embassy P.O. Box 3340 Harare, Zimbabwe
State Department pouches come door to door from the facility at
Dulles Airport within 7-10 days. Authorized personnel may receive
parcels, magazines, and newspapers, and may mail letters back to the
U.S. Post also has a Homeward-Bound Program to enable personnel to
send packages through the pouch to the U.S. at a cost of US$3 per
pound, plus the standard U.S. postage. The post sends pouches out
once weekly to the U.S., and this service has a transit time of 4-6
days. The address for personal mail via diplomatic pouch is:
(Name) 2180 Harare Place Dulles, VA 20189-2180
The address for official mail is:
(Name) Department of State (*) 2180 Harare Place Washington, D.C.
*Each service agency should use its own name for this line. For
example: USAID; USDAO; and CDC.
Mail sent to the official pouch mail address is subject to
irradiation. The high temperatures used in the process often damage
plastic material (credit cards, etc). Mail sent via the Dulles
address is not subject to the process.
Bring a large supply of U.S. stamps for pouched mail. Stamps may
also be purchased directly from the Postmaster General in
Washington, D.C., and from Post's American Employee's Welfare and
Recreation Association (AEWRA) manager.
Letters, parcels, magazines, catalogs, and newspapers seem to
take 3-4 days processing time in the Dulles Pouch Facility. This
processing must be included in the actual transit time of mail that
is sent from a U.S. address to the Embassy pouch address.
Fax. Official and personal faxes are handled through a FAX line
machine located in the Embassy mailroom (USAID and CDC also have FAX
capabilities.) The Embassy FAX number is 263-4-796488. USAID's FAX
number is 263-4-252478, and CDC's number is 263-4-796032. Outgoing
personal faxes are charged to the individual employee and paid for
through the appropriate Budget and Fiscal Office.
Radio and TV Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:10 AM
Radio and TV in Zimbabwe are government owned. The state TV
system broadcasts for 24 hours on one channel that features a
variety of shows, the majority of which are Zimbabwean or African
Most personnel have opted for satellite TV and subscribe to the
South African entertainment channel DSTV which offers several movie
channels, ESPN, CNN, BBC, MTV, VH-1, Cartoon Network, cooking
stations, Discovery Channel, and more. Others have purchased Armed
Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS) decoders through the
online Army and Air Force Exchange Service (www.aafees.com). AFRTS
offers a variety of US Network News, Sports and Entertainment
The television system used in Zimbabwe is British PAL. A
television set purchased in the U.S. will not work in Zimbabwe,
except when used to play NTSC videotapes, or to hook up to a AFRTS
Radio Zimbabwe transmits four channels in Shona, Ndebele and
English from early morning to late evening. A "75 percent local
content" stipulation requires that 75% of the content played over
the air must be Zimbawean in origin. Shortwave reception for U.S.
Armed Forces Radio, VOA, and BBC is generally good with the aid of
an external antenna.
WorldSpace satellite radio is also available in Zimbabwe.
WorldSpace radio offers a variety of free and subscription news,
music and variety radio stations in digital quality via satellite.
The Embassy receives DSTV, which is shown in the Embassy
cafeteria. There are also numerous local video rental clubs around
Harare, although the quality of the videos is sometimes somewhat
less than that of U.S. videos. A multisystem or PAL system TV and
VCR are necessary to play local tapes. DVD's of varying quality are
also slowing being available for rental.
Newspapers, Magazines, and Technical Journals Last Updated:
3/17/2004 2:11 AM
There are two government-controlled daily newspapers; at least
three privately owned weekly newspapers, two government-controlled
and one independent Sunday paper in Harare, in addition to numerous
local magazines on a variety of subjects.
At the time of compiling this report, Zimbabwe's only independent
daily newspaper had been shut down by the police following a Supreme
Court declaration that the paper, and its sister Sunday edition, was
operating outside the law because they had not registered with the
state-appointed Media and Information Commission. However,
Associated Newspapers of Zimbabwe (ANZ) - publishers of the two
titles - are still pressing for registration through the courts.
A limited selection of international publications is available.
U.S. magazines found in bookstores include Newsweek and Time. Other
magazines are available, but expensive. Ordering them via pouch is
advisable. The Embassy has a few subscriptions to the International
Herald Tribune and circulates them among employees. Bookstores carry
a limited selection of popular British and American fiction and
nonfiction, and prices are high. Secondhand bookstores offer
reasonable prices. The selection of children's books is very
limited. Bring a supply of books-one can easily trade them around.
The Embassy cafeteria and USAID also offer a "put and take away"
Health and Medicine
Medical Facilities Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:11 AM
There are two adequate hospitals in Harare; only one has a
twenty-four hour emergency room and ICU. Most medical specialties
are represented, however increasingly specialists are relocating or
taking short term contracts out of the country. Laboratory and
diagnostic imaging are available but the foreign currency shortage
often causes delays. The blood supply is safe but increasingly
limited. Pharmacies also are facing increasing shortages due to the
limits of importation imposed by the foreign exchange issues.
Ambulance services and air evacuation are available in the major
cities. Medical evacuation is usually to South Africa.
Adequate private medical care outside Harare is sparse.
Government medical facilities are declining throughout the country.
A full time Foreign Service Health Practitioner and a locally
hired part time nurse staff the Embassy Health Unit. It provides all
the childhood and travelers' immunizations, treatment for acute
conditions, and preventive medical care. It has a very limited
pharmacy. The Regional Medical Officer is posted in Pretoria and
visits every 4-6 months. The Regional Psychiatrist is also posted in
Pretoria and visits every six months.
Health and Medicine
Community Health Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:12 AM
HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis and bilharzia (found in slow
moving fresh water and contracted with skin exposure) are at
epidemic levels. Cholera and malaria are seasonal problems.
