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Preface Last Updated: 3/17/2004 1:54 AM

The word "Zimbabwe" is derived from the Shona dzimba dza mabwe (house of stones). It has been written that one of the most striking features of Zimbabwe is the depth of its historical roots; that the past of Zimbabwe can be followed, through both traditions and documents, as a continuous story for five centuries.

With more than a passing resemblance to a magazine's "best of" issue cover, Zimbabwe is a beautiful country to visit, with hinterlands which are positively bursting with gorgeousness, both four-legged and furry, wild and winged, spiky and splashy.

Bantu-speaking farmers were the first occupants of the Great Zimbabwe site in the south of the country. As early as the 11th century, some foundations and stonework were in place, and the settlement, generally regarded as the nascent Shona society, became the trading capital of the wealthiest and most powerful society in southeastern Africa. In the 19th century, European gold seekers and ivory hunters were moving into Shona territory. The best known of these was Cecil John Rhodes who envisioned a corridor of British-style "civilization." Sanctioned by Queen Victoria, white settlers swarmed in, and, by 1911, there were some 24,000 settlers.

Ian Smith became Rhodesian President in 1964 and began pressing for independence. When he realized that Britain's conditions for cutting the tether would not be accepted by Rhodesia's whites, he made a Unilateral Declaration of Independence, which the UN declared illegal. Increasingly fierce guerilla warfare ensued and whites began to abandon their homes and farms. Smith agreed to call a general nonracial election and finally had to hand over leadership. In 1980, Zimbabwe joined the ranks of Africa's independent nations.

Zimbabwe's traditional arts include pottery, basketry, textiles, jewelry, and carving. Shona sculpture, a melding of African folklore with European artistic training, has been evolving over the past few decades.

Music has always been an important part of cultural life. Traditional musical instruments include the marimba, a richly-toned wooden xylophone, and the mbira, a device more commonly known as a thumb piano.

English is the official language of Zimbabwe, but it is a first language for only about 2% of the population. The rest of the people are native speakers of Bantu languages, the two most prominent of which are Shona and Sindebele.

The capital city of Harare offers good housing, glorious foliage and a wonderful climate. Schools are excellent and Harare has a small but active cultural scene.

The Host Country

Area, Geography, and Climate Last Updated: 3/17/2004 1:55 AM

Zimbabwe is a landlocked country between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers of south-central Africa. Elevations range from below 2,000 feet in the river basins to over 7,000 feet in the Eastern Highlands. Harare and most population centers are located on the highveld, a savanna-covered plateau, some 4,000-5,000 feet above sea level.

Zimbabwe covers 150,000 square miles, about the size of Montana. It is bounded by Zambia on the north, Mozambique on the east, Botswana on the west, and South Africa on the south. The landscape varies from flat and rolling ranges, to farmland and mountains, all marked by granite outcroppings. Points of geographical and scenic interest include the magnificent Victoria Falls and manmade Lake Kariba on the Zambezi River, the mountainous Eastern Highlands along the Mozambique border, and the historically important ruins of Great Zimbabwe, the capital of the ancient civilization of Zimbabwe, located near Masvingo, and several game parks.

The climate on the central plateau is moderate in all seasons with warm days and cool nights. Homes do not have central heating or air-conditioning, although room heaters and fireplaces are used on winter nights (May-August). Annual rainfall averages about 28 inches on the highveld (Harare), more in the Eastern Highlands, and much less in the lowveld of the southeast and the Zambezi Valley. The sun shines nearly every day, even at the height of the warm rainy season (November-April). In Harare, the average low temperature in winter is 45°F at night, though frost occasionally occurs. The average daily temperature in summer is 75°F, with temperatures seldom surpassing 90°F.

Population Last Updated: 3/17/2004 1:56 AM

Zimbabwe's population was reported as 11.6 million in the 2002 Census, and grew at an annual rate of 1.1% between 1992 and 2002. The population is 98% African. Of that group, some 82% belong to Shona-speaking tribes. The largest Shona subgroups are the Karanga, the Zezuru, and the Manyika. 14% of the black population is Ndebele-a tribe of Zulu origin inhabiting the southern and western part of Zimbabwe-or Kalanga, Deme, San, Shangaan, Swana, Tonga, and Venda. Whites, mainly of South African, British, and European ancestry, number about 70,000. Asians, of Indian ancestry, and Coloreds, people of mixed European-African origin, number about 30,000.

English is the official language. Shona and Sindebele are spoken in their respective areas. The literacy rate is estimated at 90%. A large majority of the population is formally or nominally Christian. Thousands of Zimbabweans have earned university degrees in their own country or in the U.S., U.K., or Europe, giving the country one of the most highly educated populations of any African state.

The Harare metropolitan area has a population of more than 1.9 million, including the municipality of Chitungwiza, which has an estimated population of 400,000. Other major cities are Bulawayo (965,000), Mutare (190,000) Gweru (155,000), and Kadoma (106,000). Most Zimbabweans live in communal lands, areas formally reserved for African settlement and covering nearly half the nation's territory. Some 40% of the population live in urban areas. Communal lands tend to be overcrowded and overgrazed, and inhabitants rely heavily on subsistence agriculture.

About 4,000 mostly white-owned commercial farms once occupied much of the nation's most productive land and produced half of Zimbabwe's staple food crop, white corn, and the main export crops: tobacco, cotton, sugar, tea, and coffee.

Due to imbalances and perceived colonial relics in land ownership patterns, the government embarked in 2000 on a sometimes violent "fast-track" land resettlement program purportedly designed to decongest indigenous communal lands and introduce more indigenous players into the commercial farming sector. In actuality, the program stripped white commercial farmers of almost all agricultural land in Zimbabwe, regardless of when or how they had actually purchased the land -- despite the fact that up to 80% of white-owned land had been purchased, often with the government's acquiescence, after Zimbabwe achieved its independence from Britain. According to official sources, the program -- declared in August 2002 to be "complete," despite successive waves of acquisition notices -- is now an ongoing process with only about 400 farms still controlled by whites. However, due to poor planning and widespread corruption, with political beneficiaries taking over many of the most productive farms, the exercise has resulted in few gains to Zimbabwe's true indigenous farmers and massive damage to both its food security and the formerly export-oriented, agricultural-based economy. The government of Zimbabwe must now attempt to balance its stated goal of indigenization with a necessary return to commercial farm productivity and food security, two goals which must be reconciled before the country can rebuild its formerly stable economy.

Public Institutions Last Updated: 3/17/2004 1:58 AM

The Republic of Zimbabwe became independent on April 18, 1980, after a guerrilla war against the white colonial government. Under the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI), the colonial government announced its independence from the U.K. in 1965 in an effort to avoid majority rule. The African majority fiercely resisted UDI, as it forestalled achievement of self-rule. The first incidents of armed opposition against Prime Minister Ian Smith's regime began in the late 1960s, and continued at a low level through the early 1970s. After the fall of the Portuguese administration in Mozambique in 1974, the outlawed Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), which had been in exile in distant Tanzania, shifted operations to Mozambique, while the rival Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) continued its guerrilla operations from Zambia, resulting in an increase in the general level of fighting.

In September 1979, all parties to the conflict agreed to participate in a conference held at Lancaster House in London. Ian Smith, Bishop Abel Muzorewa (who, with Smith, in early 1979 attempted to create a state under joint rule prior to the Lancaster House conference), ZANU leader Robert Mugabe, ZAPU leader Joshua Nkomo, and other factional leaders signed an agreement on December 21, 1979, in which the parties agreed on a constitution and a plan that provided for a brief return to British rule, general elections open to all parties, and ultimate independence. The agreement also stressed administrative continuity in the adoption of the prime ministerial system in preference to an executive presidency and in the disproportionate political influence reserved to the white minority. At the outset, ZANU and ZAPU opposed the compensation clause attached to land reform but reluctantly agreed to the clause after vague assurances had been given about a multinational fund to assist in land redistribution.

The February 1980 elections were monitored by international observers and considered to be free and fair. Mugabe's ZANU-Patriotic Front won 57 of the seats in the 100-member House of Assembly; Nkomo's Patriotic Front (PF)-ZAPU won 20; Bishop Muzorewa's United African National Council (UNAC) won 3; and Ian Smith's Rhodesian Front (RF) won all 20 seats reserved for whites. Robert Mugabe was selected to be the country's first Prime Minister.

Once in office, Mugabe pursued a policy of national reconciliation with the country's small but economically influential white community. He set up a government of national unity, which included PF-ZAPU and some whites. Spurred by international aid and pent-up demand after 15 years of U.N.-imposed sanctions, the economy and internal political situation were very healthy in the first year of independence. However, the euphoria of independence wore off as the Government came to grips with myriad problems involved in running a country. Serious political differences developed between ZANU-PF and PF-ZAPU as the result of strife between ex-combatants of the two former guerrilla armies and the discovery of illegal arms that were cached on PF-ZAPU properties. As a result, Mugabe fired Nkomo and several of his close aides from the cabinet in 1981. During 1982, dissidents from ZAPU's former guerrilla army perpetrated numerous indiscriminate acts of violence for which the Government held ZAPU largely responsible. The following year, the Fifth Brigade-a North Korean trained military unit-was accused of committing gross human rights abuses and killing thousands of civilians in Matabeleland. After a brutal massacre in the Ndebele-populated provinces of Matabeleland in November 1987, ZANU-PF and PF-ZAPU agreed to unite; the parliamentary seats reserved for whites were abolished, and Prime Minister Mugabe became executive president, initially for a three-year term. However, ethnic tension and the failure to redress the human rights issues remain an underlying points of stress in the so-called Unity Accords.

ZANU-PF's dominance of Zimbabwe politics was confirmed again in 1990, when Mugabe was elected to a full six-year term as President and led his party to victory in that year's Parliamentary elections. The new 150-member unicameral Parliament, consisted of 120 elected seats, 10 chiefs elected by their peers, eight provincial governors, an attorney general, and 12 non-constituency MPs appointed by Mugabe, and a speaker of Parliament elected by parliament. Mugabe was re-elected to the presidency in 1996.

In 1999, leaders of the country's powerful labor union confederation, the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU), formed the country's first major opposition party, the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC). Capitalizing on a sluggish economy and growing dissatisfaction with the Government, the MDC quickly became the first serious challenge to the ruling ZANU-PF. In February 2000, the voters defeated the Government's proposed new constitution in the first electoral setback for the Government since independence. Selected veterans groups from Zimbabwe's liberation struggle and other ZANU-PF supporters embarked on a campaign of political violence designed to intimidate supporters of the opposition. At least 31 people were killed and thousands were left homeless. Despite the intimidation campaign, the MDC won 57 of 120 contested seats in Parliament in the June 2000 elections, denying ZANU-PF the two-thirds majority necessary to amend the constitution and subjecting the Government to parliamentary scrutiny to which it was unaccustomed.

In the aftermath of that campaign, the MDC gained strength, benefiting from continued economic decline and intensified intimidation of the population by war veterans and ZANU-PF supporters. Since June 2000, the Government has orchestrated a campaign of intimidation against the judiciary, the independent media, and the MDC leadership. It forced the Chief Justice into early retirement and replaced him with someone widely considered sympathetic to the ruling party's political agenda. It has conducted an intensive rhetorical campaign against the independent press, shut down the only daily independent newspaper, and threatened and arrested individual journalists, charging them under repressive legislation passed in early 2002. The GOZ also has raided the MDC's offices, detained for questioning most of the party's top leadership, and filed charges of treason against MDC President Morgan Tsvangirai, Secretary-General Welshman Ncube, and Shadow Minister for Agriculture Renson Gasela, although the charges against Ncube and Gasela were subsequently dropped. In addition, MDC Members of Parliament have been regularly targeted for physical abuse.

The March 2002 presidential election was preceded by months of intensive violence and intimidation against MDC supporters, and more than 50 people, mostly opposition supporters, were killed. President Mugabe was declared the winner over challenger Morgan Tsvangirai by a 56-to-42 percent margin. Most international observers condemned the election as seriously flawed--the pre-election environment was neither free nor fair, and the election itself was marred by significant fraud and rigging--but regional opinions were mixed. Soon after the election, the MDC filed a petition challenging Mugabe's victory, citing flaws in electoral laws, electoral irregularities and pre-election violence. As of the end of 2003, the case had not yet been decided.

As a result of this election, the United States, the EU, and other European countries imposed travel restrictions against senior Zimbabwean officials and embargoed the sale of arms to Zimbabwe. The U.S. and the EU also froze the financial assets of selected ruling party officials. The Commonwealth suspended Zimbabwe from council meetings for one year after its election observer team found the election neither free nor fair. At the mid-term suspension review in March 2003, the three-country committee, charged with deciding Zimbabwe's fate, decided to continue the suspension until the next Commonwealth meeting in December 2003. At this meeting, despite vigorous campaigning by South Africa, Zimbabwe was not invited to attend the meeting and the Commonwealth decided to continue with the suspension. Immediately after this, Mugabe withdrew Zimbabwe from the Commonwealth.

In the year and a half since the presidential election, the political climate has grown more tense and political intolerance more pervasive. President Robert Mugabe fired his Finance Minister in August 2002 rather than heed his advice to devalue the currency. In his stead, Mugabe appointed Herbert Murerwa, who served in that capacity from 1996 to 2000 and was less likely to go against party hardliners. Another example of the increased political intolerance was the escalation of violence that preceded rural council elections in September 2002 and various Parliamentary by-elections. The March 2003 by-elections in Kuwadzana and Highfield, predominantly MDC areas, were also marred by widespread intimidation and beatings. The Government also passed legislation that curtails free speech, free press, and rights of assembly.

Public Private Institutions

Zimbabwe is replete with civic and charitable organizations including the Red Cross, the Jairos Jiri Association and St. Giles Association (for the physically handicapped), the St. John's Ambulance Corps, Rotary, Island Hospice, Masons, Samaritans, and numerous missionary organizations that welcome volunteer assistance.

The country enjoys a number of relatively strong nongovernmental organizations, including civil society organizations, human rights groups, and welfare organizations. Examples of civil society organizations that focus on good governance, accountability, and human rights include: ZimRights, Transparency International, Amani Trust, Legal Resources Foundation, Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace, Women's Action Group, Zimbabwe Women Lawyers' Association, Women in Politics Support Unit, Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights, Zimbabwe Human Rights NGO Forum, and the National Constitutional Assembly.

Zimbabwe's Foreign Relations

With the United States:

The U.S., which played a behind-the-scenes role during the Lancaster House Conference, extended official diplomatic recognition to the new government immediately after independence, and a resident Embassy was established in Harare on Zimbabwe's Independence Day, April 18, 1980. The first U.S. Ambassador arrived and presented his credentials in June 1980. Until the arrival in 1983 of a resident Ambassador in Washington, Zimbabwe's relations with the U.S. were handled by its Ambassador to the United Nations (U.N.) in New York.

At the Zimbabwe Conference on Reconstruction and Development (ZIMCORD) held in Harare in 1981, the U.S. Government pledged US$225 million over three years as the U.S. contribution to Zimbabwe's development needs. This goal was more than met; from independence to September 2003, the U.S. provided more than $900 million in economic and development assistance to Zimbabwe. Most of this assistance was in the form of direct grants and was used to help rebuild schools and clinics, train agricultural experts, build low-cost housing, and get the national economy back on its feet.

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance to Zimbabwe since the 1990s has focused on agriculture/food security, education, family planning, HIV/AIDS prevention, private sector development, low-income housing, micro-enterprise funding and democracy and governance programs, and emergency food aid. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began its direct assistance program in August 2000. CDC's program consists of prevention of HIV transmission; improved care of persons with HIV/AIDS; surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation of the epidemic; and health sector infrastructure support.

Bilateral relations have deteriorated since 2000, when political violence began to escalate and the rule of law started to break down. Prior to this, relations had been generally good. A series of undiplomatic statements by the Zimbabwe Government led to a suspension of most U.S. aid in 1986, but aid resumed in 1988. The collapse of the Communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union led Zimbabwean leaders to reexamine their worldview, and Zimbabwe and the U.S. cooperated very closely during the former's latest tenure on the U.N. Security Council, 1991-92.

President Mugabe visited Washington informally in September 1980, and on official working visits in September 1983, July 1991, and in 1995, meeting with Presidents Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton respectively. He has also led the Zimbabwean delegation to the U.N. on several occasions, including most recently in 2003. Vice President George Bush visited Harare in November 1982 on a trip to several African countries.

Diplomatic relations with the West again soured in 1997 when President Mugabe announced plans to seize white-owned farms without providing compensation. An agreement was reached between the Government and donors in 1998, whereby donors would provide funding to much-needed land reform. The process broke down in 2000 and many Western donors withdrew their aid as an often violent campaign to seize white-owned farms was undertaken without regard to applicable law or due process considerations. Since then, the Government has implemented an extensive land reorganization campaign ostensibly to give the land to indigenous people. However, much of the land was distributed to ruling party elites and supporters, and far less to the needy than had been promised by end of 2003. One of the consequences of the poorly planned land process has been the destruction of the agricultural sector, rendering Zimbabwe-once the breadbasket of the region-a major food aid recipient with half of its population receiving assistance in 2003.

With Other Countries:

Historically, Zimbabwe's closest links have been with the U.K.; however, in the past three years, this relationship has been very strained. The Government has demonized Britain in the press, blaming the country for Zimbabwe's problems, and claiming that Britain reneged on promises made at Lancaster House to provide money for land reform. As with the U.S., thousands of Zimbabweans studied in the U.K., and private links remain close; however, official relations are strained.

Other West European countries have ties with Zimbabwe. The Scandinavian countries share certain philosophical affinities and have provided much assistance, as have France, Canada, and the Federal Republic of Germany. Portugal and Greece maintain links partly because of the sizable Portuguese and Greek communities in the country. Similar historical ties have led to the establishment of relations with India and Pakistan, and to a lesser extent, with Bangladesh. The Government's "look east" policy has led to closer diplomatic relations with East Asian countries such as Malaysia and China.

Zimbabwe maintains diplomatic relations with virtually every African country, although some ties are closer than others. African nations with embassies in Harare are Algeria, Angola, Botswana, DRC, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, the Sudan, Tanzania, and Zambia.

Ruled continuously by a liberation party, Zimbabwe developed and maintains close ties with a number of revolutionary states and organizations. Among these are the People's Republic of China, Cuba, the People's Democratic Republic of Korea, Iran, Libya, and the Palestinian Liberation Organization.