The decline of the country has impacted the Public Health System,
with lack of resources and personnel increasingly problematic. What
was once a system of well-maintained water and sewage treatment, as
well as other sanitation controls such as meat and produce
standards, has suffered. That said, the standards in the low-density
urban suburbs continue to be maintained at this time.
Health and Medicine
Preventive Measures Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:12 AM
Malaria continues to be a problem in regions outside Harare.
Adjunctive measures-such as bug repellant and bed nets--for
prevention of malaria when staying overnight out of the capital are
strongly recommended. Mefloquine or Doxycyline are the prophylaxis
regimes of choice because of the high incidence of
Embassy houses are equipped with distillers for drinking water.
Bottled water is recommended in all other situations. Fresh food and
vegetables are usually safe but there are some risks as electricity
and, therefore, refrigeration can be unreliable. (Embassy houses are
equipped with generators.)
Most lakes and standing bodies of water are infested with
bilharzia. Swimming and wading in them is ill advised.
Please plan to bring at least a three month supply of any
prescription medications and all other over-the-counter needs.
Individuals with asthma or allergies may be adversely affected due
to the great variety of year-round pollens and the dry and wet
Employment for Spouses and Dependents Last Updated: 3/17/2004
Since July 1992, the Embassy has enjoyed a reciprocal bilateral
work agreement with Zimbabwe. Under this agreement, eligible family
members are allowed to work in areas in the local economy that do
not detract from jobs for Zimbabwean citizens. Several dependent
spouses have found work in the local economy for a private firm as
accountants and in computer-related jobs, however, in general,
opportunities are limited. Another spouse was able to contract for
work as a part-time lecturer at the University of Zimbabwe. Minimal
problems are encountered with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in
approving requests for local employment.
Depending on Post's budget, the Embassy can support a limited
number of PIT positions. Family members have been employed in the
Administrative/RSO/GSO Sections, as the Ambassador's Self-Help
coordinator, as the CLO, and in the Consular Section. When services
are required, other agencies have provided employment for eligible
family members. Each year the Mission has supported an effective
summer hire program for dependent children. Jobs range from voucher
clerks, warehouse, mailroom, and Self-Help assistants, and other
clerical assignments. These are dependent on budget considerations.
American Embassy - Harare
Post City Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:14 AM
Harare is a pleasant city, located in the north-central part of
Zimbabwe. It is the seat of government and the country's cultural,
transportation, and communications center. Harare was first
established by British settlers in the 1890s, and has a modern
downtown and numerous attractive residential neighborhoods. The
brilliant colors of flowering trees contrast sharply with the city's
modern architecture. Since independence, residential suburbs have
become more integrated, although a large percentage of the black
population still resides in a number of surrounding "high-density"
Harare has several major hotels of international standards, a
national art gallery/museum, nine movie theaters, a choice of good
restaurants, and a few nightclubs. Extensive parks, sports, and
recreational facilities, including thoroughbred racing, tennis,
golf, trail riding, hiking, horseback riding lessons, squash, and
swimming are available. Entertaining is often done in homes or at
private clubs. A car is essential, as residential areas are spread
out. Religious services are available for Catholic, Jewish,
Protestant, and other denominations. Hobby, art, theater, dance, and
musical groups are active.
Supermarkets and department stores provide shopping facilities
comparable to a small American city, although with a slightly more
limited selection of goods. Most necessities are locally produced
and usually available. A wide variety of products are now available
on the market. New diversified shopping centers have been built in
the northern suburbs, thereby decreasing the need for people
residing in those areas to shop in the city center.
Security Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:15 AM
While Harare is a clean and pleasant city, street crime is a
serious problem, particularly in tourist areas. Harare has
experienced a significant rise in the number of serious crimes
committed during the past year. Although the vast majority of these
crimes were non-violent, a troubling increase in the use of firearms
was noted. The downtown sector remains the most visible high-crime
area where thieves act with basic impunity and little fear of police
apprehension. Please avoid any large gatherings, demonstrations or
political rallies in both rural and urban areas. Occupied farms
should also be avoided at all times.
U.S. citizens residing in or traveling to Zimbabwe should be
aware of continuing conditions in the country that could affect
their safety. These conditions include the outbreak of sporadic
demonstrations driven by deteriorating economic conditions.
Demonstrations occur in both urban and rural areas. Clashes between
police and demonstrators have sometimes resulted in injuries to
demonstrators as well as to innocent bystanders. Political activity
in the country can also result in serious violence, and U.S.
citizens are urged to avoid political rallies and exercise caution
prior to and during elections.
Other ongoing conditions include the occupation of commercial
farms by the National War Veterans' Association and others, fuel
shortages, increased street crime and car-jackings. The war veterans
have also briefly occupied or otherwise disrupted operations at
numerous factories and businesses in Harare and other urban areas.
U.S.-owned businesses and farms have been affected by these
activities. The war veterans have not targeted resident U.S.
citizens for violence. However, it is very possible that U.S.
citizens or visitors could be caught up in unanticipated violence in
rural or urban areas. Such incidents occurred in November 2001 when
white passersby were targets of a random attack. American visitors
and residents should stay away from any occupied commercial farm and
avoid rural areas where war veterans are active. An American citizen
was assaulted by so-called war veterans on an occupied farm in May
2002. Travelers are also advised to re-confirm their lodging
immediately prior to departure for Zimbabwe, because numerous game
reserves and lodges around the country have closed due to the
presence of war veterans on or near their properties, or they have
Visitors to Nyanga should avoid Pungwe Falls, Mterazi Falls and
the Honde Falls. There have been numerous incidents of armed
robberies, thefts, assaults and attempted rapes reported at these
sites. Land mines along the Mozambique border, situated beyond the
main tourist areas, make travel to that border area potentially
The Post and Its Administration Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:17 AM
The Embassy officially opened in Harare on Zimbabwe's
Independence Day, April 18, 1980. The Chancery building is located
near the city center and houses Embassy offices and the Defense
Attaché Office (DAO).