Shortly after attaining independence, Zimbabwe was welcomed into the world community of nations and was granted membership in many international organizations. Chief among these is the United Nations, which Zimbabwe joined just before the General Assembly convened in September 1980. In honor of its newest state, Africa chose Zimbabwe to hold one of its seats in the Security Council, which it did for the biennium 1983-84 and again in 1991-92. Zimbabwe participates in many bodies within the U.N. system. It is also a member of the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the G-20 within the WTO, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, although the IMF commenced measures in 2003 to expel Zimbabwe over its arrears.

Arts, Science, and Education Last Updated: 3/17/2004 1:59 AM

Zimbabwe's cultural life is diverse, with ample opportunities for foreigners to study, appreciate, and participate in both Western and African traditions.

The National Gallery of Zimbabwe offers a small collection of European art and a collection and workshop for African sculpture, mostly impressionistic soapstone works. Zimbabwe is known worldwide for its unique and well-developed stone sculpture tradition. Private collections, such as the Chapungu Sculpture Garden on the outskirts of Harare, and artists' cooperatives such as the famous Tengenenge Village, several hours north of Harare, boast beautiful collections of large and small pieces and are equipped to display and ship sculpture internationally. The Queen Victoria Museum in Harare, located next to the College of Music, holds ethnographic, geological, and natural history displays. The neighboring National Archives also has excellent permanent displays. The National Museum of Bulawayo is known for its displays of Zimbabwe's wildlife and natural and human history. Harare, Mutare and Bulawayo have several small private art galleries which show interesting local art and fine craft work.

Amateur theater groups welcome new participants. Professional or semi-professional theatrical performances are continually available. There are several choral groups and a few small orchestral ensembles. Several cinemas offer films (mostly American and British) a few months after their first run in the U.S. Video shops rent tapes of feature films, and there are occasional dance performances-Zimbabwean, modern, and classical-by local groups. Performances by Zimbabwean popular musicians are numerous and inexpensive.

Performances by non-Zimbabwean artists and groups-whether of music, dance, or drama-are relatively rare.

There are scientific, cultural, hobby-related, and artistic societies, with frequent meetings open to spectators and prospective members.

Several subscription libraries in Harare offer a fair selection of reading material. A decent selection of new books is available in local bookstores.

The University of Zimbabwe is an important force in the community, and its courses, lectures, and library are open to foreign students. Universal primary education remains one of the state's goals. The government currently estimates that there are more than 2.5 million children in school in Zimbabwe, up from about 800,000 at independence. Educational opportunities greatly increased, during most of the country's history, but have suffered significantly as a result of economic difficulties in recent years.

Commerce and Industry Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:00 AM

At independence, Zimbabwe inherited one of the strongest and most complete industrial infrastructures in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as rich mineral resources and a strong agricultural base. Since the mid-1990s, this infrastructure has been deteriorating rapidly, but remains better than that of most African countries. Electricity and phone service are erratic.

Zimbabwe's economy has been in recession since 1997. The present rate of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) decline is about 14 percent annualized, probably the highest in the world at present for countries not at war. Though difficult to measure, GDP has dropped from about US$5.5 to 3.5 billion. Per capita GDP is about US$290. The zimdollar has devalued continuously since 1998.

Zimbabwe's once-enviable agricultural sector has become less productive. Tobacco exports in 2003 were down about two-thirds from 2000. Many Zimbabweans depend on international food assistance, even in non-drought years. However, a variety of produce, often from South Africa, is still available in upscale neighborhoods, where some items - such as cooking oil and sugar - still remain in short supply at times. Corn, called maize in Zimbabwe, is the staple crop. Export crops include tobacco, cotton, sugar, horticultural products, coffee, and tea.

The largest industries are iron, steel, metal products, food processing, chemicals, textiles, clothing, furniture and plastic goods. Tourism is potentially very important as a foreign currency earner for the country, but the erratic political situation has discouraged visits. The U.S. has a travel warning in effect. Most manufacturers have scaled back operations. Zimbabwe is not a member of the African Growth and Opportunity Act and a number of textile businesses have migrated to other African countries. Zimbabwean producers still export lumber products, certain textiles, chrome alloys and windscreens to the U.S.

Zimbabwe is endowed with rich mineral resources. Exports of gold, asbestos, chrome, coal, platinum, nickel, and copper could lead an economic recovery one day. No commercial deposits of petroleum have been discovered, although the country is richly endowed with coal-bed methane gas that has yet to be exploited.

The giant Kariba Hydroelectric Dam on the Zambezi River, supplemented by several thermal generators and a coal-fired thermal plant at Hwange, supply the country's electric power. However, coal production at Wankie Colliery has fallen precipitously. Without petroleum of its own, the country depends on imports of gasoline and diesel for all transport needs.

Zimbabwe's inflation rate at year-end 2003 was more than 500%. Government has frequently intervened in the economy in recent years, by redistributing farmland, controlling prices and establishing an unsupported official exchange rate. In all, it has made for an increasingly challenging operating environment for most businesses.


Automobiles Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:06 AM

Traffic moves on the left, British fashion, but although U.S. standard left-hand-drive cars can be used, they are not recommended for safety reasons.

A personal car is necessary, and incoming employees should plan to ship or purchase one locally. It could take up to three months for official personnel to receive a car from the time it is shipped from the U.S. However, used cars purchased from departing diplomats are generally of good quality and reasonably priced. New and used cars can be purchased in South Africa at prices similar to those in the U.S.; delivery in Harare can be arranged by road or by personal pick-up in South Africa. Many personnel find air-conditioning a welcome and almost necessary convenience.

For accredited Diplomatic personal they may import up to two cars duty free per married family during their entire tour. Supporting staff may import only one vehicle within their six months duty free status.

Cars imported duty free may be re-exported, sold to a diplomat with similar privileges, or sold on the local market. Vehicles imported under diplomatic rebate will attract duty for a period of four years. The intended buyer purchasing a vehicle from a Diplomat who chooses to dispose of their motor vehicle before the expiry date of four years will be liable to pay residual duty. The Zimbabwe Customs Authority will calculate the remaining months or years left on the four-year period from date of importation. A Diplomat should have used the vehicle for at least 18 months before he/she can apply to sell it except in cases of unscheduled recall/re-assignment/death.

A Zimbabwean driver's license or international driver's license is required in order to drive in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwean driver's license applications are part of the HR check-in process.

Local auto insurance is required. All customary forms of automobile insurance are available. All American employees must purchase at least "third-party extended" insurance, which covers damage to other vehicles and injury to parties not in the insured car. The cost is minimal. Comprehensive and collision insurance is highly recommended and many personnel use a U.S. company for this.

Parts are generally, but not always, available for domestically assembled vehicles. Delivery of parts from South Africa for other makes can take several weeks. Bring spare parts to post if you ship a car or purchase them with a new car. Fuel shortages have become endemic since January 2000, with supplies sporadic and unpredictable. Gasoline, when available, at current exchange rates, costs about US $1.70/gallon. This results in limited vehicular mobility. The Embassy Warehouse supplies unleaded fuel, diesel and blend (leaded fuel) at market prices.


Local Transportation Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:07 AM

The ongoing fuel crisis has made most forms of public transport scarce and unreliable. Taxis can be hired on call in town if fuel is available, but are not up to U.S. standards. The dependability of bus service - both within Harare and between towns - also depends largely on the current availability of petrol. When buses are available, they are very crowded and service rarely keeps to schedule.

A very good network of paved roads stretches across the countryside. Personal automobiles remain the most reliable form of transportation between cities, but the frequent lack of fuel at many gas stations can make long distance traveling problematic. Most Embassy travelers fill up at the Embassy warehouse before leaving the city, and carry adequate fuel for the round trip in portable "jerrycans". Buses and passenger service between the larger towns is becoming less and less reliable. Air Zimbabwe runs flights linking Harare, Bulawayo, Kariba, Victoria Falls, and other towns. An express bus service operates between Harare, Bulawayo, and Mutare.


Regional Transportation Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:07 AM

International flights connect Zimbabwe with London, Cairo, Nairobi, Addis Ababa and Johannesburg. Most international carriers, however, have pulled their direct flights to and from Harare. The remaining direct international routes out of Zimbabwe to and from Europe (via London) are generally overbooked and can be extremely difficult to reserve during the school holidays-December-January, April-May, and August-September. The most common international routing is via Johannesburg, South Africa.

In addition to Air Zimbabwe, the national airline, Harare is also served by British Airways, South African Airways, Kenya Airways, Ethiopian Airways, Egypt Air, Ghana Airways, and Air Tanzania. There are also flights via regional African airlines.


Telephones and Telecommunications Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:08 AM

Zimbabwe's telephone system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance. Phone outages are numerous, especially during the rainy season, when leaks in antiquated phone switch boxes cause electrical shorts. The copper and colorful plastic coatings of telephone cables also make tempting targets for thieves, who resell the copper and use the plastic to weave colorful baskets for resale. The current fuel shortage and economic crisis compound maintenance problems, with technicians unable to drive to problem sites, or unable to source spares.

Calls made from a home phone that are not operator-assisted are charged by the unit. This includes local and long distance direct-dial calls, and unless a call is booked through an operator, which is more expensive, the individual charges are not listed on the phone bill. Direct dialing out of Zimbabwe is sometimes easier than reaching a local number. It is cheaper to call from the U.S. to Zimbabwe than vice-versa. International and local phone rates fluctuate wildly in the current hyperinflationary environment, but are generally cheaper than US international rates. Current phone rates are available on Harare's Intranet website:

Personal calls can be made using the Embassy's three IVG lines to dial US toll-free numbers, or with the use of a US calling card.


Telephones and Telecommunications

Wireless Service Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:08 AM Several mobile phone companies have recently entered the market, but quality of service is very poor, caused mainly by a vast overselling of cellular network capacity. International roaming features have been blocked by most international cellular networks due to non-payment of bills by Zimbabwean cellular companies.


Internet Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:09 AM

Several local companies offer dialup Internet services. Monthly costs for unlimited Internet use range from $4 / Month on the low end to $20 / Month on the high end. All ISPs are required by law to use the government-owned telecommunications company for all outgoing bandwidth. This bandwidth has been oversold many times past capacity. The rapidly degrading landline phone network also contributes to connection problems. As a result, Internet access during most times of the day or evening is very slow and requires a tremendous amount of patience.

Broadband in the form of leased lines is available at a significant cost. However, this only guarantees you fast connectivity to Zimbabwean-based Internet sites. Access to sites outside of Zimbabwe is constrained by the same international gateway bottleneck as experienced via dial-up connections.

The Embassy's access to the Internet through OpenNet Plus is reliable and quick. Spouses can obtain OpenNet Plus accounts, and use these accounts for Internet browsing on a shared access terminal at the Embassy during working hours.


Mail and Pouch Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:10 AM

International airmail between Zimbabwe and the U.S. takes 5-21 days; sea mail sometimes takes several months. Do not have packages sent to you through the local mail service. Support staff members are subject to duty charges that begin at 30% and are subject to additional charges. Accredited diplomats do not pay duty, but contend with delayed clearance formalities. The address for personal mail sent directly to the Embassy is:

(Name) American Embassy P.O. Box 3340 Harare, Zimbabwe

State Department pouches come door to door from the facility at Dulles Airport within 7-10 days. Authorized personnel may receive parcels, magazines, and newspapers, and may mail letters back to the U.S. Post also has a Homeward-Bound Program to enable personnel to send packages through the pouch to the U.S. at a cost of US$3 per pound, plus the standard U.S. postage. The post sends pouches out once weekly to the U.S., and this service has a transit time of 4-6 days. The address for personal mail via diplomatic pouch is:

(Name) 2180 Harare Place Dulles, VA 20189-2180

The address for official mail is:

(Name) Department of State (*) 2180 Harare Place Washington, D.C. 20521-2180

*Each service agency should use its own name for this line. For example: USAID; USDAO; and CDC.

Mail sent to the official pouch mail address is subject to irradiation. The high temperatures used in the process often damage plastic material (credit cards, etc). Mail sent via the Dulles address is not subject to the process.

Bring a large supply of U.S. stamps for pouched mail. Stamps may also be purchased directly from the Postmaster General in Washington, D.C., and from Post's American Employee's Welfare and Recreation Association (AEWRA) manager.

Letters, parcels, magazines, catalogs, and newspapers seem to take 3-4 days processing time in the Dulles Pouch Facility. This processing must be included in the actual transit time of mail that is sent from a U.S. address to the Embassy pouch address.

Fax. Official and personal faxes are handled through a FAX line machine located in the Embassy mailroom (USAID and CDC also have FAX capabilities.) The Embassy FAX number is 263-4-796488. USAID's FAX number is 263-4-252478, and CDC's number is 263-4-796032. Outgoing personal faxes are charged to the individual employee and paid for through the appropriate Budget and Fiscal Office.


Radio and TV Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:10 AM

Radio and TV in Zimbabwe are government owned. The state TV system broadcasts for 24 hours on one channel that features a variety of shows, the majority of which are Zimbabwean or African programming.

Most personnel have opted for satellite TV and subscribe to the South African entertainment channel DSTV which offers several movie channels, ESPN, CNN, BBC, MTV, VH-1, Cartoon Network, cooking stations, Discovery Channel, and more. Others have purchased Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS) decoders through the online Army and Air Force Exchange Service ( AFRTS offers a variety of US Network News, Sports and Entertainment programming.

The television system used in Zimbabwe is British PAL. A television set purchased in the U.S. will not work in Zimbabwe, except when used to play NTSC videotapes, or to hook up to a AFRTS satellite decoder.

Radio Zimbabwe transmits four channels in Shona, Ndebele and English from early morning to late evening. A "75 percent local content" stipulation requires that 75% of the content played over the air must be Zimbawean in origin. Shortwave reception for U.S. Armed Forces Radio, VOA, and BBC is generally good with the aid of an external antenna.

WorldSpace satellite radio is also available in Zimbabwe. WorldSpace radio offers a variety of free and subscription news, music and variety radio stations in digital quality via satellite.

The Embassy receives DSTV, which is shown in the Embassy cafeteria. There are also numerous local video rental clubs around Harare, although the quality of the videos is sometimes somewhat less than that of U.S. videos. A multisystem or PAL system TV and VCR are necessary to play local tapes. DVD's of varying quality are also slowing being available for rental.


Newspapers, Magazines, and Technical Journals Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:11 AM

There are two government-controlled daily newspapers; at least three privately owned weekly newspapers, two government-controlled and one independent Sunday paper in Harare, in addition to numerous local magazines on a variety of subjects.

At the time of compiling this report, Zimbabwe's only independent daily newspaper had been shut down by the police following a Supreme Court declaration that the paper, and its sister Sunday edition, was operating outside the law because they had not registered with the state-appointed Media and Information Commission. However, Associated Newspapers of Zimbabwe (ANZ) - publishers of the two titles - are still pressing for registration through the courts.

A limited selection of international publications is available. U.S. magazines found in bookstores include Newsweek and Time. Other magazines are available, but expensive. Ordering them via pouch is advisable. The Embassy has a few subscriptions to the International Herald Tribune and circulates them among employees. Bookstores carry a limited selection of popular British and American fiction and nonfiction, and prices are high. Secondhand bookstores offer reasonable prices. The selection of children's books is very limited. Bring a supply of books-one can easily trade them around. The Embassy cafeteria and USAID also offer a "put and take away" library.

Health and Medicine

Medical Facilities Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:11 AM

There are two adequate hospitals in Harare; only one has a twenty-four hour emergency room and ICU. Most medical specialties are represented, however increasingly specialists are relocating or taking short term contracts out of the country. Laboratory and diagnostic imaging are available but the foreign currency shortage often causes delays. The blood supply is safe but increasingly limited. Pharmacies also are facing increasing shortages due to the limits of importation imposed by the foreign exchange issues. Ambulance services and air evacuation are available in the major cities. Medical evacuation is usually to South Africa.

Adequate private medical care outside Harare is sparse. Government medical facilities are declining throughout the country.

A full time Foreign Service Health Practitioner and a locally hired part time nurse staff the Embassy Health Unit. It provides all the childhood and travelers' immunizations, treatment for acute conditions, and preventive medical care. It has a very limited pharmacy. The Regional Medical Officer is posted in Pretoria and visits every 4-6 months. The Regional Psychiatrist is also posted in Pretoria and visits every six months.

Health and Medicine

Community Health Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:12 AM

HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis and bilharzia (found in slow moving fresh water and contracted with skin exposure) are at epidemic levels. Cholera and malaria are seasonal problems.

The decline of the country has impacted the Public Health System, with lack of resources and personnel increasingly problematic. What was once a system of well-maintained water and sewage treatment, as well as other sanitation controls such as meat and produce standards, has suffered. That said, the standards in the low-density urban suburbs continue to be maintained at this time.

Health and Medicine

Preventive Measures Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:12 AM

Malaria continues to be a problem in regions outside Harare. Adjunctive measures-such as bug repellant and bed nets--for prevention of malaria when staying overnight out of the capital are strongly recommended. Mefloquine or Doxycyline are the prophylaxis regimes of choice because of the high incidence of chloroquine-resistant malaria.

Embassy houses are equipped with distillers for drinking water. Bottled water is recommended in all other situations. Fresh food and vegetables are usually safe but there are some risks as electricity and, therefore, refrigeration can be unreliable. (Embassy houses are equipped with generators.)

Most lakes and standing bodies of water are infested with bilharzia. Swimming and wading in them is ill advised.

Please plan to bring at least a three month supply of any prescription medications and all other over-the-counter needs. Individuals with asthma or allergies may be adversely affected due to the great variety of year-round pollens and the dry and wet seasons.

Employment for Spouses and Dependents Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:13 AM

Since July 1992, the Embassy has enjoyed a reciprocal bilateral work agreement with Zimbabwe. Under this agreement, eligible family members are allowed to work in areas in the local economy that do not detract from jobs for Zimbabwean citizens. Several dependent spouses have found work in the local economy for a private firm as accountants and in computer-related jobs, however, in general, opportunities are limited. Another spouse was able to contract for work as a part-time lecturer at the University of Zimbabwe. Minimal problems are encountered with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in approving requests for local employment.