172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue Harare
Telephone: 263-4-250593/4/5; 703169; 703378; and 703478 Fax:
The Public Affairs Section has its offices on one of Harare's
Century House East 38 Nelson Mandela Avenue P.O. Box 4010 Harare
Telephone: 263-4-758800/1 or 758798/9 Fax: 263-4-758802
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
offices are located a short distance away in a beautiful garden
1-3 Pascoe Avenue Belgravia.
Telephone: 263-4-252420; 250992; 250993; 251012; 251013; 251104;
252593; 702171 and 708484. Fax: 263-4-252478 and 252592.
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) offices are located on a
main street in downtown Harare.
ZimCDC AIDS Program Team Second Floor 38 Samora Machel Avenue
Telephone: 263-4-796040; 796044-8 Fax: 263-4-796032
The four offices (Embassy, Public Affairs, USAID and CDC) are
located within a few minutes driving time of each other.
Temporary Quarters Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:17 AM
The Post has no transient quarters for newly arrived personnel
for whom permanent housing is not yet available, however, most
employees move directly into their assigned house. Local hotels, in
particular, the Sheraton, and Meikles, have high standards. Some
newly arrived and temporary personnel may be required to stay in
them for a few days or weeks. Although room and meal rates vary, and
will no doubt increase, the Post makes every effort (and has so far
been successful) to match the per diem rates with local costs.
Permanent Housing Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:18 AM
The U.S. Government provides furnished housing for all
permanently assigned personnel in Harare in accordance with A-171
standards. If housing is available upon arrival, as is often the
case, personnel move directly into their quarters. If not, homes are
rented soon after an employee's arrival, and waiting time for
permanent quarters, in most cases, seldom exceeds a month.
Houses in Harare are, in general, spacious and modern, with an
accent on outdoor living (i.e., large yards and entertainment
areas), due to the lovely climate. Many houses have pools or tennis
courts. Personnel are normally assigned to single family houses. All
housing assignments are made by the Mission Housing Board.
The Ambassador's residence was purchased in 1980. It is a large,
recently-remodeled, modern house located in the Harare suburbs. It
has large indoor and outdoor entertaining areas on two levels, a
tennis court, swimming pool, four bedrooms, and three and one-half
bathrooms, plus a guest suite consisting of two bedrooms and one
full bathroom. Like most homes in Harare, the residence has domestic
The DCM's home was purchased in 1985. The house, situated on two
acres of land in the suburbs of Harare, is a single-story structure
with three bedrooms, three-and-one-half bathrooms, a large
entertaining area, spacious gardens, a pool, a guest suite, and a
Furnishings Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:18 AM
The U.S. Government furnishes employee housing with one set of
U.S.-made furniture, as well as one, or two sets of garden
furniture. The Embassy also provides a washer, dryer, refrigerator,
stove, microwave oven, freezer, vacuum cleaner, space heaters, water
distillers, and gardening equipment and tools. (Note: AID provides a
microwave oven for the Director only.) Carpets (where necessary) and
drapes are also provided. Two step-down transformers are provided
for each house. Bring personal decorating items, i.e., pictures,
occasional furniture, and decorative items, as none are furnished,
although the local arts and crafts markets offer many attractive
items. Also, bring sufficient warm clothes, blankets, and
comforters, as winter nights in Harare can be surprisingly cold.
Most agencies have installed split unit air-conditioners/heaters.
Adequate Welcome Kits are available for incoming personnel until
airfreight arrives. Kits include linens, an iron, and the bare
essentials for your kitchen. Employees wishing to entertain before
household goods arrive (up to three months) should send dishes and
other entertaining items in their airfreight.
Curtains can be locally made and installed. Flooring in Harare is
usually either stone or polished wood, so area rugs are often
preferable to wall-to-wall carpeting. The climate imposes no special
requirements on furnishings.
The Ambassador's residence, and the homes of the DCM, USAID and
CDC Director are furnished with representational china, glassware,
silver, linens, kitchen utensils and everyday dishes. They also have
a freezer, ice maker, and adequate kitchen appliances. (Note: USAID
does not provide everyday dishes or an icemaker.)
Utilities and Equipment Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:19 AM
In the past, both electricity and water were generally reliable
in Harare, but recently supply of both has become more unreliable.
All houses have generators. All electrical current is 220, 50
cycles. Adapter plugs (to the Zimbabwean three square prongs) can be
purchased locally. All appliances provided are electric, including
cooking ranges. Most appliances can be purchased locally, but prices
are considerably higher and quality often lower than comparable
equipment in the U.S.
Food Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:19 AM
Over the last couple of years Zimbabwe has seen tremendous
changes with regard to the quantity and quality of items stocked in
local stores. Prices and availability of foods vary tremendously,
based on exchange rate fluctuations, and current rolling shortages.
Items available in stores one week may vanish from the shelves the
next, and at times, prices change on a daily basis. A typical
shopping day can entail visits to 2-5 stores to complete a fairly
basic shopping list. Shopping in Zimbabwe is definitely an adventure
for the patient!
Several stores catering to the upper-class clientele have
recently opened, offering a much wider range of imported goods -
primarily from South Africa. These stores tend to be very expensive.
Local dairy products are available most of the time, though there
have been prolonged periods of time in recent years where milk and
cheeses have been very difficult to find. During these periods of
"shortages," the most successful shoppers network extensively with
their friends and shopkeepers, quickly pinpointing the location of a
scarce stash of milk, butter or cheese while it lasts. The best
cheese is imported from South Africa, and is very expensive. Cottage
cheese, cream cheese, yogurt, and sour and fresh cream taste a bit
different, but work well in recipes.
Many spices and basic gravy mixes and food colors are available
(not pure essences though), as are French and English mustards, and
Heinz ketchup. You can get pickles, though they don't taste like
their American counterparts; Greek olives, bottled salad dressings
are available (not as many varieties, and you cannot find Ranch).
Vegetable oil is available as is olive oil. Occasionally, you can
buy extra virgin olive oil, but if you use it a lot, bring it. Plain
rice is plentiful; most baking products are available locally
(baking powder, cream of tartar, baking soda, dry yeast, cooking
chocolate and cocoa), however, you may find that they do not always
taste exactly like U.S. brands. Most varieties of nuts are available
(some expensive), but pecans and macadamias are locally grown and
inexpensive. Local and imported cereals are available.
Tuna is available in brine and oil. Juices are available in boxes
in a variety of brands. Most are quite good, though quite expensive.
Mexican and Chinese products are very difficult to locate - plan on
bringing them with you or ordering via an online grocery store. Dry
pastas are plentiful. Canned tomatoes, puree, and paste are
available, but not tomato sauce. Canned kidney beans and other
canned vegetables are available as well.
Formula (mostly soy based) and some baby food are available. Jars
of baby food are generally not available, except at expensive import
stores. Zimbabwe makes and imports baby cereals-compared to the U.S.
there is not so much variety and the quality is not as good.
The availability and quality of meats is largely tied to the
viability of Zimbabwe's cattle and poultry farms, which have been in
a state of upheaval during the recent agricultural reform.
Government-enforced price controls have often priced these items
below what they cost to produce, causing widespread shortages. Good
meats are best found in specialty butcheries, rather than at grocery
stores. Fresh fish or seafood is generally impossible to find,
except for some local freshwater bass. However, frozen seafood from
South Africa is usually available.
Local wines and beer, and imported wines, beers and spirits are
available in Harare shops.
Several brands of local cigarettes are produced. Pipe and chewing
tobacco are not available.
There is no cat litter available in Zimbabwe, so owners should
bring a large supply. Pet food is available, but inferior.
As quality and availability of foods varies, please write to the
Embassy Administrative officer or Community Liaison Officer before
arrival at post for an up-to-date listing of hard-to-obtain items.
Clothing Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:19 AM
Fashionable, Western-style clothing is popular in Harare with
very little traditional African dress in evidence. Sweaters,
jackets, and light coats are needed in June, July, and August, when
the evening temperatures can drop below 40°F. Since homes are not
centrally heated, flannels and bathrobes are needed for the winter
months. Virtually all clothing products can be purchased locally,
but style, quality, and prices differ from those in the U.S.
Men Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:20 AM
Evening wear is similar to that worn in the U.S. Men wear a suit
or sport jacket. Senior officers occasionally need black dinner
jackets, but other officers rarely need formal wear. Suits and ties
are worn to the office, but one can be more casual depending on
his/her job requirements. Most white Zimbabwean men dress very
casually for social occasions, with shorts and rugged boots very
popular. Black Zimbabweans, for the most part, dress more
conservatively, preferring slacks and collared shirts.
Women Last Updated: 1/31/2000 6:00 PM
Women tend to dress less casually here than in other posts in
Africa. All officers need long or short dresses suitable for evening
wear, but there is latitude in what is considered suitable for
formal occasions. Panty hose are available, but quality varies;
bring a supply.
Include favorite mail-order catalogs in your shipment. These are
a good source of resupply.
Office Attire Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:21 AM
Office wear is normally shirt and tie for men and suits or
dresses for women. For military personnel, uniforms are worn on
occasions when visiting military installations, and at special
functions. One blue, one green, and one BDU uniform should be taken
Supplies and Services
Supplies Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:21 AM
Locally produced varieties of most household and personal
supplies can be bought in Harare, though quality is often inferior
to U.S.- or European-produced goods. U.S.-made items are not
available, so bring a two-year supply of any favorite brands, or
plan to purchase non-liquid items via online merchants. Hair care
products are expensive and some items are not available, but a
shampoo and dry is very reasonable, by US standards.
All appliances are expensive, so bring desired small 220V
household appliances. The Embassy provides three transformers per
household - additional transformers will need to be purchased online
or brought to post. Good quality surge protectors, voltage
stabilizers and uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) are
recommended, as Harare's electrical supply is often unreliable, and
prone to voltage spikes and undervolts.
The local supply of paper products is adequate, but the quality
is often not up to U.S. standards. Aluminum foil, wax paper, and
plastic wrap are available, but expensive. Bring
plastic/paper/Styrofoam cups, paper plates, and plastic utensils for
outside entertaining and picnics.
Some hostess gifts and party favors are available. Childrens'
toys are expensive and selection is very limited. Sewing supplies
and notions are available, but quality and supply vary. Knitting
yarns are available, but color selection and quality is limited.
Supplies and Services
Basic Services Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:22 AM
Most basic services are available at a reasonable price in
Harare. These include drycleaning, tailoring, hair and beauty
treatment, shoe repair, and most small appliance repairs. Repairs of
sophisticated stereo, tape recording, and videotape equipment,
however, are erratic.
Supplies and Services
Domestic Help Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:22 AM
Most U.S. Embassy personnel employ at least two
domestics-generally a gardener and a housekeeper. Well-trained cooks
are difficult to find, but they are available.