Depending on Post's budget, the Embassy can support a limited number of PIT positions. Family members have been employed in the Administrative/RSO/GSO Sections, as the Ambassador's Self-Help coordinator, as the CLO, and in the Consular Section. When services are required, other agencies have provided employment for eligible family members. Each year the Mission has supported an effective summer hire program for dependent children. Jobs range from voucher clerks, warehouse, mailroom, and Self-Help assistants, and other clerical assignments. These are dependent on budget considerations.

American Embassy - Harare

Post City Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:14 AM

Harare is a pleasant city, located in the north-central part of Zimbabwe. It is the seat of government and the country's cultural, transportation, and communications center. Harare was first established by British settlers in the 1890s, and has a modern downtown and numerous attractive residential neighborhoods. The brilliant colors of flowering trees contrast sharply with the city's modern architecture. Since independence, residential suburbs have become more integrated, although a large percentage of the black population still resides in a number of surrounding "high-density" suburbs.

Harare has several major hotels of international standards, a national art gallery/museum, nine movie theaters, a choice of good restaurants, and a few nightclubs. Extensive parks, sports, and recreational facilities, including thoroughbred racing, tennis, golf, trail riding, hiking, horseback riding lessons, squash, and swimming are available. Entertaining is often done in homes or at private clubs. A car is essential, as residential areas are spread out. Religious services are available for Catholic, Jewish, Protestant, and other denominations. Hobby, art, theater, dance, and musical groups are active.

Supermarkets and department stores provide shopping facilities comparable to a small American city, although with a slightly more limited selection of goods. Most necessities are locally produced and usually available. A wide variety of products are now available on the market. New diversified shopping centers have been built in the northern suburbs, thereby decreasing the need for people residing in those areas to shop in the city center.

Security Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:15 AM

While Harare is a clean and pleasant city, street crime is a serious problem, particularly in tourist areas. Harare has experienced a significant rise in the number of serious crimes committed during the past year. Although the vast majority of these crimes were non-violent, a troubling increase in the use of firearms was noted. The downtown sector remains the most visible high-crime area where thieves act with basic impunity and little fear of police apprehension. Please avoid any large gatherings, demonstrations or political rallies in both rural and urban areas. Occupied farms should also be avoided at all times.

U.S. citizens residing in or traveling to Zimbabwe should be aware of continuing conditions in the country that could affect their safety. These conditions include the outbreak of sporadic demonstrations driven by deteriorating economic conditions. Demonstrations occur in both urban and rural areas. Clashes between police and demonstrators have sometimes resulted in injuries to demonstrators as well as to innocent bystanders. Political activity in the country can also result in serious violence, and U.S. citizens are urged to avoid political rallies and exercise caution prior to and during elections.

Other ongoing conditions include the occupation of commercial farms by the National War Veterans' Association and others, fuel shortages, increased street crime and car-jackings. The war veterans have also briefly occupied or otherwise disrupted operations at numerous factories and businesses in Harare and other urban areas. U.S.-owned businesses and farms have been affected by these activities. The war veterans have not targeted resident U.S. citizens for violence. However, it is very possible that U.S. citizens or visitors could be caught up in unanticipated violence in rural or urban areas. Such incidents occurred in November 2001 when white passersby were targets of a random attack. American visitors and residents should stay away from any occupied commercial farm and avoid rural areas where war veterans are active. An American citizen was assaulted by so-called war veterans on an occupied farm in May 2002. Travelers are also advised to re-confirm their lodging immediately prior to departure for Zimbabwe, because numerous game reserves and lodges around the country have closed due to the presence of war veterans on or near their properties, or they have suffered bankruptcy.

Visitors to Nyanga should avoid Pungwe Falls, Mterazi Falls and the Honde Falls. There have been numerous incidents of armed robberies, thefts, assaults and attempted rapes reported at these sites. Land mines along the Mozambique border, situated beyond the main tourist areas, make travel to that border area potentially hazardous.

The Post and Its Administration Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:17 AM

The Embassy officially opened in Harare on Zimbabwe's Independence Day, April 18, 1980. The Chancery building is located near the city center and houses Embassy offices and the Defense Attaché Office (DAO).

172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue Harare

Telephone: 263-4-250593/4/5; 703169; 703378; and 703478 Fax: 263-4-796488.

The Public Affairs Section has its offices on one of Harare's busiest thoroughfares.

Century House East 38 Nelson Mandela Avenue P.O. Box 4010 Harare Telephone: 263-4-758800/1 or 758798/9 Fax: 263-4-758802

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) offices are located a short distance away in a beautiful garden setting.

1-3 Pascoe Avenue Belgravia.

Telephone: 263-4-252420; 250992; 250993; 251012; 251013; 251104; 252593; 702171 and 708484. Fax: 263-4-252478 and 252592.

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) offices are located on a main street in downtown Harare.

ZimCDC AIDS Program Team Second Floor 38 Samora Machel Avenue Harare

Telephone: 263-4-796040; 796044-8 Fax: 263-4-796032

The four offices (Embassy, Public Affairs, USAID and CDC) are located within a few minutes driving time of each other.


Temporary Quarters Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:17 AM

The Post has no transient quarters for newly arrived personnel for whom permanent housing is not yet available, however, most employees move directly into their assigned house. Local hotels, in particular, the Sheraton, and Meikles, have high standards. Some newly arrived and temporary personnel may be required to stay in them for a few days or weeks. Although room and meal rates vary, and will no doubt increase, the Post makes every effort (and has so far been successful) to match the per diem rates with local costs.


Permanent Housing Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:18 AM

The U.S. Government provides furnished housing for all permanently assigned personnel in Harare in accordance with A-171 standards. If housing is available upon arrival, as is often the case, personnel move directly into their quarters. If not, homes are rented soon after an employee's arrival, and waiting time for permanent quarters, in most cases, seldom exceeds a month.

Houses in Harare are, in general, spacious and modern, with an accent on outdoor living (i.e., large yards and entertainment areas), due to the lovely climate. Many houses have pools or tennis courts. Personnel are normally assigned to single family houses. All housing assignments are made by the Mission Housing Board.

The Ambassador's residence was purchased in 1980. It is a large, recently-remodeled, modern house located in the Harare suburbs. It has large indoor and outdoor entertaining areas on two levels, a tennis court, swimming pool, four bedrooms, and three and one-half bathrooms, plus a guest suite consisting of two bedrooms and one full bathroom. Like most homes in Harare, the residence has domestic staff quarters.

The DCM's home was purchased in 1985. The house, situated on two acres of land in the suburbs of Harare, is a single-story structure with three bedrooms, three-and-one-half bathrooms, a large entertaining area, spacious gardens, a pool, a guest suite, and a tennis court.


Furnishings Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:18 AM

The U.S. Government furnishes employee housing with one set of U.S.-made furniture, as well as one, or two sets of garden furniture. The Embassy also provides a washer, dryer, refrigerator, stove, microwave oven, freezer, vacuum cleaner, space heaters, water distillers, and gardening equipment and tools. (Note: AID provides a microwave oven for the Director only.) Carpets (where necessary) and drapes are also provided. Two step-down transformers are provided for each house. Bring personal decorating items, i.e., pictures, occasional furniture, and decorative items, as none are furnished, although the local arts and crafts markets offer many attractive items. Also, bring sufficient warm clothes, blankets, and comforters, as winter nights in Harare can be surprisingly cold. Most agencies have installed split unit air-conditioners/heaters.

Adequate Welcome Kits are available for incoming personnel until airfreight arrives. Kits include linens, an iron, and the bare essentials for your kitchen. Employees wishing to entertain before household goods arrive (up to three months) should send dishes and other entertaining items in their airfreight.

Curtains can be locally made and installed. Flooring in Harare is usually either stone or polished wood, so area rugs are often preferable to wall-to-wall carpeting. The climate imposes no special requirements on furnishings.

The Ambassador's residence, and the homes of the DCM, USAID and CDC Director are furnished with representational china, glassware, silver, linens, kitchen utensils and everyday dishes. They also have a freezer, ice maker, and adequate kitchen appliances. (Note: USAID does not provide everyday dishes or an icemaker.)


Utilities and Equipment Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:19 AM

In the past, both electricity and water were generally reliable in Harare, but recently supply of both has become more unreliable. All houses have generators. All electrical current is 220, 50 cycles. Adapter plugs (to the Zimbabwean three square prongs) can be purchased locally. All appliances provided are electric, including cooking ranges. Most appliances can be purchased locally, but prices are considerably higher and quality often lower than comparable equipment in the U.S.

Food Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:19 AM

Over the last couple of years Zimbabwe has seen tremendous changes with regard to the quantity and quality of items stocked in local stores. Prices and availability of foods vary tremendously, based on exchange rate fluctuations, and current rolling shortages. Items available in stores one week may vanish from the shelves the next, and at times, prices change on a daily basis. A typical shopping day can entail visits to 2-5 stores to complete a fairly basic shopping list. Shopping in Zimbabwe is definitely an adventure for the patient!

Several stores catering to the upper-class clientele have recently opened, offering a much wider range of imported goods - primarily from South Africa. These stores tend to be very expensive.

Local dairy products are available most of the time, though there have been prolonged periods of time in recent years where milk and cheeses have been very difficult to find. During these periods of "shortages," the most successful shoppers network extensively with their friends and shopkeepers, quickly pinpointing the location of a scarce stash of milk, butter or cheese while it lasts. The best cheese is imported from South Africa, and is very expensive. Cottage cheese, cream cheese, yogurt, and sour and fresh cream taste a bit different, but work well in recipes.