Wages for domestic help are relatively low. The average wage for
domestics (most of whom reside in staff quarters adjacent to the
house) is US$50 a month, plus "rations." Rations vary from home to
home. Many employers pay domestics cash in lieu of food supplies;
others provide meat, tea, bread, sugar, cornmeal, toilet paper, and
Employers are not required to pay social security or government
contributions of any kind for domestic employees, but must respect
minimum wages set by the Zimbabwean Government for domestic
employees. Many enroll their domestic employees in a local health
program. The Embassy reimburses a percentage of your gardener's
salary, depending on the size of your property. There is no stigma
attached to doing without domestics. All Embassy homes have guards
for 12 hours at night, provided under the Embassy security guard
Religious Activities Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:23 AM
With a large majority of the population claiming Christianity as
their religion, Harare's religious community encompasses virtually
all major Christian denominations. Services are in English and
Shona, as well as in other languages. There are also several Muslim
mosques in Harare. Local newspapers contain detail of church
At Post Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:24 AM In the past, some Embassy
children have attended local schools, which are based on the British
system and run from January through December. Due to long waiting
lists, placements in these schools are difficult to obtain.
Most Embassy children, attend Harare International School (HIS).
HIS is an American sponsored international school founded in 1992.
The school is fully accredited by both the European Council of
International Schools and the New England Association of Schools and
Colleges. The school year runs from mid-August through early-June
and has a minimum instructional period of 180 days divided into two
HIS currently offers prekindergarten through grade 12. Enrollment
for 2003/2004 was approximately 396 students, with 192 in Elementary
School, 75 in Middle School, and 129 in High School. Typically, the
student body represents over 50 nationalities, with 32% from Europe,
22% from North America, 34% from Africa, 10% from Asia and the
remainder from other areas of the world. In 2003, the graduating
class consisted of twenty seniors.
The curriculum is based on American and International programs of
education. The elementary school is current implementing the IB
Primary Years Program. The IB Diploma Program will be offered to
Grade 11 students starting in 2004-2005, followed by the
introduction of the second year of study to Grade 12 students in
The school consists of fourteen buildings on 21 acres of land in
Mount Pleasant, nine kilometers from downtown Harare. Embassy buses
are used to transport children to and from school (except for Friday
afternoons). The school day is from 7:30 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. Many
after-school activities are offered, including various bands, drama,
information technology, photography and digital editing and
magazine. The sports program consists of the following teams:
swimming, basketball, track and field, cross-country, tennis,
softball, volleyball, soccer and golf. Students participate in
sports conventions locally and with other international schools in
Southern and Eastern Africa.
The education allowance at Post covers the tuition fees for HIS.
More information about HIS is available via their Internet website
Special Needs Education Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:24 AM
Harare does not have adequate special educational facilities for
students with learning disabilities or mental and physical
handicaps. Employees requiring such facilities should consider other
Posts that have the special educational facilities to meet the needs
of the student.
Higher Education Opportunities Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:25 AM
Although the University of Zimbabwe (UZ) technically offers
university-level courses for family members and non-degree
enrollment for interested adults, the institution is currently
experiencing a severe decline in faculty enrollment and instability
due to strikes and demonstrations. UZ has closed and/or had its
faculty on strike three times in the past year. Zimbabwe Open
University (ZOU) and Africa Virtual University (AVU) offers distance
education for adults in a full range of academic subjects. There are
numerous opportunities, however, for private tutoring and casual
study of a wide range of subjects in Harare through private colleges
and institutions. Courses on offer, some which are offered on
evenings and weekends range from crafts and hobbies to exercise and
yoga to counseling skills and trades. Computer study is also widely
available ranging from short-term software courses such as the
International Computer Drivers' License to more intensive diploma
courses in website design, Microsoft engineering technician courses,
etc. Language study is of high quality and available as follows -
French at the Alliance Francais, German and Shona at the
Zimbabwe-German Friendship Society, Portuguese, French and ESL at
Speciss College and Ndebele and Shona at Ranche House College.
Recreation and Social Life
Sports Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:25 AM
Because of Harare's moderate climate, outdoor sports
opportunities abound. Local clubs play cricket, rugby, softball, and
soccer. Golf courses and tennis courts (and instruction in both) are
Horseback riding is another popular recreational opportunity in
Harare. Riding lessons are available at minimal cost, for beginners
as well as more advanced riders. For those who plan on riding often,
horses may be leased at local stables on a full or a half time basis
for very reasonable rates. Both children and adults are welcome to
join the local pony clubs or the Horse Society of Zimbabwe and
participate in a variety of horse shows that take place throughout
the year. There are some excellent horse safari trips outside of
Harare that can be enjoyed by novice riders as well as more
experienced ones. Serious riders might consider bringing their own
saddle and tack in their HHE shipment, although both new and used
equipment can be purchased locally.
Bring your own equipment, as local varieties are expensive and
frequently unavailable. Tennis balls are particularly expensive.
Recreation and Social Life
Touring and Outdoor Activities Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:27 AM
Zimbabwe has some of the most beautiful scenery in Africa. Lake
Chivero Game Park, a 30-minute drive from Harare, offers fair game
viewing in a relaxed atmosphere on a weekend afternoon. Also within
a 30-minute drive from the city are the Ewanrigg Botanical Gardens,
with 24 hectares of landscaped gardens, a large collection of
cactus, and many exotic trees; the Lion and Cheetah Park; a snake
park; and the Larvon Bird Gardens, in which there are 400 species of
local and exotic birds. Hills on the outskirts of Harare offer
excellent day hikes. The hilly roads of Harare's suburbs provide
challenging cycling opportunities for cyclists willing to contend
with potholes and dangerous drivers. Cycle races and triathlons take
place several times during the year. Harare's excellent climate
ensures that sunny days for outdoor activities practically all year
Bass fishing is available within an hour's drive from Harare, and
many of the creeks of the Eastern Highlands are stocked with trout.
Fishing licenses are very reasonable.
Several attractions within a 2-3-hour drive afford pleasant
weekends. The Eastern Highlands (Nyanga, Troutbeck, Vumba) offer
beautiful and serene surroundings and diverse recreational
opportunities. The choice of accommodation is wide, ranging from
self-contained cabins in the National Parks to a five-star hotel
complete with a casino in Nyanga.
Destinations within the country for long weekends or short
vacations are numerous. Great Zimbabwe, which has been described as
"one of Africa's greatest mysteries," is fascinating and a tour to
this area is a must for any visitor to the country. Hwange National
Game Park is Zimbabwe's largest game sanctuary, covering some 14,620
square kilometers (larger than Connecticut). Safari vehicles are
designed to offer maximum opportunity to photograph and view the
large variety of animals that abound there. Victoria Falls have been
described as one of the seven natural wonders of the world. They are
1,690 meters in width and their mean height is 92 meters; their
greatest recorded flow was 160 million gallons per minute; the
gorges were cut over millions of years by the waters of the Zambezi
A leisurely cruise on Lake Kariba is very relaxing. The lake is
the home of the tigerfish, the supreme challenge for any angler, and
a sundowner cruise, which takes place in the cool of the evening, is
a good way to unwind. Other destinations include Lake Kyle,
Chimanimani Mountains, Bumi Hills, and Spurwing and Fothergill
For the more adventurous, taking part in the annual game count at
the Mana Pools National Park in the north of Zimbabwe offers an
exhilarating opportunity to get up close and personal with many of
Africa's animal species - large and small.
An elaborate network of roads is well paved and there are
reasonable and attractive package tours available by air. One can
choose between a "full board rate" (all meals and transportation
paid) or a "bed and breakfast"rate, which allows the traveler to
choose how to spend leisure time.
Hunting and fishing trips are plentiful and fruitful in Zimbabwe,
though hunting licenses for big game are expensive. Facilities for
camping, hiking, and boating are good and readily accessible.
The Government of Zimbabwe requires that American Diplomats
register their intent to travel more than 40 Km outside of Harare.
However, no restrictions are imposed on travel in Zimbabwe, except
in some parts of the Matabeleland area (south), and the extreme
eastern border with Mozam-bique. In recent years, the
unpredictability of fuel supplies has made traveling outside of
Harare more problematic, with most prudent travelers taking an
adequate supply of fuel with them in portable "Jerry Cans".
Recreation and Social Life
Entertainment Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:27 AM
First-run films are shown at Harare's movie theaters. Films
arrive about nine months behind their U.S. release and can be
censored. The local theater group, REPS, performs regularly. The
annual Harare International Arts Festival is a weeklong festival
which provides interesting exhibits and attractions, including
international performers. Symphony, ballet, and choral societies
give occasional performances.
The Mission has a video club that currently has over 1,300 films,
and a growing collection of DVD's available for rent to members. All
tapes are VHS, NTSC, and are taped on extended play. There are
numerous video clubs in the Harare area, but the tapes are VHS,
British PAL system, and therefore, require a multisystem television
Recreation and Social Life
Among Americans Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:27 AM Social life among
the American community is generally casual, with most informal
entertaining done at home, or in restaurants, either around meals or
cocktails or during an afternoon "braai" (cookout).
The American Women's Club, an active society composed primarily
of private American citizens resident in Zimbabwe, sponsors dinners
and other social events.
Recreation and Social Life
International Contacts Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:28 AM Charitable
organizations are abundant in Harare, including the SPCA, hospital
aid societies and local orphanages. These organizations provide
excellent opportunities to meet Zimbabweans and other foreigners.
The diplomatic community in Harare entertains regularly at
functions ranging from casual to formal. A Diplomatic Spouses'
Association has more than 250 members drawn from the 68 missions
resident in Harare and several international organizations. They
sponsor monthly meetings with speakers, outings to charitable
fundraising and cultural events, welfare projects; and classes in
Shona, French, English, cooking, and bridge are held.
For families with school-age children, the Harare International
School provides an excellent venue to meet parents of all
nationalities. Local churches are another good way to meet
Nature of Functions Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:28 AM
Official functions within the U.S. Mission usually consist of
receptions at the Ambassador's or DCM's residence, or other senior
Dress tends to be a bit more formal than in the U.S.,
particularly for women, even when "casual" is specified on an
invitation. Evening wear for men is generally a suit or sport jacket
and tie. Dress for women is usually long dresses or fashionable
Standards of Social Conduct Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:28 AM
Business cards are widely used in Harare, though generally for
functional (vs. protocol) purposes. Formal calling cards can be
printed in Washington, but most officers have additional cards
printed locally with their address and telephone number for
Special Information Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:30 AM
Defense Attaché Office
General Information. The U.S. Defense Attaché Office (DAO) is
located in the American Embassy:
(Name) USDAO Department of State 2180 Harare Place Washington,
The DAO's office hours are the same as the Embassy. Their
telephone number is 263-4-250594, with extensions 212 (DATT), 207
(A/ARMA), 211 (OPSCO), and 308 (OPSNCO).
Drycleaning is adequate. Bring an ample supply of civilian
clothing. Specific questions regarding this should be addressed to
the USDAO. The DAO provides all basic furnishings and appliances
(except draperies, vacuum cleaners and other small appliances).
Tranformers are provided only for government-supplied equipment. An
inventory list is available from DIA.
Money: Startup costs are approximately US$500. Currency exchange
is accomplished only through the Embassy's banking agent. Travelers
checks are not recommended. All local transactions are conducted in
Miscellaneous: Calling cards and invitations can be ordered
locally, but coordinate with DAO prior to printing. Shipment of
household goods (HHG) is authorized to be shipped via air (See AR
55-71 and WWPPCIG.) Automobiles should be shipped (uncrated) to
Harare, Zimbabwe. Specific questions on shipment of HHG and
automobiles should be directed to DIA/DH-6-1C or USDAO, Harare,
prior to shipments.