Many spices and basic gravy mixes and food colors are available (not pure essences though), as are French and English mustards, and Heinz ketchup. You can get pickles, though they don't taste like their American counterparts; Greek olives, bottled salad dressings are available (not as many varieties, and you cannot find Ranch). Vegetable oil is available as is olive oil. Occasionally, you can buy extra virgin olive oil, but if you use it a lot, bring it. Plain rice is plentiful; most baking products are available locally (baking powder, cream of tartar, baking soda, dry yeast, cooking chocolate and cocoa), however, you may find that they do not always taste exactly like U.S. brands. Most varieties of nuts are available (some expensive), but pecans and macadamias are locally grown and inexpensive. Local and imported cereals are available.

Tuna is available in brine and oil. Juices are available in boxes in a variety of brands. Most are quite good, though quite expensive. Mexican and Chinese products are very difficult to locate - plan on bringing them with you or ordering via an online grocery store. Dry pastas are plentiful. Canned tomatoes, puree, and paste are available, but not tomato sauce. Canned kidney beans and other canned vegetables are available as well.

Formula (mostly soy based) and some baby food are available. Jars of baby food are generally not available, except at expensive import stores. Zimbabwe makes and imports baby cereals-compared to the U.S. there is not so much variety and the quality is not as good.

The availability and quality of meats is largely tied to the viability of Zimbabwe's cattle and poultry farms, which have been in a state of upheaval during the recent agricultural reform. Government-enforced price controls have often priced these items below what they cost to produce, causing widespread shortages. Good meats are best found in specialty butcheries, rather than at grocery stores. Fresh fish or seafood is generally impossible to find, except for some local freshwater bass. However, frozen seafood from South Africa is usually available.

Local wines and beer, and imported wines, beers and spirits are available in Harare shops.

Several brands of local cigarettes are produced. Pipe and chewing tobacco are not available.

There is no cat litter available in Zimbabwe, so owners should bring a large supply. Pet food is available, but inferior.

As quality and availability of foods varies, please write to the Embassy Administrative officer or Community Liaison Officer before arrival at post for an up-to-date listing of hard-to-obtain items.

Clothing Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:19 AM

Fashionable, Western-style clothing is popular in Harare with very little traditional African dress in evidence. Sweaters, jackets, and light coats are needed in June, July, and August, when the evening temperatures can drop below 40°F. Since homes are not centrally heated, flannels and bathrobes are needed for the winter months. Virtually all clothing products can be purchased locally, but style, quality, and prices differ from those in the U.S.


Men Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:20 AM

Evening wear is similar to that worn in the U.S. Men wear a suit or sport jacket. Senior officers occasionally need black dinner jackets, but other officers rarely need formal wear. Suits and ties are worn to the office, but one can be more casual depending on his/her job requirements. Most white Zimbabwean men dress very casually for social occasions, with shorts and rugged boots very popular. Black Zimbabweans, for the most part, dress more conservatively, preferring slacks and collared shirts.


Women Last Updated: 1/31/2000 6:00 PM

Women tend to dress less casually here than in other posts in Africa. All officers need long or short dresses suitable for evening wear, but there is latitude in what is considered suitable for formal occasions. Panty hose are available, but quality varies; bring a supply.

Include favorite mail-order catalogs in your shipment. These are a good source of resupply.


Office Attire Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:21 AM

Office wear is normally shirt and tie for men and suits or dresses for women. For military personnel, uniforms are worn on occasions when visiting military installations, and at special functions. One blue, one green, and one BDU uniform should be taken to Harare.

Supplies and Services

Supplies Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:21 AM

Locally produced varieties of most household and personal supplies can be bought in Harare, though quality is often inferior to U.S.- or European-produced goods. U.S.-made items are not available, so bring a two-year supply of any favorite brands, or plan to purchase non-liquid items via online merchants. Hair care products are expensive and some items are not available, but a shampoo and dry is very reasonable, by US standards.

All appliances are expensive, so bring desired small 220V household appliances. The Embassy provides three transformers per household - additional transformers will need to be purchased online or brought to post. Good quality surge protectors, voltage stabilizers and uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) are recommended, as Harare's electrical supply is often unreliable, and prone to voltage spikes and undervolts.

The local supply of paper products is adequate, but the quality is often not up to U.S. standards. Aluminum foil, wax paper, and plastic wrap are available, but expensive. Bring plastic/paper/Styrofoam cups, paper plates, and plastic utensils for outside entertaining and picnics.

Some hostess gifts and party favors are available. Childrens' toys are expensive and selection is very limited. Sewing supplies and notions are available, but quality and supply vary. Knitting yarns are available, but color selection and quality is limited.

Supplies and Services

Basic Services Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:22 AM

Most basic services are available at a reasonable price in Harare. These include drycleaning, tailoring, hair and beauty treatment, shoe repair, and most small appliance repairs. Repairs of sophisticated stereo, tape recording, and videotape equipment, however, are erratic.

Supplies and Services

Domestic Help Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:22 AM

Most U.S. Embassy personnel employ at least two domestics-generally a gardener and a housekeeper. Well-trained cooks are difficult to find, but they are available.

Wages for domestic help are relatively low. The average wage for domestics (most of whom reside in staff quarters adjacent to the house) is US$50 a month, plus "rations." Rations vary from home to home. Many employers pay domestics cash in lieu of food supplies; others provide meat, tea, bread, sugar, cornmeal, toilet paper, and soap.

Employers are not required to pay social security or government contributions of any kind for domestic employees, but must respect minimum wages set by the Zimbabwean Government for domestic employees. Many enroll their domestic employees in a local health program. The Embassy reimburses a percentage of your gardener's salary, depending on the size of your property. There is no stigma attached to doing without domestics. All Embassy homes have guards for 12 hours at night, provided under the Embassy security guard contract.

Religious Activities Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:23 AM

With a large majority of the population claiming Christianity as their religion, Harare's religious community encompasses virtually all major Christian denominations. Services are in English and Shona, as well as in other languages. There are also several Muslim mosques in Harare. Local newspapers contain detail of church services.


Dependent Education

At Post Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:24 AM In the past, some Embassy children have attended local schools, which are based on the British system and run from January through December. Due to long waiting lists, placements in these schools are difficult to obtain.

Most Embassy children, attend Harare International School (HIS). HIS is an American sponsored international school founded in 1992. The school is fully accredited by both the European Council of International Schools and the New England Association of Schools and Colleges. The school year runs from mid-August through early-June and has a minimum instructional period of 180 days divided into two semesters.

HIS currently offers prekindergarten through grade 12. Enrollment for 2003/2004 was approximately 396 students, with 192 in Elementary School, 75 in Middle School, and 129 in High School. Typically, the student body represents over 50 nationalities, with 32% from Europe, 22% from North America, 34% from Africa, 10% from Asia and the remainder from other areas of the world. In 2003, the graduating class consisted of twenty seniors.

The curriculum is based on American and International programs of education. The elementary school is current implementing the IB Primary Years Program. The IB Diploma Program will be offered to Grade 11 students starting in 2004-2005, followed by the introduction of the second year of study to Grade 12 students in 2005-2006.

The school consists of fourteen buildings on 21 acres of land in Mount Pleasant, nine kilometers from downtown Harare. Embassy buses are used to transport children to and from school (except for Friday afternoons). The school day is from 7:30 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. Many after-school activities are offered, including various bands, drama, information technology, photography and digital editing and magazine. The sports program consists of the following teams: swimming, basketball, track and field, cross-country, tennis, softball, volleyball, soccer and golf. Students participate in sports conventions locally and with other international schools in Southern and Eastern Africa.

The education allowance at Post covers the tuition fees for HIS. More information about HIS is available via their Internet website at


Special Needs Education Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:24 AM

Harare does not have adequate special educational facilities for students with learning disabilities or mental and physical handicaps. Employees requiring such facilities should consider other Posts that have the special educational facilities to meet the needs of the student.


Higher Education Opportunities Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:25 AM

Although the University of Zimbabwe (UZ) technically offers university-level courses for family members and non-degree enrollment for interested adults, the institution is currently experiencing a severe decline in faculty enrollment and instability due to strikes and demonstrations. UZ has closed and/or had its faculty on strike three times in the past year. Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) and Africa Virtual University (AVU) offers distance education for adults in a full range of academic subjects. There are numerous opportunities, however, for private tutoring and casual study of a wide range of subjects in Harare through private colleges and institutions. Courses on offer, some which are offered on evenings and weekends range from crafts and hobbies to exercise and yoga to counseling skills and trades. Computer study is also widely available ranging from short-term software courses such as the International Computer Drivers' License to more intensive diploma courses in website design, Microsoft engineering technician courses, etc. Language study is of high quality and available as follows - French at the Alliance Francais, German and Shona at the Zimbabwe-German Friendship Society, Portuguese, French and ESL at Speciss College and Ndebele and Shona at Ranche House College.

Recreation and Social Life

Sports Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:25 AM

Because of Harare's moderate climate, outdoor sports opportunities abound. Local clubs play cricket, rugby, softball, and soccer. Golf courses and tennis courts (and instruction in both) are plentiful.