Recreation: No U.S. Government recreation facilities are
available in Zimbabwe, though most houses have swimming pools and
many have tennis courts. Satellite television (AFRTS, CNN) is
available to all members of the DAO. Satellite TV from South Africa
is available and offers a wide selection of channels for
approximately $50 per month. The DAO office also has an assortment
of videos that are available for checkout.
Post Orientation Program
Harare has a sponsorship and post orientation program coordinated
by the Community Liaison Officer. Employees and families are met and
assisted at the airport upon arrival by their sponsor and then taken
to their temporary or permanent housing. The sponsor will assist new
arrivals and their families with shopping, dining, community
services, and social life. A formal orientation program is held
periodically to brief all new employees and their adult dependents
on the living and working conditions at post. The Embassy's FSI
Shona language materials are available to employees and dependents.
Notes For Travelers
Getting to the Post Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:31 AM
Most Americans assigned to Harare travel from Atlanta, GA or JFK,
New York, to Johannesburg, South Africa, and then on to Harare.
There is also a British Airways connection via London.
If you arrive between May and August, include in accompanying
baggage warm clothes for chilly evenings. Unaccompanied airfreight
from the U.S. can take 1-3 months. Employees should include adequate
dishes and linens in airfreight, as the post can provide these items
for only a short time after an employee's arrival
Household Effects and Car Shipment. In general, airfreight
arrives in Harare 4-12 weeks from the time it is packed in the U.S.
Surface shipments are routed by sea to Antwerp and then by air to
Harare, or direct to Harare via the port of Durban, South Africa.
Automobiles shipped from the U.S. come by sea to Durban, and are
railed or trucked to Harare. We do not recommend using rail from
Durban, up to Harare as severe fuel shortages within the Zimbabwe
which have affected the National Railing system. Wagons loaded with
vehicle's can take up to two months to reach Harare from Durban
whereas a road freight transporter takes within seven days to reach
Harare. Employees have the option of traveling to Durban to pick up
their own privately owned vehicles on a cost-constructive basis.
Cars usually take 3-4 months to arrive in Harare from the time they
are picked up in the U.S.
Vehicle shipments sent to Harare by Sea should be consigned to:
American Embassy Shipping Department 877 Pretorius Street
Arcadia, Pretoria South Africa
Tel: 00 27 12 431-4000 (see OPR/STP in the Department).
Pretoria then sends the goods or the vehicle on a truck and is
road freighted up to Harare.
As transit through South Africa can often take several weeks, the
Department has authorized the shipment of household goods
surface-air via ELSO Antwerp. Thus, goods shipped from the U.S.
should be packed for sea-air shipment. Cases of HHE and consumables
cannot exceed the following dimensions: length: 221cm(87 inches),
width: 145cm(57 inches) and height: 160cm(63 inches).
Customs, Duties, and Passage
Customs and Duties Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:31 AM
All diplomatically accredited personnel (those assigned
diplomatic titles by the Department) are entitled to duty-free
importation of all goods, including up to two vehicles, throughout
their entire tour of duty.
Support staff (secretaries and untitled staff) are entitled only
to "first arrival" privileges, meaning they may import any goods
they owned prior to their arrival in Zimbabwe for six months. This
means, for example, that a non-diplomatic employee wishing to
purchase a right-hand-drive vehicle in South Africa for use during
his or her tour must arrange for the purchase of the automobile in
South Africa personally, or by mail prior to arrival in Zimbabwe.
Support staff have up to six months from time of arrival at post to
import their goods. (Note: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has not
enforced this ownership provision in the past several years.)
Customs, Duties, and Passage
Passage Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:32 AM
Currency control restrictions are tight in Zimbabwe, and frequent
arrests are made of those dealing in the export of Zimbabwean or
foreign currency. Declare to customs officials the amount of cash in
all currencies you are carrying. No more than Z$100,000 may be
exported, $50,000 of which can be in cash, the remainder in bearer
checks. The current limit on export of foreign currency is US$1,000.
Address questions about importation or duty on any item to the
post administrative officer.
Customs, Duties, and Passage
Pets Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:33 AM
No quarantine period is required for cats and dogs in Zimbabwe.
An Import Permit and Veterinary Health Certificate must be completed
before the animal can travel to Post. The Health Certificate permit
is to be filled and stamped by the Veterinary in the Country from
which the animal will be sent.
Birds can be imported, but the paperwork process takes between 2-
3 months to complete.
The GSO Shipping Department will apply for import permits for all
animals and documentation will be couriered to the owner. Employees'
sponsors will pay for the permit and courier costs. Cost for the
permit is minimal.
If you are transiting South Africa with a pet, it can be very
problematic. Point of contact: GSO Shipping Department, AmEmbassy,
Pretoria Attn: Beverely Jooste will be able to assist with
procedures. If you are traveling to Post with a pet, it is easier to
travel through Europe.
Veterinary services are quite adequate. Dogs and cats are dipped
for fleas and ticks regularly during summer (October to April). A
rabies vaccination is required prior to arrival and it is advisable
to have a Parvo and Hepatitis shot as well.
Bring all grooming aids and anything special that your animal
requires, as well as any special foods or medicine. Pet foods are
available, but cat litter is not. There is a kennel club, a feline
club, and a bird club in Harare, and dog and cat shows are held
throughout the year.