Horseback riding is another popular recreational opportunity in Harare. Riding lessons are available at minimal cost, for beginners as well as more advanced riders. For those who plan on riding often, horses may be leased at local stables on a full or a half time basis for very reasonable rates. Both children and adults are welcome to join the local pony clubs or the Horse Society of Zimbabwe and participate in a variety of horse shows that take place throughout the year. There are some excellent horse safari trips outside of Harare that can be enjoyed by novice riders as well as more experienced ones. Serious riders might consider bringing their own saddle and tack in their HHE shipment, although both new and used equipment can be purchased locally.

Bring your own equipment, as local varieties are expensive and frequently unavailable. Tennis balls are particularly expensive.

Recreation and Social Life

Touring and Outdoor Activities Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:27 AM

Zimbabwe has some of the most beautiful scenery in Africa. Lake Chivero Game Park, a 30-minute drive from Harare, offers fair game viewing in a relaxed atmosphere on a weekend afternoon. Also within a 30-minute drive from the city are the Ewanrigg Botanical Gardens, with 24 hectares of landscaped gardens, a large collection of cactus, and many exotic trees; the Lion and Cheetah Park; a snake park; and the Larvon Bird Gardens, in which there are 400 species of local and exotic birds. Hills on the outskirts of Harare offer excellent day hikes. The hilly roads of Harare's suburbs provide challenging cycling opportunities for cyclists willing to contend with potholes and dangerous drivers. Cycle races and triathlons take place several times during the year. Harare's excellent climate ensures that sunny days for outdoor activities practically all year around.

Bass fishing is available within an hour's drive from Harare, and many of the creeks of the Eastern Highlands are stocked with trout. Fishing licenses are very reasonable.

Several attractions within a 2-3-hour drive afford pleasant weekends. The Eastern Highlands (Nyanga, Troutbeck, Vumba) offer beautiful and serene surroundings and diverse recreational opportunities. The choice of accommodation is wide, ranging from self-contained cabins in the National Parks to a five-star hotel complete with a casino in Nyanga.

Destinations within the country for long weekends or short vacations are numerous. Great Zimbabwe, which has been described as "one of Africa's greatest mysteries," is fascinating and a tour to this area is a must for any visitor to the country. Hwange National Game Park is Zimbabwe's largest game sanctuary, covering some 14,620 square kilometers (larger than Connecticut). Safari vehicles are designed to offer maximum opportunity to photograph and view the large variety of animals that abound there. Victoria Falls have been described as one of the seven natural wonders of the world. They are 1,690 meters in width and their mean height is 92 meters; their greatest recorded flow was 160 million gallons per minute; the gorges were cut over millions of years by the waters of the Zambezi River.

A leisurely cruise on Lake Kariba is very relaxing. The lake is the home of the tigerfish, the supreme challenge for any angler, and a sundowner cruise, which takes place in the cool of the evening, is a good way to unwind. Other destinations include Lake Kyle, Chimanimani Mountains, Bumi Hills, and Spurwing and Fothergill Islands.

For the more adventurous, taking part in the annual game count at the Mana Pools National Park in the north of Zimbabwe offers an exhilarating opportunity to get up close and personal with many of Africa's animal species - large and small.

An elaborate network of roads is well paved and there are reasonable and attractive package tours available by air. One can choose between a "full board rate" (all meals and transportation paid) or a "bed and breakfast"rate, which allows the traveler to choose how to spend leisure time.

Hunting and fishing trips are plentiful and fruitful in Zimbabwe, though hunting licenses for big game are expensive. Facilities for camping, hiking, and boating are good and readily accessible.

The Government of Zimbabwe requires that American Diplomats register their intent to travel more than 40 Km outside of Harare. However, no restrictions are imposed on travel in Zimbabwe, except in some parts of the Matabeleland area (south), and the extreme eastern border with Mozam-bique. In recent years, the unpredictability of fuel supplies has made traveling outside of Harare more problematic, with most prudent travelers taking an adequate supply of fuel with them in portable "Jerry Cans".

Recreation and Social Life

Entertainment Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:27 AM

First-run films are shown at Harare's movie theaters. Films arrive about nine months behind their U.S. release and can be censored. The local theater group, REPS, performs regularly. The annual Harare International Arts Festival is a weeklong festival which provides interesting exhibits and attractions, including international performers. Symphony, ballet, and choral societies give occasional performances.

The Mission has a video club that currently has over 1,300 films, and a growing collection of DVD's available for rent to members. All tapes are VHS, NTSC, and are taped on extended play. There are numerous video clubs in the Harare area, but the tapes are VHS, British PAL system, and therefore, require a multisystem television and VCR.

Recreation and Social Life

Social Activities

Among Americans Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:27 AM Social life among the American community is generally casual, with most informal entertaining done at home, or in restaurants, either around meals or cocktails or during an afternoon "braai" (cookout).

The American Women's Club, an active society composed primarily of private American citizens resident in Zimbabwe, sponsors dinners and other social events.

Recreation and Social Life

Social Activities

International Contacts Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:28 AM Charitable organizations are abundant in Harare, including the SPCA, hospital aid societies and local orphanages. These organizations provide excellent opportunities to meet Zimbabweans and other foreigners.

The diplomatic community in Harare entertains regularly at functions ranging from casual to formal. A Diplomatic Spouses' Association has more than 250 members drawn from the 68 missions resident in Harare and several international organizations. They sponsor monthly meetings with speakers, outings to charitable fundraising and cultural events, welfare projects; and classes in Shona, French, English, cooking, and bridge are held.

For families with school-age children, the Harare International School provides an excellent venue to meet parents of all nationalities. Local churches are another good way to meet Zimbabweans.

Official Functions

Nature of Functions Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:28 AM

Official functions within the U.S. Mission usually consist of receptions at the Ambassador's or DCM's residence, or other senior officers' homes.

Dress tends to be a bit more formal than in the U.S., particularly for women, even when "casual" is specified on an invitation. Evening wear for men is generally a suit or sport jacket and tie. Dress for women is usually long dresses or fashionable pantsuits.

Official Functions

Standards of Social Conduct Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:28 AM

Business cards are widely used in Harare, though generally for functional (vs. protocol) purposes. Formal calling cards can be printed in Washington, but most officers have additional cards printed locally with their address and telephone number for professional contacts.

Special Information Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:30 AM

Defense Attaché Office

General Information. The U.S. Defense Attaché Office (DAO) is located in the American Embassy:

(Name) USDAO Department of State 2180 Harare Place Washington, D.C. 20521-2180

The DAO's office hours are the same as the Embassy. Their telephone number is 263-4-250594, with extensions 212 (DATT), 207 (A/ARMA), 211 (OPSCO), and 308 (OPSNCO).

Drycleaning is adequate. Bring an ample supply of civilian clothing. Specific questions regarding this should be addressed to the USDAO. The DAO provides all basic furnishings and appliances (except draperies, vacuum cleaners and other small appliances). Tranformers are provided only for government-supplied equipment. An inventory list is available from DIA.

Money: Startup costs are approximately US$500. Currency exchange is accomplished only through the Embassy's banking agent. Travelers checks are not recommended. All local transactions are conducted in Zimbabwe dollars.

Miscellaneous: Calling cards and invitations can be ordered locally, but coordinate with DAO prior to printing. Shipment of household goods (HHG) is authorized to be shipped via air (See AR 55-71 and WWPPCIG.) Automobiles should be shipped (uncrated) to Harare, Zimbabwe. Specific questions on shipment of HHG and automobiles should be directed to DIA/DH-6-1C or USDAO, Harare, prior to shipments.

Recreation: No U.S. Government recreation facilities are available in Zimbabwe, though most houses have swimming pools and many have tennis courts. Satellite television (AFRTS, CNN) is available to all members of the DAO. Satellite TV from South Africa is available and offers a wide selection of channels for approximately $50 per month. The DAO office also has an assortment of videos that are available for checkout.

Post Orientation Program

Harare has a sponsorship and post orientation program coordinated by the Community Liaison Officer. Employees and families are met and assisted at the airport upon arrival by their sponsor and then taken to their temporary or permanent housing. The sponsor will assist new arrivals and their families with shopping, dining, community services, and social life. A formal orientation program is held periodically to brief all new employees and their adult dependents on the living and working conditions at post. The Embassy's FSI Shona language materials are available to employees and dependents.

Notes For Travelers

Getting to the Post Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:31 AM

Most Americans assigned to Harare travel from Atlanta, GA or JFK, New York, to Johannesburg, South Africa, and then on to Harare. There is also a British Airways connection via London.

If you arrive between May and August, include in accompanying baggage warm clothes for chilly evenings. Unaccompanied airfreight from the U.S. can take 1-3 months. Employees should include adequate dishes and linens in airfreight, as the post can provide these items for only a short time after an employee's arrival

Household Effects and Car Shipment. In general, airfreight arrives in Harare 4-12 weeks from the time it is packed in the U.S. Surface shipments are routed by sea to Antwerp and then by air to Harare, or direct to Harare via the port of Durban, South Africa. Automobiles shipped from the U.S. come by sea to Durban, and are railed or trucked to Harare. We do not recommend using rail from Durban, up to Harare as severe fuel shortages within the Zimbabwe which have affected the National Railing system. Wagons loaded with vehicle's can take up to two months to reach Harare from Durban whereas a road freight transporter takes within seven days to reach Harare. Employees have the option of traveling to Durban to pick up their own privately owned vehicles on a cost-constructive basis. Cars usually take 3-4 months to arrive in Harare from the time they are picked up in the U.S.

Vehicle shipments sent to Harare by Sea should be consigned to:

American Embassy Shipping Department 877 Pretorius Street Arcadia, Pretoria South Africa

Tel: 00 27 12 431-4000 (see OPR/STP in the Department).

Pretoria then sends the goods or the vehicle on a truck and is road freighted up to Harare.

As transit through South Africa can often take several weeks, the Department has authorized the shipment of household goods surface-air via ELSO Antwerp. Thus, goods shipped from the U.S. should be packed for sea-air shipment. Cases of HHE and consumables cannot exceed the following dimensions: length: 221cm(87 inches), width: 145cm(57 inches) and height: 160cm(63 inches).

Customs, Duties, and Passage

Customs and Duties Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:31 AM

All diplomatically accredited personnel (those assigned diplomatic titles by the Department) are entitled to duty-free importation of all goods, including up to two vehicles, throughout their entire tour of duty.

Support staff (secretaries and untitled staff) are entitled only to "first arrival" privileges, meaning they may import any goods they owned prior to their arrival in Zimbabwe for six months. This means, for example, that a non-diplomatic employee wishing to purchase a right-hand-drive vehicle in South Africa for use during his or her tour must arrange for the purchase of the automobile in South Africa personally, or by mail prior to arrival in Zimbabwe. Support staff have up to six months from time of arrival at post to import their goods. (Note: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has not enforced this ownership provision in the past several years.)

Customs, Duties, and Passage

Passage Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:32 AM

Currency control restrictions are tight in Zimbabwe, and frequent arrests are made of those dealing in the export of Zimbabwean or foreign currency. Declare to customs officials the amount of cash in all currencies you are carrying. No more than Z$100,000 may be exported, $50,000 of which can be in cash, the remainder in bearer checks. The current limit on export of foreign currency is US$1,000.

Address questions about importation or duty on any item to the post administrative officer.

Customs, Duties, and Passage

Pets Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:33 AM

No quarantine period is required for cats and dogs in Zimbabwe. An Import Permit and Veterinary Health Certificate must be completed before the animal can travel to Post. The Health Certificate permit is to be filled and stamped by the Veterinary in the Country from which the animal will be sent.

Birds can be imported, but the paperwork process takes between 2- 3 months to complete.

The GSO Shipping Department will apply for import permits for all animals and documentation will be couriered to the owner. Employees' sponsors will pay for the permit and courier costs. Cost for the permit is minimal.

If you are transiting South Africa with a pet, it can be very problematic. Point of contact: GSO Shipping Department, AmEmbassy, Pretoria Attn: Beverely Jooste will be able to assist with procedures. If you are traveling to Post with a pet, it is easier to travel through Europe.

Veterinary services are quite adequate. Dogs and cats are dipped for fleas and ticks regularly during summer (October to April). A rabies vaccination is required prior to arrival and it is advisable to have a Parvo and Hepatitis shot as well.

Bring all grooming aids and anything special that your animal requires, as well as any special foods or medicine. Pet foods are available, but cat litter is not. There is a kennel club, a feline club, and a bird club in Harare, and dog and cat shows are held throughout the year.

Licenses are required for dogs. The Embassy GSO Customs and Shipping personnel can provide guidance on how to apply for pet licenses.

Firearms and Ammunition Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:33 AM

The Zimbabwean Government allows all Embassy personnel to import firearms and ammunition for personal recreational use. If you plan to import such items in household effects, write in advance to request permission from the Ambassador, and give details of the type of weapon(s), serial number(s), amount of ammunition, and proposed use. GOZ Customs has informed the Embassy they will no longer retroactively clear firearms imported in airfreight or household effects shipments. Therefore, a permit for each weapon must be applied for after the employee's arrival. The process will not delay the clearance of the UAB or HHE shipments as clearance of firearms are done on separate customs forms. The Zimbabwean Firearm Department has advised the Embassy that they are in a serious work backlog dating back to 2000 for the issuance of permits and cannot guarantee permits will be issued in a timely manner. The Zimbabwean Firearm Department has confirmed that they intend to consult with their management to implement a fastrack service on the issuance of firearms permits within the near future. In the meantime, applications are submitted, but there is no guarantee that permits will be out by the time the employee departs from Post.

Currency, Banking, and Weights and Measures Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:33 AM

The local currency is the Zimbabwe dollar (Z$). The rate of exchange available at the Embassy closely follows the rate established by foreign currency auctions held several times a week. However, this rate is extremely volatile at this time.

Barclays, Standard Chartered, and Zimbank provide commercial banking services. Zimbabwe uses metric measurements..

Taxes, Exchange, and Sale of Property Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:34 AM

Embassy employees are not exempt from paying sales tax in Zimbabwe and tax is included in the price of all items, including restaurant bills. The Embassy cashier offers accommodation exchange but most embassy personnel open one or more local checking accounts with Standard Chartered Bank. Representatives from Standard Chartered are present at the Embassy two days per week. Zimbabwe has stringent currency controls. Please see the section on Passage for details on currency controls. It is not advisable to use credit cards at this time in Zimbabwe because funds may be converted at the official government exchange rate rather than the market rate.

Zimbabwean law restricts the sale of vehicles. U.S. Embassy Harare follows Department of State rules regarding the sale and retention of any profits from the sale of personal property. Permission to sell an automobile should initially be obtained from the Minister Counselor for Administration. Please see the section on Customs and Duties for details on disposing of a vehicle.

Recommended Reading Last Updated: 3/17/2004 2:34 AM

These titles are provided as a general indication of material published on this country. The Department of State does not endorse unofficial publications.

American University. Area Handbook for Zimbabwe. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C., 1983.

Banana, Canaan. Turmoil and Tenacity, Zimbabwe 1890-1990. College Press: Harare, Zimbabwe, 1990.

Banana, Canaan. The Woman of My Imagination. Mambo Press: Zimbabwe, 1980.

Blair, David. Degrees in Violence, Robert Mugabe and the Struggle for Power in Zimbabwe. Continuum Pub Group: 2003.

Blake, Robert. A History of Rhodesia. Methuen: London, 1977.

Caute, David. Under the Skin-The Death of White Rhodesia. Penguin Books: London & New York, 1983.

Chinodya, Shimmer. Harvest of Thorns (novel). Baobab Press: 1989.

Chinula, Tione. Lonely Planet Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe, 4th Ed). Lonely Planet, 2002.

Clarke, D.G. Foreign Companies and International Investment in Zimbabwe. Mambo Press: Zimbabwe, 1980.

Couzens, Tim, Editor. Zimbabwe-The Search for Common Ground Since 1890. Bailey's Nat Print: Harare, 1992.

Dangarembga, Tsitsi. Nervous Conditions (novel). Zimbabwe Publishing House: Zimbabwe, 1990.

Darnoff, Staffan & Liisa Laaksu (Editors). Twenty Years of Independence in Zimbabwe: From Liberation to Authoritarianism. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Fuller, Alexandra. Don't Let's Go to the Dogs Tonight: An African Childhood: Random House, 2001

Herbest, Jeffrey. State Politics in Zimbabwe. University of California Press: 1990.

Lessing, Doris. African Laughter-Four Visits to Zimbabwe. Harper Collins: New York, 1992.

Lessing, Doris. African Laughter-Four Visits to Zimbabwe. Harper Collins: New York, 1992.

Martin, David and Johnson, Phyllis. The Struggle for Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Publishing House: Zimbabwe, 1981.

Martin, Meredith. Our Votes, Our Guns: Robert Mugabe and the Tragedy of Zimbabwe. PublicAffairs, 2002

McRae, Barbara and Pinchuk, Tony. The Rough Guide to Zimbabwe. Rough Guides/Penguin: 2000.

Moyo, Jonathan N. Voting for Democracy, Electoral Politics in Zimbabwe. University of Zimbabwe Publications: Harare, Zimbabwe, 1992.

Mugabe, Robert. Our Struggle for Liberation. Mambo Press: Zimbabwe, 1982.

Mungoshi, Charles. Waiting for the Rain (novel). Zimbabwe Publishing House: 1975.

Nkomo, Joshua. The Story of My Life. McMillan: London, 1984.

Norman, Andrew. Robert Mugabe and the Betrayal of Zimbabwe. McFarland and Company, 2003.

Smith, David and Colin Simpson. Mugabe. Spehre Books: 1981 Spectrum Guide to Zimbabwe. Camerapix Publications International: Nairobi, 1992.

Todd, Judith. An Act of Treason-Rhodesia 1965. Songmaus: London, 1982.

Vambe, Lawrence. An Ill-Fated People-Zimbabwe Before and After Rhodes. University of Pittsburgh Press: Pittsburgh, 1972.

Vambe, Lawrence. Rhodesia to Zimbabwe. William Heineman: London

Local Holidays Last Updated: 1/31/2000 6:00 PM

New Year’s Day January 1 Good Friday Friday before Easter Easter Monday Monday after Easter Independence Day April 18 Workers’ Day May 1 Africa Day May 25 Heroes’ Day August 11 Defense Forces Day August 12 Unity Day December 22 Christmas Day December 25 Boxing Day December 26

Adapted from material published by the U.S. Department of State. While some of the information is specific to U.S. missions abroad, the post report provides a good overview of general living conditions in the host country for diplomats from all nations.
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