Licenses are required for dogs. The Embassy GSO Customs and
Shipping personnel can provide guidance on how to apply for pet
Firearms and Ammunition Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:33 AM
The Zimbabwean Government allows all Embassy personnel to import
firearms and ammunition for personal recreational use. If you plan
to import such items in household effects, write in advance to
request permission from the Ambassador, and give details of the type
of weapon(s), serial number(s), amount of ammunition, and proposed
use. GOZ Customs has informed the Embassy they will no longer
retroactively clear firearms imported in airfreight or household
effects shipments. Therefore, a permit for each weapon must be
applied for after the employee's arrival. The process will not delay
the clearance of the UAB or HHE shipments as clearance of firearms
are done on separate customs forms. The Zimbabwean Firearm
Department has advised the Embassy that they are in a serious work
backlog dating back to 2000 for the issuance of permits and cannot
guarantee permits will be issued in a timely manner. The Zimbabwean
Firearm Department has confirmed that they intend to consult with
their management to implement a fastrack service on the issuance of
firearms permits within the near future. In the meantime,
applications are submitted, but there is no guarantee that permits
will be out by the time the employee departs from Post.
Currency, Banking, and Weights and Measures Last Updated:
3/17/2004 2:33 AM
The local currency is the Zimbabwe dollar (Z$). The rate of
exchange available at the Embassy closely follows the rate
established by foreign currency auctions held several times a week.
However, this rate is extremely volatile at this time.
Barclays, Standard Chartered, and Zimbank provide commercial
banking services. Zimbabwe uses metric measurements..
Taxes, Exchange, and Sale of Property Last Updated: 3/17/2004
Embassy employees are not exempt from paying sales tax in
Zimbabwe and tax is included in the price of all items, including
restaurant bills. The Embassy cashier offers accommodation exchange
but most embassy personnel open one or more local checking accounts
with Standard Chartered Bank. Representatives from Standard
Chartered are present at the Embassy two days per week. Zimbabwe has
stringent currency controls. Please see the section on Passage for
details on currency controls. It is not advisable to use credit
cards at this time in Zimbabwe because funds may be converted at the
official government exchange rate rather than the market rate.
Zimbabwean law restricts the sale of vehicles. U.S. Embassy
Harare follows Department of State rules regarding the sale and
retention of any profits from the sale of personal property.
Permission to sell an automobile should initially be obtained from
the Minister Counselor for Administration. Please see the section on
Customs and Duties for details on disposing of a vehicle.
Recommended Reading Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:34 AM
These titles are provided as a general indication of material
published on this country. The Department of State does not endorse
American University. Area Handbook for Zimbabwe. U.S. Government
Printing Office: Washington, D.C., 1983.
Banana, Canaan. Turmoil and Tenacity, Zimbabwe 1890-1990. College
Press: Harare, Zimbabwe, 1990.
Banana, Canaan. The Woman of My Imagination. Mambo Press:
Blair, David. Degrees in Violence, Robert Mugabe and the Struggle
for Power in Zimbabwe. Continuum Pub Group: 2003.
Blake, Robert. A History of Rhodesia. Methuen: London, 1977.
Caute, David. Under the Skin-The Death of White Rhodesia. Penguin
Books: London & New York, 1983.
Chinodya, Shimmer. Harvest of Thorns (novel). Baobab Press: 1989.
Chinula, Tione. Lonely Planet Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe, 4th Ed). Lonely
Clarke, D.G. Foreign Companies and International Investment in
Zimbabwe. Mambo Press: Zimbabwe, 1980.
Couzens, Tim, Editor. Zimbabwe-The Search for Common Ground Since
1890. Bailey's Nat Print: Harare, 1992.
Dangarembga, Tsitsi. Nervous Conditions (novel). Zimbabwe
Publishing House: Zimbabwe, 1990.
Darnoff, Staffan & Liisa Laaksu (Editors). Twenty Years of
Independence in Zimbabwe: From Liberation to Authoritarianism.
Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
Fuller, Alexandra. Don't Let's Go to the Dogs Tonight: An African
Childhood: Random House, 2001
Herbest, Jeffrey. State Politics in Zimbabwe. University of
California Press: 1990.
Lessing, Doris. African Laughter-Four Visits to Zimbabwe. Harper
Collins: New York, 1992.
Lessing, Doris. African Laughter-Four Visits to Zimbabwe. Harper
Collins: New York, 1992.
Martin, David and Johnson, Phyllis. The Struggle for Zimbabwe.
Zimbabwe Publishing House: Zimbabwe, 1981.
Martin, Meredith. Our Votes, Our Guns: Robert Mugabe and the
Tragedy of Zimbabwe. PublicAffairs, 2002
McRae, Barbara and Pinchuk, Tony. The Rough Guide to Zimbabwe.
Rough Guides/Penguin: 2000.
Moyo, Jonathan N. Voting for Democracy, Electoral Politics in
Zimbabwe. University of Zimbabwe Publications: Harare, Zimbabwe,
Mugabe, Robert. Our Struggle for Liberation. Mambo Press:
Mungoshi, Charles. Waiting for the Rain (novel). Zimbabwe
Publishing House: 1975.
Nkomo, Joshua. The Story of My Life. McMillan: London, 1984.
Norman, Andrew. Robert Mugabe and the Betrayal of Zimbabwe.
McFarland and Company, 2003.
Smith, David and Colin Simpson. Mugabe. Spehre Books: 1981
Spectrum Guide to Zimbabwe. Camerapix Publications International:
Todd, Judith. An Act of Treason-Rhodesia 1965. Songmaus: London,
Vambe, Lawrence. An Ill-Fated People-Zimbabwe Before and After
Rhodes. University of Pittsburgh Press: Pittsburgh, 1972.
Vambe, Lawrence. Rhodesia to Zimbabwe. William Heineman: London
Local Holidays Last Updated: 1/31/2000 6:00 PM
New Year’s Day January 1 Good Friday Friday before Easter Easter
Monday Monday after Easter Independence Day April 18 Workers’ Day
May 1 Africa Day May 25 Heroes’ Day August 11 Defense Forces Day
August 12 Unity Day December 22 Christmas Day December 25 Boxing Day